PDF | Social work is a field of study in social sciences. It is mainly concerned with the study of social problems and social interventions. Social work sets to study. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, mechanical or electronic, including Work (Terminology Committee for Social Work ) has been. Critical Practice in Social Work Robert Adams, Lena Dominelli and Malcolm her most recent books being Feminist Social Work Theory and Practice and.
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The Comprehensive Handbook of Social Work and Social Welfare, edited by two well-known experts in the field—Karen M. Sowers and Catherine N. Dulmus—. Villermé is one of the best example of these nineteenth-century penseurs who tried to join, in Coleman's words, 'bold diagnosis' and. *conservative therapy'. White Hat Communications publishes practical books for social workers and social work students.
It is an organized form. Initially, it comes into existent in school of applied social science. Western Reserve University in the name of group service in Grace Choir explained group work and made it into more systematic. Group psych trophy specialized groups depression etc. Group work and psych trophy coincide. Clara Kaiser worked with first group work project.
Konapka - written book on group work. Group work courses started to spread to other countries.
They are mainly done in settlement houses. USA was the pioneer of the community organization. Charity organization society was formed in in the influence of London charity organization society. Community chest and community council was formed in American association for community organization was formed in Its name was later converted into community council. National conference of social work on gave initiative to take community organization as on in social work.
National conference of social work In Buffalo on organized association of study of community organization. He believed that certain psychological disorders found among Americans were due to the presence of black people in America.
Dalal maintains that Jung considered black people to be inferior and not just different. It is important to note that psychometric projective techniques such as the Rorschach Ink Blot Test Rorschach, and Thematic 12 Psychology for social workers: black perspectives Apperception Test Murray, depend heavily upon psychoanalytical theoretical underpinnings for their interpretations.
The traditional social pathology view of black behaviours is therefore based on a European conception or definition of reality, or more precisely, a European distortion of the reality of black people. Its rise to prominence in the psychological literature, naturally then, merely reflects the vested social power of Euro-American psychology and white people generally in European American culture to legitimate European definitions of reality rather than the necessary objective credibility appeal of its presumed validity.
Baldwin, A main feature of Eurocentric psychology is the assumption among psychologists that people are alike in all important respects. What appeared as normal or abnormal was always in comparison to how closely a specific thought or behaviour corresponded to that of white people. Hence, normality is established on a model of the middle-class, Caucasian male of European descent.
The major problem with such normative assumptions for non-European people is the inevitable conclusion of deviance on the part of anyone unlike this model. In fact, the more distinct or distant you are from this model, the more pathological you are considered to be. For example, many psychological tests, standardized on white people are inappropriately applied to blacks, causing them to appear less intelligent or deficient. The black perspective in psychology 13 Guthrie has discussed the problems of culturally biased psychologists who administer and interpret culturally biased psychological tests.
White goes on to state that, when these theories are applied to black people, many weakness-dominated and inferiority-oriented conclusions are discovered. These models include: the inferiority model; the deficit deprivations model; and the multi-cultural model.
It focuses on the role of genes in explaining differences between blacks and whites. The model apparently gave some authors a scientific basis for regarding blacks as inferior Jensen, , ; Rushton, a, b.
Implicit in the concept of cultural deprivation, however, is the notion that the dominant white middle-class culture established the normative standard. Thus, any behaviours, values, and lifestyles that differed from the Euro-American norm were seen as deficient. The multicultural model states that all culturally distinct groups have strengths and limitations.
The differences between ethnic groups are viewed as simply different—rather than being viewed as deficient. This model has helped researchers to focus on culture-specific models in a multicultural context for example, Sue and Wagner, ; Sue, —in regard to Asian Americans.
Only a few white psychologists for example, Jensen, accept the idea that black people are at birth genetically inferior to whites in intellectual potential. Most psychologists take the view: that black people are culturally deprived and psychologically maladjusted because the environment in which they were reared as children and in which they continue to rear their own children lacks the necessary early experiences to prepare them for, generally speaking, achievement within an Anglo middle-class frame of reference.
White, We can see that implicit in the concept of cultural deprivation is the belief that the normative standard is the white middle-class culture. Therefore, any behaviour that is different from the white norm is labelled as deficient.
Black families have been studied using Eurocentric frameworks. In his analysis he regarded the black woman as maintaining a matriarchal culture. Other researchers have advanced more positive views of the black family and have examined the strengths in black families McAdoo, a, b; McAdoo and McAdoo, These issues will be discussed in Chapter 4.
The social work literature has done much to reproduce the myths and distortions about the black family. This implies that the social, emotional, mental, and physical developmental patterns of the white middle-class child have become the optimal standard by which the black child is measured. Wilson argues that there are critical differences between black and white children, and psychologists have failed to consider the study of the black child as an important area of specialization.
