The Fungi - 2nd Edition - ISBN: , View on ScienceDirect 5 star rating 1 Review. Authors: Michael Carlile Sarah Watkinson. The Fungi, 2nd Ed. - M. Carlile, S. Watkinson, And G. Gooday - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. , English, Book, Illustrated edition: The fungi / Michael J. Carlile, Sarah C. The fungi are one of the great groups of living organisms, comparable in.
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widely used textbook on fungal biology has been . Fungal individualism: vegetative incompatibility between .. digestive tracts of animals (Carlile, ). The fungi are one of the great groups of living organisms, comparable in numbers of species, diversity and ecological significance with animals, plants, protists. group to the Fungi, or lie within the The Fungi. Jason E. Stajich1,2, Mary L. Berbee3,. Meredith Blackwell4, .. Carlile, M.J., Watkinson, S.C., and Gooday, G.
Consistent information about the effect of the composition of the culture medium on conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungi is scarce on literature. The results of the present study showed that nutrient-rich media promote higher conidial germination; however, this was not a general rule, as observed for SDAY medium.
For some isolates, nutrient-poor MM or -free medium AW can promote high germination. These differences are probably due to the genetic variability between isolates. Therefore, we conclude that culture media have an influence on the germination capacity of B.
This influence differs among species, and varies within the same species from one isolate to another. Thus, this fact should be considered when performing viability tests, choosing the most adequate medium for the fungus under study. Controle microbiano de insetos. Spore dormancy and dispersal. The fungi. San Diego: Academic, Laboratory evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae for the control the groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus on groundnut.
Journal of Stored Products Research, Oxford, v. Ultrastructural study of the penetration by Metarhizium anisopliae through dimilin-affected cuticle of Manduca sexta.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Orlando, v. Insect pathogens as biological control agents do they have a future? Biological Control, San Diego, v. Fundamentals of the fungi. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, The genetics of Aspergillus nidulans. Advances in Genetics, San Diego, v. Oogonia are usually sited singly. Acblya bisexualis and Acblya ambisexualis. Antheridiol C 2 9 H 4 2 0 5 9 MW is a sterol produced by the female strain.
Although good progress has been made in understanding hormonal and physiological aspects of sexuality in water moulds. Species of Pythium occur in flesh water and soil and can live as saprotrophs on plant debris. Oogoniol and its esters induce oogonial initials in the female strain. The hyphae of Pythium in their invasion of plant tissues are both intercellular and intracellular. The major component of the hormone mixture is the isobutyrate ester C33Hs MW Pythium and Phytophthora.
The Pythiales One of the families in the order Pythiales. Pythium ultimum and Pythium debaryanum can attack a wide variety of seedlings if they are overcrowded and under too moist conditions.
They are less potent than antheridiol. In Pythium sylvaticum there are predominantly male and predominantly female strains and the sexual process occurs most readily when the two types are brought together. There is. Sporangia are formed. Chemotaxis of zoospores to plant exudates has been shown in several Phytophthora species. Phytophthora hyphae differ in their behaviour from those of Pythium in that they are intercellular. There are some aquatic species. The zoospores resemble the secondary zoospores of Saprolegnia and in some species have been shown to be attracted by root exudates.
After a period of swimming. At the other extreme Phytophthora infestans is limited to the Solanaceae the potato and tomato family and is best known as the cause of late blight of potato. In some species the sexual phase can be produced in cultures derived from single zoospores whereas other species are normally self-sterile and it is necessary to bring together two mating types. Thus in P. The sporangia of Phytophthora are borne on specialized branched hyphae. Mycelium too has some capacity for survival on plant debris.
Phytophthora cinnamomi. Many species can attack a broad range of hosts. Oospores are thick-walled and probably are capable of prolonged survival in soil at times when there are no suitable hosts for infection. Which occurs depends on environmental conditions.
Many Pythium species are self-fertile. Phytophthora Greek: The life cycle of Pythium is similar to that of Saprolegnia. Such sporangia may behave as conidia and produce a germ-tube direct germination or may release zoospores indirect germination.
A remarkable feature of the Pythiaceae. This facilitates the dispersal of the sporangia which are detachable in terrestrial species when mature. The Chytridiomycota. Pythium has considerable saprotrophic ability. Sterols are thought to endow plasma membranes with greater strength. Zoospores remain of importance in some species. Although downy mildews and white rusts cannot be grown in pure culture.
