E-Learning by Design is the logical successor to Designing Web-Based Training. This book is An Adobe PDF version is available at aracer.mobi Since the first edition of E-learning by Design, e-learning has evolved rapidly and fringe techniques have moved into the mainstream. Since the first edition of E-learning by Design, e-learning has evolved rapidly and fringe techniques have moved into the mainstream. Underlying and.
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Numerous examples are featured throughout E-Learning by Design. Chapter 1 : What is e-learning design? Chapter 12 (PDF – right-click to download). Online chapter for E-learning by Design (2nd edition)by William Horton. 3. Lessons. Accomplishing broad educational goals. A lesson accomplishes a complex. AVAILABLE IN PDF VERSION. THIS IS A SCAN COPY of The Book in PDF Form ! DIGITAL version of the BOOK. | site!.
They also found that very few of the courses surveyed offered much interactive capability for the learner or opportunity for collaborative learning. The researchers concluded, from this study that the biggest challenge for web-based course developers seemed to be conceptual, and not technological. They suggest that course developers ought to be focussing more on how to make their courses "attractive, accessible and interactive" p.
Recognizing the need to reconsider contemporary approaches to elearning It should be no longer necessary to reiterate that media in itself can have little impact on the quality of teaching and learning see Clark, ; Kozma, There is no doubt that information and communications technologies offer tremendous opportunities for building rich and resource-based learning environments.
However, these technologies are mere vehicles of the educational transaction, and on their own, cannot substantially enhance learning and teaching.
Despite this, in the rush to embrace elearning, many educators are able to do little more than post the course syllabus, and Powerpoint slides of their lectures on a course website. This is little different from making photocopies of such material and distributing them in class. Don't get me wrong--posting the course syllabus and one's lecture notes on the Web is very worthwhile use of this technology.
But there is a whole lot more that information and communications technology can enable by way of supporting learning and teaching. To make the most of the opportunities that these technologies offer, careful attention needs to be paid foremost, to the pedagogy of the learning and teaching transaction. This refers to the "design architecture" of the learning and teaching environment and it incorporates, inter alia, consideration of how subject matter content will be presented, what the learners would do, how learning will be supported, what would comprise formative and summative assessment, and how feedback will be provided.
There is no shortage of advice on how to design rich and resourceful elearning environments and reconsider our approaches to teaching and learning to ensure that we are making the most of the delivery technologies we are employing see Burgess.
In fact, we do not have a choice in this regard. The changing needs of education and training in both business and higher education are forcing a reconsideration of our conventional approaches to teaching and learning.
This incorporates, among other things, the changing role of the classroom teacher from one of being a "sage on the stage" to a "guide on the side". It also includes the changing nature of student learning from one of being "teacher directed" to being "student-directed" or "student-centered". Information and communications technology has a significant role to play in supporting these foreshadowed changes in the nature of teaching and learning.
These are 1 Augmenting teaching; 2 Virtual learning; and 3 Progressive application. Augmenting teaching is based on the premise that educators can enrich their current teaching practices by supporting their classes with one or more aspects of ICT-based activities. Augmented classes may use anything from making use of the Web for distributing information about the course, to email communication for discussion between students and teachers and among students, and collaborative computer conferencing among students for group work.
Virtual learning refers to the process of learning and teaching on the Internet without any face-to-face contact between or among the participants.
The concept of progressive application of the technology is based on the notion of "just-in-time" learning, which is the process of having educational access at the time when one needs to learn something. Pedagogical approaches for optimizing elearning This section of the chapter discusses a selection of pedagogical approaches that reflect the foregoing approaches to student-centered learning, and which also attempt to make the most of the opportunities afforded by information and communications technology.
The focus in this chapter due to space limitations is on the "design architecture" of these approaches, and not on the outcomes of their implementation for learning and teaching. Evidence of these can be found in their specific applications see associated references cited in text. Distributed problem-based learning Problem-based learning PBL is a widely used approach to learning and teaching that uses an instructional problem as the principle vehicle for learning and teaching.
Distributed problem-based learning refers to the use of this strategy in a networked computer-supported collaborative learning CSCL environment where face-to-face communication among participants is not essential see Figure 1. The process starts with the presentation of a problem via a case or vignette that could be presented to learners via the network cf.