Consequently, our understanding of the psychological development of the child is based on research on white children by white psychologists. In American and British psychological literature the black child is treated as an afterthought, as a contrast to the white child, never as a subject matter in its own right.
Psychological research has often been used to support racist ideas and practices in American and British society. The theories, methodologies, findings, and conclusions generated by white psychologists have been used to try to demonstrate that blacks and other racial minorities are mentally inferior to whites.
There exists a wealth of data that indicate that the psychometric tools used in psychology are not only biased against black people but fall short of providing any useful data in predicting talents, capabilities, or skills of the majority of black children.
In most standardized tests, subtests are heavily loaded with content from the white middleclass culture. Therefore, it should not be surprising that individuals from that group do better on such tests than individuals from black groups. Therefore, for black groups these tests measure only their familiarity with white culture. His research on the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity BITCH , which is a black, culture-specific test, The black perspective in psychology 17 shows that blacks score consistently higher than whites on this test, which is based on black culture.
The test, consisting of culturally biased items, was administered to samples of AfricanAmerican and European-American high-school students and adults in the United States. The results consistently showed significantly different scoring patterns between these two groups, with the African Americans scoring at least thirty or more points higher than European Americans.
This illustrates that, if a test is made specifically for a particular group as most standardized tests are made for the white middle class , then one would expect members of that group to score higher on the test than members from outgroups.
Although there is much doubt regarding the validity of intelligence tests, psychologists have used and continue to use them as valid.
The above examples were used to illustrate the need for a psychological explanation and analysis of black lifestyles, which emerges from the framework of the black experience. Due to the negative images of black people that have emerged from the Eurocentric approaches, it is clear that an alternative frame of reference is imperative.
It can be seen that traditional psychology has failed to provide an accurate understanding of the black reality. In fact, its use has, in many instances, resulted in the pathologization of black people. A black perspective in psychology is concerned with combating negative racist and stereotypic, weakness-dominated and inferiority-oriented conclusions about black people. This perspective is interested in the psychological well-being of black people and is critical of research paradigms and theoretical formulations that have a potentially oppressive effect on black 18 Psychology for social workers: black perspectives people.
White psychology offered deficit-oriented psychological explanations about the behaviour of black people.
These deficit theories have been used to explain much of the behaviour of blacks as individuals and as a group. The black perspective is critical of the white middle-class norm in psychology—and argues that it is necessary to analyse black behaviour in the context of its own norms. Much of the work and research involved in developing a black perspective in psychology was initiated in the USA by black psychologists. In the USA the development of a black perspective has advanced through two overlapping phases.
The second phase questioned the assumptions upon which white psychologists based their theories and research, while indicating that their biased results were partially a function of these assumptions.
A black perspective must be concerned with developing new theories and psychological tests which are applicable to black people.
In the USA the efforts of black psychologists have been felt in the areas of community mental health, education, intelligence and ability testing, professional training, forensic psychology, and criminal justice. Some of the goals of the Association of Black Psychologists, which was formed in in the USA, are: to improve the psychological well-being of black people in America; to promote an understanding of black people through positive approaches to research; to develop an approach to psychology that is consistent with the experience of black people; and to define mental health in accordance with newly established psychological concepts and standards regarding black people.
Since its establishment the Association has played an important role in stimulating and contributing to the body of literature available on black people. The black perspective in Britain has referred to the knowledge base of black research in the USA and adapted it to fit in with the British experience.
The development of a black psychology The black perspective in psychology 19 is more advanced in the USA than in Britain. It would appear that in Britain only a few social scientists acknowledge the failure of general psychology to provide an accurate understanding of black reality and the pathologization of black people resulting from applications of Eurocentric norms. More research from a black perspective needs to be carried out in the areas of mental health, education, intelligence and ability, personality, motivation, learning, language development, the family, and self-concept.
Not only will the understanding of the black frame of reference enable social workers to come up with more accurate and comprehensive explanations, but it will also enable them to build the kind of programmes within the black world which capitalize on the strengths of black people.
A strengths-coping perspective tends to describe black behaviour almost exclusively as positive adaptations and does not attempt to utilize a white cultural framework as a standard for all behavioural phenomena. Black psychologists have felt for a long time that the description of black behaviour as deviant, abnormal, and pathological was inaccurate.
Because of the racism inherent in traditional Western psychological models, black psychologists felt a need to branch out and develop a discipline that would be more applicable to the description and explanation of black life. There are diverse views among black psychologists on the development of a black psychological perspective.
Many black psychologists, while accepting the need for a black psychology, do not view it as an independent activity separate from Western psychology for example, Cross, ; Guthrie, ; White, ; Comer and Pouissant, However, they acknowledge that psychological practices in the USA have been white-dominated and are often culturally biased and racist.
