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Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania (, amended ) (English version) . General Penal Code of Iceland (, amended ) (English version). de Ştiinţe Penale şi Criminologie Aplicată, Institutul acte_/Raport__CC 4. .. foarte asemănător cu Codul penal. GENERAL CIVIL PENAL CODE. Part I. General Provisionsn. Introductory Provisions. Section 1. The first part of this code is applicable to all.

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Codul Penal 2015 Pdf Mar k unknown Mar- k unknown Mar k unknown. 'INFRACŢIUNEA DE HULIGANISM (art CP RM): ANALIZĂ DE DREPT PENAL' in DOAJ. ;0(8 (88)) Full-text formats available: PDF sau CP RM şi art „Huliganismul nu prea grav” din Codul contravenţional. 55 Cod penal (liberare de răspundere penală cu atragerea la răspunderea contravențională) nu sunt aplicabile; . vamalepdf.

The criminalization and decriminalization of homosexuality. Repeal art. These developments of the normative were the result of international pressure: in , as a result of the receipt of Romania in the Council of Europe and ratify the European Convention on Human Rights after in relation to the requirements for Romania's EU accession. Surveys and sociological studies over the last 15 years indicate both a widespread intolerance against the LGBT community, among young people, and between people mature too. The hostility towards lesbian and gay is by far the most intense, much more intense than the motivated ethnic, national, religious or the fear of a disease. This probably explains, by campaigns conducted against homosexuality by religious actors, primarily the ROC and "civic" organizations that were created or assumed a religious social project. ROC entire bureaucratic system was put into the service of introduction in the Constitution of a religious criterion in defining marriage: to impose this act, however, essentially civil, to be possible only between a man and a woman. Tightening until June some 3 million signatures by priests and volunteers part of the "Coalition for the family", this change may not have a legal impact. But it has the effect of homophobic indoctrination.

The accomplice was to receive the same punishment as the author of the crime. The Penal Code of [ edit ] The Penal Code of [5] also known as The Penal Code of Carol II was introduced in order to standardize the many changes in the legal system that have arisen as a result of the Union of The new Code was heavily updated; the presumption of innocence was expressly mentioned. The sentence was defined as being given in order to punish the crime, not the person committing it.

The concept of individual punishments as opposed to collective punishment has been introduced in the Code. The Penal Code of remained unchanged in terms of complicity to crime. The capital punishment has been re-introduced.

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The Criminal Code provides for the repression of crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. For most of the war crimes, the law does not distinguish according to whether they were committed in situations of international or non-international armed conflicts. However, it also provides for some specific war crimes committed in international armed conflict.

Repression, war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, criminal sanctions Related law: Related databases.

Reference documents. National implementation of IHL: A person shall be liable for grave consequences provided by law if he or she causes the consequences with at least negligence. An offence is deemed to be a joint offence also if an act committed by several persons jointly and in agreement comprises the necessary elements of an offence. In the case of a misdemeanour, only the commission thereof is punishable. Attempted misdemeanour is punishable in the cases provided for in this Code or another Act.

An act is unlawful if it comprises the necessary elements of an offence prescribed by law and the unlawfulness of the act is not precluded by this Code, another Act, international conventions or international customs. An act is not unlawful if the person commits the act in order to avert a direct or immediate danger to the legal rights of the person or of another person, and if the means chosen by the person are necessary for the aversion of the danger and the interest protected is evidently of higher importance than the interest subject to damage.

In considering interests, the importance of the legal rights, the degree of the danger by which they are threatened and the danger arising from the act shall be taken into account.

An act which violates a legal obligation is not unlawful if the person is to perform several legal obligations simultaneously and it is impossible to perform all of them but the person does everything in his or her power to perform the obligation which is at least as important as the obligation violated against.

A person is guilty of commission of an act if the person is capable of guilt and there are no circumstances provided by law which would preclude guilt.

A person is capable of guilt if, at the time of commission of the act, he or she is mentally capable and at least fourteen years of age. A person is not mentally capable if at the time of commission of an act he or she is incapable of understanding the unlawfulness of the act or incapable to act according to such understanding due to: A state of intoxication caused intentionally or through negligence shall not preclude guilt. Legal persons are deemed to have acted without guilt if an act committed by a competent representative thereof was inevitable for the legal person.

A person who commits an act through negligence is deemed to have acted without guilt if the person due to his or her mental or physical abilities is incapable of understanding what is expected of him or her or is incapable to act according to such understanding. If a complete attempt is not sufficient for the full commission of the act, the principal offender is deemed to have abandoned the attempt if the principal offender earnestly endeavours to prevent the occurrence of the consequences of the offence.

If several offenders participate in an attempt, the person who prevents the occurrence of the consequences of the offence is deemed to have abandoned the attempt. If the consequences occur or do not occur regardless of the conduct of an offender, the offender is deemed to have abandoned the attempt if the offender earnestly endeavours to prevent the occurrence of the consequences.

The court may reduce the daily rate due to special circumstances or increase the rate on the basis of the standard of living of the offender. The daily rate applied shall not be less than the minimum daily rate.

The minimum daily rate shall be 10 euros. A pecuniary punishment shall not be imposed on a person of less than eighteen years of age if he or she does not have any independent income. In such case, the upper limit of the pecuniary punishment imposed shall not exceed the upper limit of the pecuniary punishment provided for in subsection 8 of this section. A fine unit is the base amount of a fine and is equal to 4 euros.

For a misdemeanour, a court may impose detention for a term of up to thirty days. Deprivation of driving privileges may not be imposed simultaneously as a principal and supplementary punishment. For a criminal offence relating to abuse of professional or official status or violation of official duties, a court may impose, as a supplementary punishment, a ban on employment in a particular office or operation in a particular area of activity for up to three years.

Penal Code of Romania

For a criminal offence relating to handling or use of weapons or ammunition, a court may deprive the offender, as a supplementary punishment, of the right to acquire, store, supply, convey and carry weapons or ammunition for the term of up to five years. For a criminal offence relating to violation of hunting or fishing rights, a court may deprive the offender, as a supplementary punishment, of the hunting and fishing rights for the term of up to three years.

For a misdemeanour relating to violation of the requirements of the State Secrets and Classified Information of Foreign States Act, a court or a body conducting extra-judicial proceedings may impose deprivation of right to access state secrets and classified information of foreign states and right to process access state secrets and classified information of foreign states as supplementary punishment on the offender for up to one year.

If the spouse or a minor child of the offender lives with him or her in the same family in Estonia on a legal basis, the court shall provide reasons in its judgment for imposition of expulsion.

In imposition of a punishment, a court or a body conducting extra-judicial proceedings shall take into consideration the mitigating and aggravating circumstances, the possibility to influence the offender not to commit offences in the future, and the interests of the protection of public order.

If a section of the Special Part of this Code prescribes, in addition to imprisonment, less onerous punishments, the court shall provide in its judgment the reasons for the imposition of imprisonment.

Aggravating circumstances are: One principal punishment and one or several supplementary punishments may be imposed for one offence.

Punishment served in part or in full pursuant to the previous conviction shall be deducted from the aggregate punishment. In such case, the aggregate punishment shall not exceed the maximum term of the given type of punishment. If any of the punishments constituting the set is unserved actual imprisonment, actual imprisonment shall be imposed as the aggregate punishment.

The court shall determine the duration of the imprisonment or detention to be borne consecutively, or the amounts of the instalments of the pecuniary punishment. The duration of imprisonment or detention to be borne consecutively shall be at least two days. One day of detention corresponds to twenty-four hours. One day of provisional custody corresponds to one day of imprisonment or three daily rates of a pecuniary punishment.

Twenty-four hours of custody correspond to one day of detention or to ten fine units.


One day of detention or imprisonment corresponds to two hours of community service which minimum duration is five hours. Detention or imprisonment shall be substituted by community service only with the consent of the offender. If an offender performs community service during the time free from his or her other work or studies, the duration of community service shall not exceed four hours a day.

An offender shall not be remunerated for community service. A court may suspend the running of the term due to an illness or family situation of the offender or for a period during which the offender is in compulsory military service, alternative service or reserve service.

Upon suspension of the term and upon determination of a new term, the court shall take into account the general term of community service prescribed for the respective offence.