Figure 1: Presenting the problem. Next, learners work individually to engage in problem analysis. During this phase they generate explanations for the occurrence of the problem in this case cf.
Figure 1: Expressing first perceptions of the problem. Based on this exercise they identify what they know and do not know about the problem at hand and make decisions about individual research cf. Figure 1: Exploring the problem and first perceptions. As the next step, this individual study is carried out and its results are reported to the group via the collaborative learning network.
Following this, a re-evaluation of the problem takes place and the first perceptions are probably revised cf. Figure 1: Revising first perceptions of the problem. All of this is followed up with the preparation and presentation of a critical reflection, which is a personal synthesis of the discussion that has ensued via the network cf.
Figure 1: Preparing and posting a critical reflection record. For each one of the topics addressed in the course, the learning experience in this electronic environment may unfold in stages over a defined period such as four weeks. In the first week students are required to articulate their first perceptions of the problem as presented to them. In the second week, after reading the initial reactions and comments of others on their own thoughts, students re-examine their first perceptions of the problem.
They expand and refocus their conjectures regarding the problem and if necessary revise their hypotheses and data gathering strategies, and post these on the electronic environment.
In the third week, as a result of the online discussions students would be able to identify new or related issues, revise their conjectures regarding the problem and perhaps make modifications to their problem resolution strategies. This comprises their final comment on the problem situation and how they sought to resolve it. Critical incident-based computer supported collaborative learning There is growing interest in building learning environments that focus on supporting groups of learners engaged in reflection on critical incidents from their workplace Wilson, It is so called because the model integrates reflection on and in action, collaborative learning, and computer mediated communication into a holistic model of learning and instruction.
It serves to teach learners to recognize these critical incidences as learning opportunities, reflect on them critically while in action, and then finally share these reflections in a computer supported collaborative learning CSCL environment. Learners can do this by keeping learning logs which is a record of learning opportunities presented. The log records how one approaches the incident, their successes and failures with it, and any issues that need to be resolved e.
The critical attribute of the learning log is that it concentrates on the process of learning. It is not a diary of events nor is it a record of work undertaken, rather it is a personal record of the occasions when learning occurred or could have occurred.
The learning log also relates prior learning to current practice and is retrospective and reactive in action. Learners engage in this process of critical incident-based learning in a phased manner. Learners do this by identifying an incident from their workplace, which they consider as being significant to their roles. They describe the, what, when, where and how of this critical incident including its special attributes and more importantly the learning gain they derived from this incident.
This log outlines to the group the critical nature of the incident and the reasons for the actions taken by the practitioner during the encounter with the incident.
This last phase in the process has to do with learners making the connection between what they are being presented as part of their formal education and what they are being confronted with as a part of their daily work. It also reflects the adequacies and inadequacies of their theoretical knowledge, and any enlightenment they may have gained from reflecting on the learning logs of their peers and from the reflections of others on their own learning logs.
Goal-based learning A goal-based scenario GBS is essentially a simulation in which learners assume a main role in the pursuit of a mission or task associated with their main role in the scenario Schank, , In order to achieve this goal the learner needs to acquire particular skills and knowledge.
This is where the learning is taking place. Goals in this context refer to the successful completion of the task at hand, not the achievement of grades.
A GBS serves both, to motivate learners and also give them the opportunity to "learn by doing. Mistakes offer real opportunities for learning when these are accompanied by timely and potent feedback. Following this users proceed to the handover cf. Phase I: Case Encounter.
This is a routine event in nursing practice, where nurses coming on for duty are brought up-to-date by their outgoing colleagues on the condition of patients who are in their care. After handover nurses move on to attend to routine nursing care activities and meeting patients' needs by administering medications and ensuring patients' comfort.
Following the administration of antibiotics to one of their patients, users are met with a "precipitating event". A precipitating event in this instance is an emergency situation that causes a chain of events.
In the first instance, the nurse must do everything that is necessary to manage the crisis situation before recommending a care plan. In order to do this, it is necessary to first understand the crisis situation, including its causes cf. Phase II: Understanding the Problem.
