ance of the principles in the world beyond the psychology building and the campus where I . The study of persuasion, compliance, and change has advanced. Influence: The Psychology Of Persuasion. By Robert B. Cialdini. Content = *** Readability = *** Clarity & Structure = ***. IN A NUTSHELL. Cialdini has identified . Each category has a fundamental psychological principle behind it. Influence is organized around the six basic categories, which are.
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Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, Revised Edition [Robert B. Cialdini] on aracer.mobi *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Influence, the classic book. PDF | Robert B. Cialdini and others published The Power of Persuasion Putting the Robert B. Cialdini is Regents' professor of psychology and distinguished. Influence, the classic book on persuasion, explains the psychology of why people say "yes"—and how to apply these understandings.
Selling down works better than selling up. We feel more responsible and satisfied after agreeing to a concession. We think we have brought that change. Our culture values good personal consistency. Stubborn consistency also allows us to avoid thinking. Agreeing to small requests may appear inconsequential in the beginning. Even when people are told that someone was required to write an article in favor of an issue, people assume that the writer is pro-issue.
We are more consistent in our commitment if we believe that we did it for our purpose rather than external pressure. Even an external reward counts as external pressure. More the number of people doing it, more the rule works into making us believe that the behavior is correct.
Airline crashes are more deadly in that time frame as well. How to say no Recognize when social proof is deliberately faked e. In both of these cases, stop following the crowd.
The social proof autopilot is good in most cases, but you should control it from time to time. Liking rule 4 What causes liking? That usually happens in a romantic context. Teachers think attractive kids are more intelligent than unattractive ones.
Our friends prefer our true image. Familiarity produced by being in contact with someone produces greater liking. The connection does not have to be logical. When our public image is damaged, we try to repair it by showing our ties to successful others and avoiding unsuccessful others.
If you like the requester, do not automatically like the request.
downloading drinks for dates Women often comment on the uncomfortable feeling of indebtedness from men who bought them an expensive present or dinner. Even a drink can be enough to trigger reciprocity feelings. The technique works by making a big initial request which will be turned down.
Then you make the second request which is the one you really wanted to go for all along. The larger the initial request -up to a certain point- the more likely the concession will be. It is often employed to ask for a referral after a refusal. But the opposite is actually true.
It proved indeed to be more effective in having people carry out the request and in performing future similar requests. They feel like they produced the concessions and influenced the outcome. So they feel more responsible for the outcome. Commitment and Consistency The principle of commitment and consistency is that of aligning actions, feelings, values, and beliefs.
When actions and feelings are dis-aligned for example we feel cognitive dissonance Festinger, , which is a sensation of mental discomfort. People who bet on a horse, for example, feel immediately more self-assured that their bet will pay off.
Meaning: we convince ourselves we have done the right choice. The Scrounging Boyfriend Cialdini also gives us a juicy example of her neighbor Sara.
Sara broke their relationship and got engaged to an ex-boyfriend. Tim called Sara before her wedding and promised he would change. Sara stopped the wedding and took Tim back. But Sara is more devoted to Tim than she ever was and says she did the right choice. Why would they accept a huge billboard after having signed a petition which was not even connected to driving safety?
So when they were asked later to install a huge billboard to hopefully help bring down road accidents they complied to stay consistent with their newly formed self-image. Cialdini says that this finding made him wary of signing any petition because of the potential to influence future behavior and self-image in ways he might not want. The Low-Ball The Low-Ball technique exploits the Commitment and Consistency rule by offering a very low price to get an initial commitment.
Later on in the process, the seller would say there was a mistake and the price is now higher. The decision stands on so many legs that removing the price leg is not likely to change his mind. This is the same that happened to Sara in accepting her drinking BF back. She got a great offer at the beginning and accepted it. The Chinese in their efforts to converts POWs to communism realized that we also look at our own actions to assess who we are. The Chinese would also make public what an individual had done, written or signed.
And since what those around us think is true of us influences our actions and what we think is true, POWs also had social pressure to embrace the communist ideology. Written Statements Increase Compliance Written statements are a powerful way of spurring our sense of Commitment and Consistency.
Cialdini tells us that companies employing hard sales critiques experienced high cancellation rates. And what was their way to reduce cancellations drastically? Letting their customers write down their own orders. Now the downloaders cared less they have been pushed and cajoled into downloading and focused more on their own commitment.
And of course, the effort they had put into writing it also added a bit of sunk costs to the interaction. Effort Increases Commitment People who spend a lot of effort to obtain something tend to value it more highly than if it had been very easy to obtain it. Indeed tribes with the most dramatic initiation ceremonies also tended to have the highest group solidarity.
Similarly, you are usually well served in giving small or no incentive for the behavior you want to encourage. People who had no major incentive feel like they chose and will accept more responsibility. Commitment Makes Us Take More Risks An experiment in a beach showed the power of Commitment and Consistency even with the possibility of personal harm.
Researcher 1 left his radio near to take a stroll and a Researcher 2 stole it pretending it to be a thief. Only 4 out of 20 people it was tried on to stop him. Consistency is another way to reduce complexity and mental load by offering a shortcut. Inconsistency instead raises our mental load and is commonly thought to be an undesirable trait.
He recounts a brilliantly funny story of a woman in a short skirt who employed the Commitment and Consistency tactic on him. At the end when the woman told him she had the perfect card to save him money he had no place to hide: he admitted and committed to his answers, now he had to stay consistent to save face. Cialdini says that if the same were to happen today he would tell her she was chosen for the job for her physical attractiveness, that men would exaggerate to prove what great swingers they are and that he would not download her club membership.
Cialdini says that the split of a second before our rational mind takes over we will get the real feeling about our choice. Control your behavior: it determines who you are 4. Social Proof But they work. Canned laughter makes us laugh longer and harder. The difference is especially great with poor quality jokes. Cialdini says it works because we get the feeling other people like it. Pluralistic Ignorance and Letting People Die Cialdini draws attention to a highly publicized instance in which a woman was let die without help in spite many had heard her screaming.
This phenomenon is called Pluralistic Ignorance. Similar experiments have been repeated with similar results. When jaywalking we are more likely to follow up people similarly dressed to us for example And it works in nefarious ways too: homicide rates have a strong copycat effect. In highly publicized fight matches when a black fighter lost black homicide victims rose. When it was a white fighter who lost the homicide victims increased for white men.
Liking We prefer to say yes to the requests of someone we like. Cialdini talks about the now in famous Tupperware parties as an example. And he and says that referrals are a way of exploiting the Liking principle. These are the principles that make us like someone: Physical Attractiveness We assign to good looking individuals characteristics such as talent, kindness, honesty, and intelligence.
Attractive people are voted more, receive more money in compensations, get hired more, and are twice as likely to avoid prison sentences. And, interestingly enough, most people are little nor aware at all their decisions have been swayed by physical attractiveness.
Similarity Influences People We like people who are similar to us. People who have similar background and interests, but also similar names. We need to be careful when we feel a bit too close to a salesperson because many sales programs teach to mirror and underline similarities.
Praise Influences People We love flattery and albeit we might know the flatterer has second motives we tend to believe praise anyway and we tend to like those who provide them even when the praise is false.
We do are also associated with the crowd we hang out with and people do assume we have the same personality traits as our friends. Advertisers using models for their cars want to associate beauty and desirability with their cars.