White maintains that not all traditional white psychological theory is useless and that it was the duty of psychologists to incorporate what is useful into black psychology and reject the rest.
An example of a useful theory is found in the views of the existential psychologists. For Louis Williams: Black psychology is the psychological consequence of being black.
In this work, problems and issues of psychology have been presented from a variety of operational viewpoints, including those of Eastern, African, Western, and AfroAmerican experience. Williams, Black psychology is as complex and diverse as the people it attempts to describe and understand. A wide range of models, theories, and approaches is used to describe the black psychological experience. The black perspective in psychology 21 Karenga identified three schools of black psychology: the traditional school, the reformist school, and the radical school.
Among the significant contributors to the traditional school of black psychology are Grier, Cobbs and Poussaint. There exists a basic tendency among black psychologists towards disagreement over whether the terms black and African have the same meaning, hence the concepts black psychology and African psychology.
Some black psychologists suggest a basic distinction between the two concepts Mosby, ; White, , ; Williams, , while others seem to use both concepts more or less synonymously Akbar, ; Baldwin, ; Nobles, Some black psychologists who use the term black psychology rather exclusively also confine their focus to the African-American population.
Others who use the term black psychology apply it to African black people generally 22 Psychology for social workers: black perspectives including African Americans. Its embryonic stage of development is clearly illustrated in its range of definitions. I have already indicated that a wide range of models were used to describe black behaviour. These categories are not meant to be exclusive but were employed to facilitate a clearer understanding of the discipline of black psychology.
The black perspective in psychology 23 The Africanity model This approach argues that African philosophy is potentially useful in helping us understand the behaviour of African Americans. The Africanity model attempts to explain Black behaviour according to the tenets, values, and belief systems that derive from an African philosophical tradition. Several black scholars have argued that an African philosophical tradition should be the foundation of Black psychology Akbar, ; Nobles, They argue that a recognition of the African roots of American blacks will produce a uniquely different understanding of black lifestyles and reality.
The African worldview espouses groupness, sameness, commonality, co-operation and collective responsibility. In contrast, the Euro-American worldview espouses individuality, uniqueness, difference, competition, separateness, and independence. Nobles maintains that: Black psychology must concern itself with the mechanism by which our African definition has been maintained and what value its maintenance has offered black people. Hence, the task of Black psychology is to offer an understanding of the behavioral definition of African philosophy and to document what, if any, modifications it has undergone during particular experiential periods.
Nobles, African psychology maintains that the essence of the human being is spiritual. The assumption in black psychology is that the best way to know what we know is through affect or feeling. Joseph White describes the culture of African Americans as a feeling-oriented culture. The authors cite the differences between white and black people in the assumptions white people hold about themselves and the world.
Khatib et al. This model proposes that blacks do not have unique behavioural patterns, but have similar patterns to other colonized people in the world. For example, Blauner argues that, although there are variations in the political and social structure of European colonialism and American slavery, they both developed out of a similar balance of technological, cultural, and power relations, and thus a common process of social oppression characterized the racial patterns in the contexts.
Cultural integritivistic model The cultural integritivistic model Boykin, asserts that the cultural strengths and integrity of blacks should be expounded The black perspective in psychology 25 upon and should be the conceptual framework for research in black psychology.
This model will be discussed in Chapter 5. The racial oppression model According to the racial oppression model, most of black behaviour is a response to living in a racist and oppressive society and evolved out of the slavery experience. An example of this model can be seen in the work of Grier and Cobbs We can see that a number of different models have been used to explain black behaviour. For example, the colonizer and culture of poverty models do not view black behaviour as uniquely different from that of groups who find themselves in similar states of oppression, and, as such, do not consider black culture an important variable in their conceptualization of black life.
However, some of the other models—the Africanity and integritivistic models, and to a lesser extent the racial oppression model— would consider black culture the cornerstone of black psychological research.
The Eurocentric and black psychological approaches differ in terms of how they define the self. Western psychology is concerned with the study of the individual ego, behaviour, and consciousness. Thus, from a Freudian psychoanalytic approach to a Skinnerian behaviourist psychology, there is a common emphasis on individual differences as being the best description of human experience.
In contrast, black psychology describes this area of study as being the collective experience of oppression. Consequently, 26 Psychology for social workers: black perspectives what must be studied to understand the human experience is the shared experience of oppression.
This approach which begins to see personality as a collective phenomenon is a critical contribution of black psychology. Another area of difference in the approaches of Western and black psychology is in the study of human motivation. The Eurocentric approach sees the person as essentially directed towards pleasurable gratification.
The behaviourists assume that all behaviour hinges on rewards and punishments. Freud assumes the primal need of immediate gratification of either sexual or aggressive drives and Maslow assumes a hierarchy of needs for gratification at various levels. All these schools converge in the shared assumption that the critical goal of human personality is the desire for gratification.
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