Following this diagnosis nurses must take appropriate action to manage the crisis situation. A number of resources are available to users at this point for them to be able to make informed decisions about what are the appropriate actions to take in situations like this.
These comprise electronic resources on anaphylaxis including intervention strategies and case studies of anaphylaxis. However, the most important resource that users have access to in this learning environment is the stories of experienced nurse practitioners. Users are able to make informed decisions after having listened to the experiences of expert practitioners.
This kind of knowledge comes only with experience over many years, and is not normally available in textbooks. Most elearning environments fail to bring good stories to the learning context. Finally, when a draft care plan has been developed, users proceed to a case conference cf.
This is a place where users have the opportunity to reflect upon their own care plans and that of others. There is the opportunity here to engage in questioning, critiquing, negotiation of meanings, and commenting on alternative approaches of care that are deemed appropriate to the case. The obvious benefit of a design task is its inherent situatedness or authenticity.
In design-based learning activities, students' understanding is "enacted" through the physical process of conceptualizing and producing something. The structures created, functions sought, and the behaviors exhibited by the design solution also offer a means to assess knowledge of the subject matter.
As such a student's conceptual understanding or misunderstanding of domain knowledge can be ascertained from that artifact. The failure of that artifact, for example, may suggest an incomplete understanding of the subject matter. A big advantage of setting a design task as the basis for the study of the subject matter such as Designing the Virtual Print Exhibition, see below is the variety of cognitive tasks required to move from a conceptual idea to a product. These include information gathering, problem identification, constraint setting, idea generation, modeling and prototyping, and evaluating.
Designing a "Virtual Print Exhibition". You and your colleagues have been asked to put together a virtual exhibition from the newly developed electronic database of Old Master Print Collection in the Library. To accomplish this task, you will need to prepare a proposal, in which you design, install and curate an exhibition online, focussing on an appropriate theme of your choice.
The group with which you will work will have access to an asynchronous computer conference facility, to which you and your colleagues will be automatically subscribed. You must conduct all your planning activity using this medium. You should complete the concept of the proposal in five weeks, submit it for discussion and feedback from other curators in the gallery as well as the exhibition committee.
You will also be required to present your team's proposal in a seminar to the director of the museum. Moreover, design complexity requires iterative activity toward better solutions that can support refinement of concepts. Design complexity also dictates the need for collaboration.
A workable team possessing different kinds of knowledge and skills can tackle complexity more successfully than an individual.
On student teams, one student might have good research skills, another domain knowledge, another drawing and representation skills, and another construction skills. Web-based role-play simulation Role-play simulations are situations in which learners take on the role-profiles of specific characters in a contrived educational game.
As a result of playing out these roles, learners are expected to acquire the intended learning outcomes as well as make learning enjoyable. While role-play is a commonly used strategy in conventional educational settings, it is less widely used in distributed web-based learning environments.
The essential ingredients of a web-based role-play simulation are a goal-based learning; b role-play simulation; and c online web-based communication and collaboration. Let us consider each one of these in turn. First, goal-based learning is acknowledged as a strong motivator of learning. Typically, goal- based learning comprises a scenario or context, which includes a trigger or a precipitating event.
This event may be presented as a critical event and usually requires an immediate response from students. The second critical ingredient of this learning architecture is role- play, both in the sense of playing a role, playing with possibilities and alternative worlds, and playing to "have fun". Students are organized into teams to play out particular roles within the context of the given crises or situation.
In order to play out their roles effectively they need to do research. The third critical ingredient of this learning architecture is the Web. The Web houses the virtual space for the role-play, enables communication and collaboration among students, and between the students and the facilitators. This generator also enables the simulation creator to define tasks, create conferences, assign rights to participants in these conferences, as well as provide specific information and scaffolds to support the simulation.
Challenges posed by elearning and directions for further research A great deal of work has been done in supporting students' learning with various types of technologies in open and flexible educational settings see for example, Bates, , Collis, , and Khan, Many of these technologies are ideal vehicles for content delivery and supporting communication, but in themselves, they are lacking in the capability to support or "scaffold" student learning activity in elearning environments.
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