Joseph F. Hair Jr. William C. Black. Barry J. Babin Rolph E. Anderson. Seventh Edition. Multivariate Data Analysis Hair Black Babin Anderson 7th edition. Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. KEY BENEFIT: For over 30 years, this text has Multivariate Data Analysis 7th Edition, Kindle Edition. by Joseph Hair. Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. KEY BENEFIT: For over 30 years, this text has Hair, et. al provides an applications-oriented introduction to multivariate analysis for the non-statistician. By reducing heavy statistical research into.
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Multivariate data analysis. [Joseph F Hair; William C Black; Barry J Babin; Rolph E Anderson] -- Offering an applications-oriented approach which focuses on the. Get this from a library! Multivariate data analysis. [Joseph F Hair; et al]. For over 30 years, this text has provided students with the information they need to understand and apply multivariate data analysis. Hair et. al provides an.
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Methods This is a cross-sectional study, based on survey design in an area of extreme social vulnerability — the largest garbage dump in Latin America.
Using a multidimensional research protocol, divided in three stages: 1- The identification of the subjects, and the scheduling of tests; 2- Situational diagnosis through interviews, anthropometric evaluation, measuring blood pressure, collecting hair and nail samples to detect exposure to heavy metals and undertaking laboratory tests; 3- The return of the waste pickers to receive the test results, followed by referral to the health team and to report occupational accidents.
Results One thousand twenty-five waste pickers undertook tests and interviews.
The majority were women In total, The majority of waste pickers The mean time working in this open dump was 15 years. According the anthropometric measure, The most common reported diseases were: osteomuscular disorders According to the blood tests, the values outside the reference limits were: Uric acid Conclusions This study is the first to evaluate multiple risks and diseases in the majority of waste pickers working in the largest garbage dump of a continent.
These findings highlight the importance to address urgently the environmental, social and health impacts related to the management of solid waste in developmental countries to protect these workers and their families.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article Keywords: Epidemiology, Occupational health, Solid waste segregators, Social conditions, Accidents, Medical waste disposal, Public health, Environmental pollution Background Managing solid waste is the main challenge facing cities in developing countries.
It has been calculated that approximately 1. In Brazil, the increasing consumption of goods has generated a huge volume of waste which achieved The inadequate management of solid wastes has major environmental and social impacts, and places at risk the health and quality of life of urban populations. Furthermore, there is large-scale involvement of informal workers in the collection and sale of these solid wastes — notably in low and middle income countries [ 3 ].
It is estimated that, worldwide, some two million individuals work informally as waste pickers. These people are the first to suffer the consequences of the inadequate management of solid wastes [ 1 ]. The intensity and type of risks to which these waste pickers are exposed depend on where they work recycling centers, warehouses, on the streets or in garbage dumps , on their working conditions informal or organized groups , on the nature of the waste composition, components and decomposition , and on the duration of their exposure [ 1 , 4 — 6 ].
Studies have shown that waste pickers experience situations which place them at high risk of developing morbidities — mainly external and internal injuries e. They can also develop respiratory diseases, eye infections, stomach problems, typhoid fever, diarrhea, musculoskeletal disorders and carcinogenic effects [ 7 — 9 ]. Individual risk factors, such as poor hygiene practices and lack of access to personal protection equipment or the inadequate use of the same, as well as living conditions which are associated with extreme social vulnerability and inhumane conditions, associated with the use of intoxicating substances or stimulants affecting the central nervous system, can further exacerbate their health vulnerabilities [ 7 ].
One study undertaken in South Sudan, Africa, evidences that waste pickers working with recyclable materials are exposed to cuts, maiming, fatal accidents, contamination by heavy metals and dangerous wastes and are at risk of developing pulmonary diseases, HIV and hepatitis C as a result of contact with sharp items and hazardous health waste [ 10 ].
A study conducted in India with waste pickers who worked in three different cities reinforced these occupational health hazards highlighting the lack of provisions of protective equipment, low income of the informal workers, along with the ignorance of the workers as aggravating risk factors to different types of external injuries.
The major occupational health issues reported by various categories of waste workers were muscle and ligament sprain, cuts and lacerations and different allergies [ 11 ].
One systematic review analyzed the association of exposure to toxic and industrial wastes hazardous waste with events related to illnesses and health disorders [ 12 ]. From the 57 studies included, the authors showed sufficient evidence to associate exposure to waste from the petroleum industry with various types of acute symptoms, such as neurological, otorhinolaryngological, respiratory, digestive and dermatological.
The evidence is limited, however, there are information in relation to cancer of the liver, bladder, breasts and testicles; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; asthma; congenital anomalies in general; anomalies of the neural tube and urogenital, connective and musculoskeletal systems; low birth weight; and preterm birth.
The methodological limitations of the primary studies included in the systematic review were indicated as a weak point, given that most of the studies had ecological designs [ 12 ].
A separate study conducted by the World Health Organization also pointed out methodological limitations of studies researching the effects on health of exposure to solid wastes [ 13 ]. Most studies investigated exposure to waste in the general population.
Waste pickers working with solid waste, however, are more vulnerable, as they spend a large proportion of their time exposed to the risks [ 1 ]. It should be emphasized that these workers experience appalling living conditions, are characterized by low educational levels, have low incomes and receive limited support from their governments, particularly in Asia, Africa and South America [ 15 ].
Furthermore, some clinical outcomes — such as cancer and other forms of degenerative disorders — are manifested months or even years after the initial exposure [ 16 ]. The following health issues were raised: irritability, pains in the body and joints, tiredness, coughing, shortness of breath, asthma, insomnia, burning in the eyes, itching, nausea, weight loss, anemia, abdominal pains, discoloration on the skin, allergies, dengue fever, helminthiasis, sexually transmitted diseases, hepatitis, tuberculosis, cholera and mental health problems [ 17 ].