Houston: Peng Engineering, p. Introduction Strength of Materials Basics Thermal Expansion and Piping Flexibility Code Stress Requirements. Pipe Stress Engineering - L.C. Peng - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. Pipe Stress Engineering - L.C. Peng. Pipe Stress Engineering By Liang Chuan L C Peng And - [Free] Pipe Stress Engineering By. Liang Chuan L C Peng And [PDF] [EPUB] -. PIPE STRESS.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Genre:||Children & Youth|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
Pipe stress engineering / by Liang-Chuan (L.C.) Peng and Tsen-Loong (Alvin) Peng Peng, New York, NY ): American Society of Mechanical Engineers . PDF | This paper presents engineering decision-making on pipe stress analysis through the application of knowledge-based systems (KBS). Stress analysis, as. We deliver engineering and technology training that will maximize your business goals. . Codes Governing Piping Design and Pipe Stress Analysis
Liquid-gas mixture 6. Gas-Liquid-solid mixture In a maze of piping, flow distribution plays a major role in piping design. The following formulas are commonly used to calculate the Pressure drop and the pumping power required for a hollow cylindrical horizontal pipe carrying a liquid. In between the values of and , the flow could be either laminar or turbulent depending upon several factors.
Ends are beveled tapered edge. Ends are having tapered edge. Tapered grooves are also prepared. Bends are usually made, using a bending machine, from straight pipes. Elbows of the following types are also available: There are about two types of reducers. Concentric reducer will be used for vertical and Pump Discharge Piping. Eccentric reducer will be used for horizontal and Pump Suction Piping.
For horizontal piping, flat on Bottom for maintaining the elevation in the Rack Piping. For Pump Suction, flat on top to avoid the cavitation. TEES Tees are used to distribute to collect flow. Tees are of the following types: formed tees, forged and machined tees, unequal tees and pregnant tees. Branches are made from straight pipes by machining and welding.
The y are used to collect and distribute flow. The pressure drop in a y-piece is less than that of a comparable tee. END COVERS End covers are of the following types: flat end cover, hemi-spherical end cover, tori-spherical end cover, semi -ellipsoidal end cover and tori-conical end cover. Safety valve stubs are designed to with stand the bending moments imposed on them by safety valve blowing jet reaction, over and above the internal pressure load.
Orifice flange is used to measure the amount of pressure drop through the orifice plate. There will be two flanges with gasket in between them.
The external or mating surface for two flanges will be flat face. Using a flat face flange will assure full surface contact, thereby reducing the possibility of cracking the softer cast iron.
With shallow grooves attached into raised surface, this flange face assures a positive grip with the gasket. Instead a round metallic ring is used that rests in a deep groove cut into the flange face. The donut-shaped ring can be oval or octagonal in design. As the bolts are tightened, the metal ring is compressed, creating a tight seal. The ring and groove design actually uses internal pressures to enhance the sealing capacity of the connecting flanges. Using a gasket material softer than two adjoining flanges is an excellent way to eliminate the possibility of a fluid escape.
Gaskets can be made of materials such as asbestos, rubber, neoprene, Teflon, lead, or copper. Flanges are designed to match the bolt circle and bolt hole dimensions of other flanges that are of the same and bolt diameter and pressure rating. Bolts are available in two types, machine or stud. Machine bolts have a "head" on one end and threads on the other.
Stud bolts have threads throughout their entire length and require the use of two nuts. Valves can Control not Only the flow but also the rate, the Volume, the Pressure and the direction of a fluid within a pipe. STEM Stem can be moved manually or to be driven hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically under remote or Automatic control or mechanically by weighted lever, Spring etc.
Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects of gravity, temperature changes, internal and external pressures, changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity. Codes and standards establish the minimum requirements of stress analysis.
The piping engineers can provide protection against some of these failure modes by performing stress analysis according to piping codes. This phenomenon is known as creep. Note: maximum or minimum normal stress is called principal stress.
Primary stresses are not self-limiting. These displacements can be caused either by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed restraint and anchor point movements.
Secondary stresses are self-limiting. Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and are responsible for causing fatigue failure. The longitudinal stress due to internal pressure. Bending stress is zero at the neutral axis of the pipe.
The hoop stress varies throughout the pipe wall. Shear Stresses tend to cause adjacent planes of the pipe slip against each other.
Examples are a chemical plant, petroleum refinery, loading terminal, natural gas processing plant, bulk plant, compounding plant and tank farm. The loadings required to be considered are pressure, weight live and dead loads , impact, wind, earthquake-induced horizontal forces, vibration discharge reactions, thermal expansion and contraction, temperature gradients, anchor movements.
The thickness of the pipe used in calculating SL shall be the nominal thickness minus mechanical, corrosion, and erosion allowance. The sum of the longitudinal loads due pressure, weight and other sustained loads and of stresses produced by occasional loads such as earthquake or wind shall not exceed 1. The loads can be classified into three categories. They are primary loads, secondary loads and occasional loads.
Branch Connection Type n. Location b. Stiffness or Flexibility c. Movements mostly from thermal growth d. Location of each restraint b. Limit Stops the axis of action, the plus and minus gaps and stiffness when limit is encountered d.
Dampers the axis of action g. Frictional Resistance to Movement - the plane on which the friction occurs, the static and dynamic coefficient of friction 11 Step 7: For all restraints collect the following data: h.
It is also helpful to know if the spring hanger supports from above or below the pipe i. New Spring Hangers - the location, the number of spring hangers in that location, the percentage load variation allowed and whether a hanger or support is most desired j. Rotational Restraints the location and the axis about which rotation is to be resisted k.
Imposed Rotations - the location, the number of degrees of rotation and the direction of rotation l. Wind Loading the piping segments where wind is to be applied, the orientation of the wind vector, wind speed or pressure per unit length and shape factor b. Wave Loading the piping segments where wave loading is to be applied, the orientation of the loading vector, the wave loading pressure per unit length and shape factor c.
Seismic Loads the method to be used to simulate the seismic event RSA or percentage of gravity and the magnitude of the seismic event e.