The main feature that occurs in Chytridiomycetes. The white rust Albugo candida also attacks Cruciferae. The downy mildews and white rusts are biotrophs. The Chytridiomycetes The Chytridiomycota. The Peronosporales can be arranged as a series with respect to their parasitic activity. A parallel series can be traced from aquatic to fully terrestrial species.
This could well be a primitive feature of the fungi. Examples of downy mildews are Plasmopara viticola. The Peronosporales This order includes two families.
These series probably also reflect an evolutionary trend from aquatic saprotrophs. Three of these orders. Phytophthora has little saprotrophic ability. The role of sterols in the sexual process may be as precursors for sex hormones similar to those known in Acblya. Germination is bipolar. This feature.
Exposure to pond water or very dilute mineral salt solutions brings about gamete discharge. Then from the opposite side of the cyst a stout hypha emerges and by repeated dichotomous branching produces a new sporophyte mycelium.
Most produce true mycelium. The male gametangia occur at the end of hyphae. These behave similarly to mitospores. Allomyces and Blastocladiella. Within these meiosporangia. The zoosporangia are of two types. Allomyces macrogynus. Two genera. In one type. The sexual process consists of the fusion of a pair of uninucleate gametes. The Blastocladiales Members of the order Blastocladiales are mainly saprotrophs living on plant or animal debris in fresh water.
The life cycle Figs. The other type of zoosporangia produced by the sporophyte mycelium is thick-walled meiosporangia. The male gametangia and the male gametes. The diploid mycelium is often termed the sporophyte 'spore-producing plant'.
The female gametangia are colourless. A rhizoid emerges. Allomyces arbusculus. The latter is a convenient point at which to begin a description of the life cycle.
Zoospores are formed within the sporangia. Another genus. Zoospore release can be obtained by immersing sporangia in pond water or in very dilute mineral salts solution. The zoospores.
In the course of its life cycle it has to infect in turn mosquito larvae and adult copepods. The zoospores show chemotaxis to amino acids. The sporophyte mycelium bears thick-walled resting sporangia meiosporangia. Zoospores are propelled by a single posterior flagellum. Meiosis occurs in the meiosporangium. The female gametangium shown has begun to discharge female gametes. The diploid 2n. A detached meiosporangium.
The large female and small male gametes are similar to each other and to zoospores. Haploid mycelium. These germinate to give further diploid sporophytes. The zoospores and cysts of the haploid n phase closely resemble those of the diploid phase. The base of the single posterior flagellum is visible below the nucleus. The nucleus contains a single electron-dense nucleolus. Scale bar. The same zoosporangium viewed by fluorescence microscopy after treating with a stain DAPI specific for nuclei.
Anaerobic fungi in herbivorous animals. The cytoplasm contains lipid droplets spherical. Archives of Microbiology Phase contrast photomicrograph of a zoosporangium width ca lam of an anaerobic rumen Chytridomycete. The nuclei are confined to the zoosporangium and are absent from the extensive rhizomycelium. B from Trinci. Mycological Research The cytology of the gametes and fertilization of Allomyces macrogynus.
Neocallimastix sp. The zoospores of Allomyces closely resemble the female gamete Electron micrograph of a female gamete of Allomyces macrogynus. Artificial hybrids between A. Sirenin was named after the sirens. It is a bicyclic sesquiterpene ClsH Under optimal conditions the entire cycle takes about 20 hours. In addition to being highly active.
Sirenin is destroyed by the male gametes after it is taken up. There are polyploid strains in both species. The male gametes fertilize the female gametes as they emerge from the gametangia. The thallus then usually differentiates into a thin-walled zoosporangium from which zoospores are discharged.
It is active over a wide range of concentrations. The zygote differs from the male gamete and resembles zoospores in being insensitive to sirenin but being attracted by amino acids. The zygote formed by fertilization retains the flagella from both gametes and is hence the sole biflagellate phase in the life cycle.
The two species can hybridize. The male gametes. This is due to the sex attractant. The isolation of sirenin was achieved by using a female hybrid for sirenin production. This cycle has been the. Synthesis of cell constituents and repeated nuclear division occur. There is also evidence for a complementary sex hormone.
On arrival at a suitable substratum it encysts and germinates to give rise to the sporophyte mycelium. On arriving at a suitable surface.
Allomyces javanicus. Zoospores of Blastocladiella emersonii Fig. The Anaerobic Rumen Fungi Ruminant animals. Conditions in the rumen are virtually anaerobic. The thallus can also develop into a thick-walled zoosporangium which is capable of prolonged survival under adverse conditions.
The life cycle of another species. This suggests that the intensively studied cycle involving OC sporangia corresponds to the diploid cycle in Allomyces.
The Chytridiales include a wide diversity of forms. The saprotrophic aquatic species can be obtained in crude culture by baiting water samples with suitable substrates such as cellulose e. This is often termed the RS or resistant sporangium.
This effectiveness is due to the activity of microorganisms in the rumen. Some of these are saprotrophs. The Chytridiales Members of the order Chytridiales. Blastocladiella variabilis. There are also species that live in soil.
They are mainly aquatic. Two other types of zoosporangia have been observed in B. Within resistant sporangia synaptonemal complexes. Such sporangia develop in the presence of high bicarbonate concentrations.
Many of the saprotrophic species have been grown in pure culture but those attacking living organisms are obligate parasites. Perhaps this corresponds to the male gametangium of Allomyces. It is surprising that the life cycle of B. The life cycles of several rumen fungi have been studied. The saprotrophic members of the Mucorales usually have little ability to attack refractory substrates such as cellulose or chitin.
The activities of anaerobic Chytridiomycetes in the herbivore rumen are considered further in Chapter 7. They hence 'get there first' and can exploit readily assimilable nutrients such as sugars before other fungi arrive.
Whether the two classes are closely related is not clear. It was then realized that some organisms which had been regarded as protozoa were in fact Chytridiomycete zoospores. Zoospores of Neocallimastix are unusual in being multiflagellate. The Trichomycetes.
As with Blastocladiella page 36 a thallus develops and becomes a zoosporangium Fig. Within these two classes the sexual process consists of the fusion of two gametangia to give a resting spore. The Mucorales Most members of the Mucorales are saprotrophs. Obligately anaerobic bacteria and protozoa have long been known to be abundant in the rumen.
Attention which had hitherto been directed towards the liquid from strained rumen contents was then switched to the residual plant debris. The anaerobic rumen fungi are now regarded as constituting the order Neocallimastigales. The Zygomycetes The phylum Zygomycota consists of two classes. Others cause rots of fruits and some occur on the decaying fruiting bodies of mushrooms and toadstools.
Neocallimastix hurleyensis. Zoospores are attracted to. Cyst germination follows. The Mucorales will now be considered.
There are about species of Zygomycetes. Sporangiospores of the Mucorales may contain one or several nuclei. A few members of the Mucorales are mycoparasites. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion occur to give thick-waUed diploid 2n zygospores.
Meiosis precedes germination. The spore swells. If colonies of different mating type come into proximity. Mycelia bear sporangia on sporangiophores. On the right a sporangium in section shows the columella. After a few hours a hypha. Such a spore. The largest genus in the Mucorales is Mucor itself. Their hyphae are generally small and many are obligate parasites and cannot be cultured. The sporangium is at first bright yellow from the presence of [5-carotene. Some members of the Mucorales are capable of growth under anaerobic conditions page The vegetative hyphae spread upon and penetrate the substratum.
Some genera. These hyphae grow and branch. Some other members of the Mucorales. Sometimes several germ-tubes are produced. After the sporangium is formed. The details of sporangium pl.
It is probable that such 'slime spores' are dispersed by rain splash. Most of the sporangium is occupied by sporangiospores.
This mould-yeast dimorphism. The Pbycomyces sporangiophore is at first merely a stout hypha rising above the substratum and elongating by means of wall extension in the apical region. In these circumstances metabolism is fermentative and alcohol is produced from sugar. Some Rbizopus species. Within the sporangium the protoplasm is cleaved and rounds off to give about sporangiospores. The sporangial wall of Phycomyces is thin. Other sensory responses that enable the sporangiophore to rise above the substratum in nature usually dung while avoiding obstacles are negative geotropism upward growth.
The sporangiophore. The cell wall of the germ-tube is continuous with the new inner wall of the spore. It shows positive phototropism Fig. In the absence of air and in the presence of high carbon dioxide concentrations sporangiospores of some Mucor species. Then elongation ceases and the apex swells to form a spherical sporangium. The most widespread mode of asexual sporulation in the Mucorales is the production of sporangiospores.
The hyphae of the Mucorales are coenocytic with many nuclei and few cross-walls. The walls of the sporangiospores contain sporopollenin. When these touch a suitable substratum slender hyphae.
Detailed studies of sporangiophore growth have been carried out in a genus. Thamnidium may. When vegetative growth brings two colonies that differ in mating type into close proximity.
In some species the sporangium wall dissolves at maturity leaving a 'stalked spore drop'. Some members of the Mucorales produce. The crosswall separating the two gametangia then breaks down and the fused gametangia develop into a zygospore.
In other genera of Mucorales there is a wide variety of sporangium form. The sporangium of Rhizopus resembles that of Mucor but there is no mucilage in the sporangium. The genus Pilobolus. A sporangiophore emerges from the zygospore and terminates in a.
These thick-walled spores are produced within hyphae and have no dispersal mechanism. The sporangiospores of the Mucorales are mostly classifiable into dry spores. Zygophores of differing mating type grow towards each other through the air. The sexual process has received detailed study in Mucor mucedo. Limited cytological observations supplemented by genetic analysis suggest that nuclei of different mating type pair and fuse.
Meiosis occurs. The sporangiophores are phototropic and when mature. The development of a thick zygospore wall containing the black pigments melanin and sporopollenin soon renders the observation of cytological events difficult.
Zygospores do not readily germinate. Cunninghamella apparently produces conidia. Each progametangium develops into a gametangium by the production of a cross-waU which delimits it from the adjacent region of the zygophore which is then termed the suspensor. The two zygophores then swell in the region immediately adjacent to the area of contact to give two multinucleate progametangia. When two zygophores of different mating type come into contact the walls firmly fuse to each other and zygophore elongation ceases.
In Thamnidium a sporangium similar to that of Mucor occurs at the end of the sporangiophore. Mucor racemosus produces copious chlamydospores both in vegetative hyphae and within sporangiophores. It has been found that a mixed culture of a plus and a minus strain will produce trisporic acid Fig. The pathway is known in outline although the identity of some intermediates and steps are uncertain.
In Phycomyces blakesleeanus parental haploid nuclei degenerate. The plus strain on the other hand. It is active at about M. The minus strain can convert this compound by a series of steps into trisporol. Trisporic acid. There are. The hormonal control of the sexual process in Mucor mucedo has been studied in detail. Although trisporic acid is the factor responsible for zygophore induction it is not volatile and hence cannot account for the attraction through air of the plus and minus zygophores to each other.
Other details of the sexual process also vary. The production of trisporic acid is the result of a remarkable collaborative biosynthesis involving both plus and minus strains Fig. This mutual attraction appears to be due to the diffusion of volatile strain-specific precursors. Many members of the Mucorales other than M. Trisporic acid stimulates carotenoid production and induces zygophores in a wide range of Zygomycetes.
There are two possible routes for the synthesis of trisporic acid from retinal. The Glomales are important since they form a characteristic mutualistic association with the roots of a wide variety of vascular plants page Conversely the plus strain has the enzymes for the first part of the 4-dehydrotrisporic acid and the second part of the trisporol path.
Their hyphae penetrate between the cells of roots where they send haustoria. The minus strain has the enzymes required for the first part of the trisporol and the second part of the 4-dehydrotrisporic acid path.
The other Zygomycete orders are of a more specialist interest. Other Zygomycete Orders The Mucorales are so widespread and abundant that they are frequently encountered by almost all mycologists.
Such fungi are hence known as arbuscular or vesicular-arbuscular fungi. Latin for tree. Thus trisporic acid synthesis is accomplished only when both strains are present. In addition to inducing zygophores. Perithecium of Sordaria fimicola. The predatory forms have a sticky mycelium which traps the prey which is then invaded by hyphae. Researches on Fungi.
It will be replaced by a sequence of other asci. The Zoopagales are predators or parasites of small animals such as amoebae and nematodes eelworms. The upper surface is lined with asci and spacer hyphae. Most Ascomycetes also carry out asexual sporulation. Fungal Spores: B after Buller.
Clarendon Press. An ascus is shown protruding from the opening ostiole of the perithecium prior to discharging its ascospores and collapsing. Cleistothecium of Eurotium repens. The Ascomycetes Members of the phylum Ascomycota.
Some fungi in this group are used in the biological control of insect pests. Asci and paraphyses of A. The ascus walls lyse and finally the perithecium ruptures to release ascospores after Webster.
Apothecium of Aleuria vesiculosa. The Entomophthorales include the large genus Entomophthora Greek. See also Fig. The pits are lined with asci. Animals dig up and eat the fruit bodies. Tuber is thought to have evolved from Pezizales with more usual fruit bodies. Several stalked perithecial stromata two in focus have developed from a buried sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea.
