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In their opinion, the translation of scripts requires a specific training which calls for transdisciplinarity. For her analysis, she makes a clear distinction between film dialogue and impromptu speech. The former is spoken language up to a point only since it is also scripted language and it is embedded in a specific text type that has narrative and structuring functions. On the other hand, impromptu speech is the type of language produced in a more or less spontaneous way and characteristic of many interviews and documentaries.
She then examines the specificities of these two broad categories of spoken language in the light of subtitling, giving concrete examples of some of the difficulties encountered and the solutions reached, and highlighting the importance of a proper insight into the dramatic composition of screenplays when training will-be subtitlers. He is of the opinion that AVT in general, and subtitling in particular, harnesses such a wide range of translation skills that other fields of specialisation such as interpreting, literary translation or copy editing can benefit from it.
Given that the basic technical skills needed in AVT do not require extensive training, Introduction the author claims that to fully master these skills necessitates extensive exposure to practical training as well as a solid theoretical foundation.
He concludes that to neglect a solid foundation in general language practice in favour of more specialised training may have the disadvantage of increasing the risk of saturating certain fields in the market, which can only have a detrimental effect in the long run. Hence, his proposal that long-term market needs can only be accommodated in a training programme that works from the general to the specific.
Combining both a theoretical and practical approach, this chapter covers all three main areas: technical, linguistic and professional. Attention is also paid to the rationale underpinning such a module as well as to the learning outcomes that should be expected from the students.
In order to facilitate the use of the software, an easy, step by step guide on how to use Subtitle Workshop 2. In Learning to subtitle online: learning environment, exercises, and evaluation they start by analysing some of the educational developments experienced in this field of specialised translation, thanks to the impact of new technologies. The article is peppered with screen shots that illustrate the interface used by the developers of the teaching-learning platform. Taking full advantage of the potential offered by digital technology, the module relies on digitised clips and a subtitling program that helps tutors teach routines in a fashion which resembles real working conditions, far away from the classroom, and in contact with the students via email.
Divided into two welldefined parts, theoretical and practical, the former describes the curricular design of a module on voice-over, delving into the topics that should be taught and the professional challenges that should be addressed.
The second half of the contribution addresses that pledge and has an eminently hands-on slant. It consists of a wealth of exercises that can be used for activities with students in face-to-face seminars or for self-learning.
Worth mentioning is the fact that this is the first article to be ever written on the topic of voice-over from a didactic perspective and including audiovisual material from various documentaries for its exploitation in the classroom. Dubbing, as the other main AVT mode, is the type of transfer used all over the world for the translation of cartoons, and it is also used in some European, Asian and American countries as the major audiovisual transfer method for films, TV series and documentaries.
From a scholarly point of view, it has been repeatedly discussed by some authors in opposition to subtitling. The hackneyed debate over whether dubbing is better than subtitling or vice versa has been amply argued in AVT literature to the extent of having monopolised research in the past and having stymied the development of other more fruitful lines of research.
Frederic Chaume, in Teaching synchronisation in a dubbing course: some didactic proposals, avoids addressing this confrontational topic in favour of a contribution centred on some of the pedagogical issues that have to been taken on board when teaching dubbing.
In this field, translators are usually faced with more constraints than in written texts, notably the constraints imposed by the image. Especially noteworthy are lip-sync and isochrony, two dubbing conventions — turned constraints — that oblige translators to find solutions both phonetically and rhythmically similar to the words and to the length of the sentences uttered by the original film characters.
In his paper, Chaume offers some didactic proposals to teach synchronisation in dubbing courses, focusing on the three synchronisation types carried out in dubbing: lip-sync, kinesic synchrony and isochrony. The inclusion of some exercises allows translator trainers and trainees to put into practice the theoretical guidelines proposed. Training translators for the video game industry, by Miguel Bernal-Merino, ventures into a territory that has not seen much academic activity in the past, despite the fact that as more and more countries join the computer and the Internet revolution, more video game publishing companies internationalise their products in order to maximise revenues from the new markets by offering video games in the local language.
