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The precise way this temporal structure helps code for pitch at higher levels is still debated, but the processing seems to be based on an autocorrelation of action potentials in the auditory nerve.
There are several of these, such as the tritone paradox , but most notably the Shepard scale , where a continuous or discrete sequence of specially formed tones can be made to sound as if the sequence continues ascending or descending forever.
Definite and indefinite pitch[ edit ] Not all musical instruments make notes with a clear pitch. The unpitched percussion instrument a class of percussion instrument does not produce particular pitches. A sound or note of definite pitch is one where a listener can possibly or relatively easily discern the pitch.
Sounds with definite pitch have harmonic frequency spectra or close to harmonic spectra. A listener hears numerous frequencies at once. The vibration with the lowest frequency is called the fundamental frequency ; the other frequencies are overtones.
Whether or not the higher frequencies are integer multiples, they are collectively called the partials , referring to the different parts that make up the total spectrum. A sound or note of indefinite pitch is one that a listener finds impossible or relatively difficult to identify as to pitch.
Sounds with indefinite pitch do not have harmonic spectra or have altered harmonic spectra—a characteristic known as inharmonicity.
It is still possible for two sounds of indefinite pitch to clearly be higher or lower than one another. For instance, a snare drum sounds higher pitched than a bass drum though both have indefinite pitch, because its sound contains higher frequencies.
In other words, it is possible and often easy to roughly discern the relative pitches of two sounds of indefinite pitch, but sounds of indefinite pitch do not neatly correspond to any specific pitch. A special type of pitch often occurs in free nature when sound reaches the ear of an observer directly from the source, and also after reflecting off a sound-reflecting surface.
This phenomenon is called repetition pitch , because the addition of a true repetition of the original sound to itself is the basic prerequisite. Pitch standards and standard pitch[ edit ] Main article: Concert pitch A pitch standard also concert pitch is the conventional pitch reference a group of musical instruments are tuned to for a performance. Concert pitch may vary from ensemble to ensemble, and has varied widely over musical history. See media help. Standard pitch is a more widely accepted convention.
Transposing instruments have their origin in the variety of pitch standards. In modern times, they conventionally have their parts transposed into different keys from voices and other instruments and even from each other. As a result, musicians need a way to refer to a particular pitch in an unambiguous manner when talking to each other. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
The main conclusion in terms of this idea is that working memory and short-term memory capacity and mental speed are three important predictors for sight reading achievement.
As stated in one such study, "Working memory capacity made a statistically significant contribution as well about 7 percent, a medium-size effect. In other words, if you took two pianists with the same amount of practice, but different levels of working memory capacity, it's likely that the one higher in working memory capacity would have performed considerably better on the sight-reading task.
This phenomenon, which also applies to the reading of language, is referred to as chunking. Errors in sight-reading tend to occur in places where the music contains unexpected or unusual sequences; these defeat the strategy of "reading by expectation" that sight-readers typically employ. Professional use[ edit ] Studio musicians e.
Often, the music played on television is played by musicians who are sight-reading. This practice has developed through intense commercial competition in these industries.
McNerney, jazz musician, professor, and private instructor, describes auditions for University of North Texas Jazz Lab Bands as being almost completely based on sight-reading: "you walk into a room and see three or four music stands in front of you, each with a piece of music on it in different styles You are then asked to read each piece in succession. Typically, a studio performance is "rehearsed" only once to check for copying errors before recording the final track.
Many professional big bands also sight-read every live performance. They are known as "rehearsal bands", even though their performance is the rehearsal. According to Frazier, score reading is an important skill for those interested in the conducting profession and "Conductors such as the late Robert Shaw and Yoel Levi have incredibly strong piano skills and can read at sight full orchestral scores at the piano" a process which requires the pianist to make an instant piano reduction of the key parts of the score.
Reasons cited were a lack of knowledge of how to teach it, inadequacy of the training materials they use, and deficiency in their own sight-reading skills. Teachers also often emphasize rehearsed reading and repertoire building for successful recitals and auditions to the detriment of sight-reading and other functional skills.
Ability to read and remember ahead of playing with more and wider progressive fixations Aural imagery ear-playing and sight-singing improves sight-reading Ability to keep the basic pulse, read, and remember rhythm Awareness and knowledge of the music's structure and theory Beauchamp identifies five building blocks in the development of piano sight-reading skills: Security within the five finger positions Security with keyboard topography Security with basic accompaniment patterns Understanding of basic fingering principles Grand-staff knowledge consists of fluency in both clefs such that reading a note evokes an automatic and immediate physical response to the appropriate position on the keyboard.
Beauchamp asserts it is better to sense and know where the note is than what the note is.
The performer does not have time to think of the note name and translate it to a position, and the non-scientific note name does not indicate the octave to be played. Udtaisuk also reports that a sense of keyboard geography and an ability to quickly and efficiently match notes to keyboard keys is important for sight-reading.
He found that "computer programs and flash cards are effective ways to teach students to identify notes [and] enhance a sense of keyboard geography by highlighting the relationships between the keyboard and the printed notation.
A major challenge in sight-reading instruction, according to Hardy, is obtaining enough practice material. Since practicing rehearsed reading does not help improve sight-reading, a student can only use a practice piece once.
Moreover, the material must be at just the right level of difficulty for each student, and a variety of styles is preferred. Hardy suggests music teachers cooperate to build a large lending library of music and download inexpensive music from garage sales and store sales. Assessment and standards[ edit ] In some circumstances, such as examinations, the ability of a student to sight-read is assessed by presenting the student with a short piece of music, with an allotted time to peruse the music, then testing the student on the accuracy of the performance.
A more challenging test requires the student to perform without any preparation at all.
The Washington Assessment of Student Learning has piloted a classroom based assessment which requires 5th and higher grade students to sight-sing or perform on instruments from sheet music they have written. It is suggested that students use solfege or numbering systems or fingering without instruments as aids.