Excavated fruit bodies of the truffle Tuber aestivum. Morchella hortensis. Apothecia of Aleuria aurantia. John and Irene Palmer. Stephen Shaw and Peter Mantle. Diverse forms in the order Pezizales. Further illustrations of fruit bodies are available at http: Asci line the inside of the cups. The stalked apothecium of the morel. The exits to the perithecia ostioles appear as dots on the heads of the stromata. In a cleistothecium.
A few well-studied Ascomycetes. An apothecium is ideal for the discharge of ascospores into the air. Ascocarp form is crucial in relation to spore dispersal. The sexual phase of an Ascomycete is now termed the teleomorph. Morels and Truffles The Pezizales commonly produce their ascocarps. The 'Discomycetes'. The 'Pyrenomycetes' were those that produced asci within a flask-shaped ascocarp.
A perithecium gives some protection. There has been a major reclassification of the phylum Ascomycota. In addition there are many more such Ascomycetes.
Some of the orders now recognized contain not only saprotrophic and parasitic species but also lichens. Pyrenomycetes and Plectomycetes on the basis of ascocarp form is no longer accepted. It is readily grown in pure culture on defined media containing a sugar and mineral salts. The Pezizales: Other Ascomycetes. Such Ascomycetes are not numerous.
There are a very large number of saprotrophic and parasitic Ascomycetes. Many Ascomycetes produce their asci in complex fruiting bodies termed ascocarps Figs. This is because it brings together fungi that on a range of other criteria are dissimilar.
Isolates are often obtained that fail to produce a teleomorph. Ascospores placed on the medium. Grouping into such classes as the Discomycetes. When both anamorphic and teleomorphic phases are present.
Such Ascomycetes were formerly regarded as Euascomycetes 'true Ascomycetes'. The 'Plectomycetes' were those in which the asci developed inside an approximately spherical ascocarp.
Such anamorphic isolates are assigned a separate Latin binomial.
Instead a wide range of characters. A common species is Pyronema omphalodes. The life cycle of Pyronema is outlined in Fig. The ascogonium carries a projection. Both are multinucleate.
Ascogenous hyphae grow out from the fertilized ascogonium. Alternatively both moderate vegetative growth and moderate apothecium production can be obtained in a single Petri dish by providing the slowly utilized sugar lactose instead of the readily utilized glucose.
Induction of sexual sporulation requires carbohydrate limitation. The two haploid nuclei fuse to give a diploid nucleus which undergoes meiosis to yield four haploid nuclei. Pyronema is self-fertile and apothecium production begins with the formation of clusters of the male structure. Hyphal anastomosis can convert a mycelium of radiating hyphae as is seen in the lower fungi into a three-dimensional network characteristic of the higher fungi. E-mail: montecar fcav. Three areas per slide were delimited and 0.
One bioassay was performed for each isolate. The culture media influenced the germination of the species studied, verifying within and inter specific variations. The germination of B.
However, some isolates presented high germination on nutrient-poor media AW and MM. Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium lecanii, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, germination, microbial control. As menores percentagens, por sua vez, foram obtidas no meio SDAL.
Bioinsecticides based on entomopathogenic fungi are currently commercialized, mainly using the species Beauveria bassiana Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch. In this respect, viability tests permit the evaluation of the germination capacity of conidia from its production to is field application. Some researchers perform the test by placing the culture medium on microscope slides and adding drops of the conidial suspension EKESI et al.
Various culture media have been adopted to test conidial viability such as potato-dextrose-yeast extract agar, agar-water, Sabouraud-dextrose agar, and Sabouraud-maltose-yeast agar. Therefore, composition of culture medium is an important factor to be considered. In this context, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether the culture medium used in viability test influences the germination of isolates of three entomopathogenic fungal species.
A conidial suspension of each isolate was prepared adding 10ml of an aqueous 0. The surface of each colony was gently swept, the suspension formed was filtered and shaken in an electrical tube shaker. Conidial concentrations were estimated in a Neubauer chamber and adjusted to 5. One bioassay was performed for each isolate, for a total of 14 assays. After the demarcation of three areas on the bottom surface, the slides were placed on Petri dishes, with a high relative humidity being maintained by two cotton pads moistened with distilled water.
One-hundred-and-fifty conidia, both germinated and non-germinated ones, were observed per area.