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Research ethics[ edit ] Research ethics is concerned with the moral issues that arise during or as a result of research activities, as well as the ethical conduct of researchers. Historically, the revelation of scandals such as Nazi human experimentation and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to the realisation that clear measures are needed for the ethical governance of research to ensure that people, animals and environments are not unduly harmed in research.
When making ethical decisions, we may be guided by different things and philosophers commonly distinguish between approaches like deontology , consequentialism , virtue ethics and value ethics.
Regardless of approach, the application of ethical theory to specific controversial topics is known as applied ethics and research ethics can be viewed as a form of applied ethics because ethical theory is applied in real-world research scenarios. Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered.
Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research , the most notable Code being the Declaration of Helsinki. Research in other fields such as social sciences , information technology , biotechnology , or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research. Problems in research[ edit ] Main article: Meta-research Meta-research is the study of research through the use of research methods.
Also known as "research on research", it aims to reduce waste and increase the quality of research in all fields. Meta-research concerns itself with the detection of bias, methodological flaws, and other errors and inefficiencies.
Among the finding of meta-research is a low rates of reproducibility across a large number of fields. This widespread difficulty in reproducing research has been termed the " replication crisis.
The increasing participation of indigenous peoples as researchers has brought increased attention to the lacuna in culturally-sensitive methods of data collection. As the great majority of mainstream academic journals are written in English, multilingual periphery scholars often must translate their work to be accepted to elite Western-dominated journals.
In particular: This subsection's claims are potentially outdated in the "digital age" given that near-total penetration of Web access among scholars worldwide enables any scholar[s] to submit papers to any journal anywhere. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
May Peer review is a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility.
In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Usually, the peer review process involves experts in the same field who are consulted by editors to give a review of the scholarly works produced by a colleague of theirs from an unbiased and impartial point of view, and this is usually done free of charge.
The tradition of peer reviews being done for free has however brought many pitfalls which are also indicative of why most peer reviewers decline many invitations to review. Influence of the open-access movement[ edit ] The open access movement assumes that all information generally deemed useful should be free and belongs to a "public domain", that of "humanity".
For instance, most indigenous communities consider that access to certain information proper to the group should be determined by relationships.
On the one hand, "digital right management" used to restrict access to personal information on social networking platforms is celebrated as a protection of privacy, while simultaneously when similar functions are used by cultural groups i.
The method is most commonly used to multiply linear binomials. For example,. If either binomial involves subtraction , the corresponding terms must be negated.
The FOIL method is equivalent to a two-step process involving the distributive law:. In the second step, the distributive law is used to simplify each of the two terms. Note that this process involves a total of three applications of the distributive property. In contrast to the FOIL method, the method using distributive can be applied easily to products with more terms such as trinomials and higher.
The FOIL rule converts a product of two binomials into a sum of four or fewer, if like terms are then combined monomials. The reverse process is called factoring or factorization. In particular, if the proof above is read in reverse it illustrates the technique called factoring by grouping. A visual memory tool can replace the FOIL mnemonic for a pair of polynomials with any number of terms.
Make a table with the terms of the first polynomial on the left edge and the terms of the second on the top edge, then fill in the table with products.
The table equivalent to the FOIL rule looks like this. The FOIL rule cannot be directly applied to expanding products with more than two multiplicands, or multiplicands with more than two summands.
However, applying the associative law and recursive foiling allows one to expand such products. It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context. This may be factual, historical, or background research.
Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research.
Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: narrative inquiry, fiction-based research, poetry, music, dance, theatre, film, and visual art. Main article: Documentary research Steps in conducting research[ edit ] Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.
The major steps in conducting research are:  Identification of research problem Specifying the purpose of research Determining specific research questions Specification of a conceptual framework , sometimes including a set of hypotheses  Choice of a methodology for data collection Data collection Analyzing and interpreting the data Reporting and evaluating research Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations The steps generally represent the overall process; however, they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.
Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis.
The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research.
The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: starting with articulating findings and discussion of them, moving "up" to identification of a research problem that emerges in the findings and literature review.
The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results. This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure : Exploratory research , which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
Constructive research , which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. Empirical research , which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc.
This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables.