planning post production post production supervisor scheduling. -. - budgeting. - the lab. 0 dailies and telecine. - off-line editing. 0 on-line editing. 01 sound. Identify and list different types/formats of programs and productions. b. Plan a . important pre- and post-production directing cavities contribute to a program's. Post Production includes editing, but it is much more than that. Post be- gins with the script and continues in the Pre-Production phase with the planning.
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which include modules of study in audio post-production or even offer audio From: aracer.mobi Accessed 08/02/ Brophy. Film & TV Production Roles and Departments. KEY CREATIVE TEAM. Producer. The producer initiates, coordinates, supervises, and controls matters such as. Pre-Production >> Day of Production >> Post-Production. 4 call sheet and PDF manuals of key equipment to Post-production for a Global Lives shoot.
Production During this phase it is key to keep planning ahead of the daily shoot. The primary aim is to stick to the budget and schedule, this requires constant vigilance. Communication is key between location, set, office, production company, distributors - in short, all parties involved 4. Principal Photography This is when the camera rolls. It is nearly always the most expensive phase of film production, due to actor, director, and set crew salaries, as well as the costs of certain shots, props, and on-set special effects.
Everything that has happened up to this point is to make principal photography go as smoothly and efficiently as possible. Communication between all parties is crucial during the shoot and the production must maintain a full set of records and strive to remain on time and on budget. Wrap The period immediately after shooting ends. It is when we strike dismantle the set and clear the location.
Everything must be returned in good order to suppliers and there must be a full set of records of the shoot.
Post-Production This stage starts when principal photography ends, but they may overlap. The bulk of post-production consists of reviewing the footage and assembling the movie - editing. Again, side-chaining the snare signal to the compressor on the high- and low-passed track would only reduce the range of Hz by whatever the compression settings are. Alternatively, one could do the opposite and expand instead of compress, instead of ducking Hz one could increase frequencies below Hz and above Hz by setting the compression ratio to below , such as 0.
As covered in Appendix 4, impactful samples can hugely affect and enhance the opening of a new section of a song. Please listen to audio files B2. Once the samples have been added, notice how not only the transient onset is enhanced, but also how the frequency bandwidth broadens for that particular transient.
The impacting sample features extreme low and high frequency energy which allows for the first impact to have generally more frequencies and broaden the frequency bandwidth of that instance. This broadening of the spectrum is sometimes also done on the snare, where white noise is introduced into the snare sound, but gated so that once the snare is struck, the onset will open up the white noise gate to let through frequencies from ,Hz.
This makes the snare sound more impactful by broadening the frequencies heard. Generally, the drum kit in a HM track needs to by hyper-real, as Mynett calls it. It may also include distorting the kick and snare signals in a parallel track to increase their presence in the upper mids and high frequencies to increase their clarity. Please listen to audio file B6. Now the following file, B6. Finally, please listen to B6. With the added parallel distortion track, listen out for punchier bass frequencies, even though no extra compression was added, and more focused mid-frequency energy on onsets of both the kick and the snare.
Producer and composer Although not directly linked to heaviness, as heaviness is a timbral quality, composition can have a big impact in terms of build-up.
Introducing more samples, not necessarily for transient-to-transient impact but for drama, can increase the impact of a section. Please listen to Audio File B3. Following this, please listen to the following file, B3.
Notice the added virtual instrumentation in bars five and six before we are presented with the first struck guitar chord and hard drum hit of the song at bar seven.
The kick-like thump, snare-like crack and ominous heartbeat help to present the listener with a more dramatic introduction to the song. For one, recording with a DI from the electric or bass guitar allows for better and more precise edits. In addition, recording DI yields infinite capabilities in terms of possible timbres. Please listen to B4. Now, please listen to audio file B4. Notice the significant increase in upper harmonic content and compression-like characteristic associated with distortion.
Finally, please listen to B4. The combined tracks meld together for a fitting timbre for the HM genre, in addition, the upper-harmonic distortion enhances the picking technique, with a plectrum, for better note-to-note intelligibility which is usually lost when adding high distortion. Alternatively, please listen to B5. This file demonstrates firstly the electric bass and electric guitars playing in unison with the bass having no additional distortion applied to it.
Now please listen to the second file, B5. Notice how before, the bass and electric guitar seemed like separate entities because of their difference not only in timbre, but frequency location too. After the distortion is applied they merge for a thicker and saturated wall of sound and for more sonic weight, which is essential to heaviness in HM music.
The higher frequency distortion in the parallel bass track glues together the clean electric bass timbre with the highly saturated electric guitars by sharing a similar timbre. Scalar EQ-ing A self-developed technique is designed as an attempt to increase harmonic intelligibility for melodic instruments and to be applied to a dense, saturated guitar sound in particular.
In this case, the riff starts on an A1 55Hz but I decided it best to equalize starting at A4 Hz to bring out the higher mid range of the guitar. Please see Appendix 5 and listen to files A5. Also listen to file A5. Notice the increase in clarity after the EQ is switched on in file A5. Also notice the overall decrease in broadness in the spectrogram in Appendix 5. Although the sound may appear thinner at first, due to the lowering of the overall spectrum and increasing in the essential mid to high-mid range, this will not be a problem when the guitars are mixed into the track as the bass will be responsible for creating most, if not all, of the content below Hz.