Sharing some characteristics with the translation of utility software and film translation, translating a video game is a long and complex technical process that requires special training. Unfortunately, most universities have not yet incorporated this area of specialisation into their curricula and the game localisation industry is having to Introduction train new recruits in-house.
The last chapter in part 2 is written by Fernando Toda, Teaching audiovisual translation in a European context: an inter-university project, and in a way wraps up the previous contributions by presenting a collaborative project for the teaching of audiovisual translation skills to European university students of Translation and Interpreting Studies by means of joint intensive courses in the areas discussed in previous chapters, i.
It discusses how panEuropean participation in the project helped to further the teaching of AVT as part of the curriculum at some institutions, explains how funding from the EU was obtained, outlines the learning aims and outcomes of the different course modules, makes reference to the teaching methods followed, presents some of the activities carried out and gives advice on assessment procedures.
The third part of this volume, AVT for Special Needs, is centred on two relatively new professional practices aimed at facilitating access to the audiovisual media to people with sensory impairment. In SDH, further to the linguistic transfer between languages, translation also implies transferring messages from acoustic to visual codes.
To carry out this intersemiotic journey requires expertise that derives from specific knowledge on the roles and functions of sound dialogue, sound effects and music in audiovisual texts.
The author claims that translators-to-be need to develop an array of skills that will allow them to perceive and to interpret sound, to translate it into visual codes and to evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of visual renderings of acoustic elements in relation to the accompanying image. She concludes that these complex competencies are best acquired and developed through specific training which should lay solid foundations for professional development.
After a brief history of audio description AD , the author outlines several ways in which AD can be presented to students or anybody interested in the topic and makes use of a case study from the film The Color of Paradise to highlight the intricacies of this type of activity. He also suggests a couple of exercises that can be carried out with the material that is included on the CD-Rom.
Being a trained describer himself, Snyder moves on to discuss the skills that would-be practitioners should master, grouping them into four main categories: observation, editing, language and vocal skills. The potential of subtitles, both intralingual and interlingual, to help learn foreign languages is the subject of the fourth and last part of this volume, entitled AVT in Language Learning.
Traditionally, the primary role of AVT has been to act as a means for viewers to understand a programme originally shot in another language. But in a world dominated by the power of the image, the possibilities of AVT have expanded beyond this prima facie role. Educational institutions round the world are gradually awakening to the benefits of AVT for foreign language teaching and learning and so are some pedagogues.
It aims to cover the exigency for active learning where cultural elements are involved effectively through real-life simulated activities and the need for productive use of multimedia not as a nice add-on but rather as the core element of an activity. The first chapter in this final section is called Using subtitled video materials for foreign language instruction and approaches the topic from a general perspective.
The authors then present the findings of a number of experiments conducted by linguists and psycholinguists with the intention of proving: 1 the extent to which this type of material can help students develop their linguistic skills and overall language proficiency; 2 which, of a given number of linguistic combinations between the audio and the subtitles, might be the most appropriate at the different stages of Introduction the language acquisition process; 3 the specific linguistic skills that this material helps to develop.
Given that all the experimental results underscore the positive educational benefits that derive from using subtitled video material for foreign language instruction, the authors consider it highly surprising that some of the techniques, like reversed subtitling and bimodal input, are virtually neglected in the classroom and call for a more prominent role of this material in foreign and native language instruction. The contribution by Maria Pavesi and Elisa Perego, Tailor-made interlingual subtitling as a means to enhance second language acquisition, builds on the previous one and nuances some of the findings, foregrounding at the same time the potential for reading skills.
The authors pay special attention to incidental language acquisition and in general to research on second language acquisition SLA.
One of the crucial points that separates both contributions is the fact that in this chapter the authors set off to explore the role of viewing subtitled audiovisual texts in unguided SLA, rather than in a controlled educational setting. Learning by viewing foreign materials subtitled into the native language draws on i positive attitude, ii emotional readiness to learn, iii input quantity and quality, and iv situational and cultural contextualisation. With reference to input and contextualisation, dual coding in audiovisual material has been shown to foster both lexical and grammatical acquisition by increasing the depth of the processing mechanisms and facilitating the matching between language forms and external reference.