Besides, frequencies higher than the 4kHz range, especially in distorted electric guitar, will yield excessive harshness - an unwanted quality in guitar timbre. Limiting, or very harshly compressing, the vocals A very common approach to controlling vocal dynamics is limiting, and this is used by many producers of HM such as the following three.
Eyal Levi and Joel Wanasek both agree, — they are also interviewed in the video — and continue that adding subtle distortion or saturation after compressing can help to glue the vocals into the mix when all the other elements are brought back with the vocals.
Notice the pronounced jolt of energy in the initial breath of the vocal excerpt when the limiter is not engaged, and listen to how it is severely reduced in file B7. While the typical vocal style employed in HM of screaming is already considered as heavy from the pre-production stages, the addition of compression and distortion help to tame overly lively dynamics and particular frequency areas, while distortion helps to add aggression — an aesthetic commonly associated with HM music, signature of the genre.
Impact of Production on Heaviness There are ways to identify aspects of heaviness reflected in the audio files. As previously mentioned, Mynett argues that high-mids and highs are extremely important when trying the achieve heaviness in a HM mix and that can be an identifier for added heaviness. We can estimate from visualizations of audio if something has been made heavier or not and also by listening to the audio files.
Often times the addition of upper harmonics can make a sound heavier due to the increase in density, thickness, of the sound by its increase in overall homogeneity in the frequency spectrum.
It needs to be said though, that simple EQ boosting to enhance upper frequencies is not the same, distortion-generated harmonics are what are wanted in this case. In addition to the previously studied techniques and analyses thereof I will now be comparing the entirety of the audio tracks by Periphery and Machine Head. At this point, please take a listen to audio files B8. Notice the uncontrolled bass energy, especially when the kick drum and bass guitar play in unison. The drum set is natural-sounding, but does not fit in at all with the genre of the track.
The sounds appear very sloppy, boxy and are in no way well-defined.
Likewise, the bass tone is very weak and the guitars are lacking. The overall appearance of the mix is very lacking.
Now please listen to the mixed audio file B8. Notice the significantly more dense guitars through added distortion and volume of course. The kick drum is very tight — short and defined — and so it the rest of the drum kit, particularly the snare. Notice the overall thicker sound, partially achieved through the additional distortion in the electric bass and electric guitars.
In general, everything is louder, but the frequency broadness is sternly enhanced by added distortion, compression and subtle equalization. Once again, notice the very undefined and boxy drums and very boomy bass.
Please see Appendix A8 which demonstrates a spectrogram of before and after processing the track. Following this, please listen to the mixed version, audio file B9. Notice the significant increase in upper harmonic content which results in far superior intelligibility. The overall spectrum is broadened through the use of distortion, compression and equalization. Please note the interaction between the kick and bass are vastly superior than before being mixed, thanks to sidechaining.
The distorted guitar timbre plays the most important role in achieving heaviness. However, other instruments in a band may add to the perception of heaviness with the helps of sample enhancement for extreme transient impact.
Sonic weight, especially in the bass frequencies, is the result of said saturation and plays an immense part in heaviness. Aggression is a common aesthetic in HM music in general, as is written by Reyes. It is expressly heard when distorting the upper range of an electric bass guitar through a guitar amplifier in a parallel processing track - often accompanied by the original electric bass track, responsible for a clean low-end while the distortion helps merge the distorted guitar timbres with the bass.
A balanced frequency spectrum is also very important as a lot of that aggressiveness comes from higher frequencies — there seems to be a fine line between harshness and aggressiveness in timbre. Generally, close-micing yields a warm sound because of the proximity effect. Harshness created through distortion, which is a timbral quality that is usually not desired and to be avoided, can help add aggression. Simple boosting of the bass frequencies is not an acceptable way of adding girth, but distortion can help thicken the texture in the bass frequency region.
Lastly, as to heaviness itself, it has been explored that the most elementary requirement and the most important sonic quality for HM to reach the status of heavy is intelligibility achieved through highly technologically mediated production techniques Mynett , p Intelligibility is the biggest challenge when producing HM.
Striving for heaviness, especially by introducing distortion, is prone to have negative side-effects to a mix such as masking of frequencies which makes intelligibility a constant consideration for every action that a mixing engineer takes. Likewise, drums also have additional content added beyond their fundamental by introducing further distortion and, at times, severe sample enhancement to increase the amount by which transients are impactful.
The drum set is relentlessly processed to achieve hyper-real sounds to suit modern HM - this means that production adds perceived heaviness, partially by saturating the frequency spectrum.
The previously identified production techniques used by HM producers, such as side- chaining, are taken advantage of to counter masking, negative interaction between elements and to maximize intelligibility.
This thesis finds that the way post-production impacts recorded HM music, in an attempt to increase heaviness, is by: - Adding ample distortion - Saturating the frequency spectrum balancing bass, mid and high frequencies A possible continuation of this paper may be looking into pre-production and how that affects the post-production stage, or how pre-production alone can alter heaviness.
Russ Russell talks about rarely ever using drum room or drum ambient microphones in his tracks because he feels the extra space presented by introducing more distant microphones clouds the mix and causes intelligibility to suffer. Compressed bass track, via side-chain from kick, solo Kick drum, and soloed kick and bass together. Example of bad use of side-chain compression 4. Spectrograms showing before and after production for the drum tracks in the Periphery track, followed by a level-matched and out of phase version showing only what was added through processing.