Furthermore, through interlingual subtitles the learner is hypothesised to process the foreign text by drawing comparisons between the two verbal texts and all semiotic codes co-occurring in the audiovisual product.
That is, those students who were not exposed to subtitled films. This selective compilation of 15 studies constitutes a rounded vision of the many different ways in which audiovisual programmes are translated and made accessible to audiences in different countries.
By approaching them from a pedagogical perspective, it is hoped that this complex and dynamic area in the translation discipline, seen by many as the quintessence of translation activity in the twenty-first century, will make a firm entry into university curricula and occupy the space that it deserves in academia.
Introduction If we accept a text as a speech act or, more broadly, as any instance of communication, we will conclude that an audiovisual AV text is a communication act involving sounds and images. Can we still speak of text and translation if there are no words involved? And if words are an essential component, are they the only component?
If they are not the only component, what is the minimum proportion of verbal elements that is required? Let us think for a minute of cartoons, on paper or film, where there is not a word to be seen or heard.
Even when there are no words, these cartoons seem to fit well into what we intuitively think of as a text. Among other things, a story of some sort is told; there is an author, a reader or viewer a text user , often a beginning, a middle, and an end; there are characters, there is action and description, often accompanied by food for thought and a moral.
But if a series of pictures is a text, then what about a single picture? There are many newspaper cartoons made up of only one drawing. Now, let us think of a painting. A painting is also a single picture. But we do not normally think of a painting as a text — unless it is pointed out or we think carefully about the matter, as in cultural studies for instance — although most paintings have a story of some sort to tell you can ask a child to tell you about their drawing or read bulky specialised literature on the semiotics of the visual arts throughout history and across the world.
The issue of the picture as text or not raises the question as to whether the object world represented in many pictures should or should not also be considered as possessing text-like qualities. On the other hand, our perception and understanding of the object world is greatly influenced by our cultural background, which includes the texts we have been exposed to e.
This means that a book may be seen as a text something to read or an object its physical properties , and also as a possession, a commodity with its personal, social or market value.
Moving pictures fit this scheme in a rather more complicated way. Firstly, there is the whole question of how to interpret objects audio as well as visual recorded onto the film.
Secondly, the object nature of a film points to what it is recorded onto, celluloid or videotape, but we might also have to think of all of the projecting devices, including the screen, of course.
The text is the projection of the film onto the screen for a given audience. The possession feature has several aspects: the owner of the rights to sell and hire, the owner of a licence to exhibit in public, the owner of a copy for personal use.
If we examine many of the features that are supposed to define textuality, we see that they can be presented by nonverbal means as well as by words. Thus, there are nonverbal means of achieving cohesion, coherence, intentionality, informativity, acceptability, intertextuality, and complying with situationality conditions. In: James S. Hol- mes, Translated! Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Hurtado, Amparo Pacte Group Triangulating Trans- lation. Nord, Christiane Text Analysis in Translation.
Quiroz, Gabriel. In: Terminology Scarpa, Federica. Mi- lano: Editore Ulrico Hoepli.
Vanderweghe, Willy Ed. Valero, Carmen; de la Cruz, Isabel Eds. Vienne, Jean Zielinski, Daniel; Ramirez, Yamile In class, students come across terminology while translating and they need to inform themselves on it. That means, they have to understand the term in question, find translations for it and pay attention to the source of their information in order to know how reliable the translation they found is.
Students also have to take into consideration the context the term appears in, as the meaning could change from one context to another. In order to correctly use the term in the target language, which in our class is the foreign language German , it is also a good thing to see an example of the sentence in which the term is used.
So, the new IATE is a wonderful tool for translators and students because it offers all of these pieces of information as well as a wide range of terms and their translation into the official EU languages. It also offers other terms which are related in some way to the term searched for. Filters for more specific results can be found by expanding the search menu. What is the most challenging part of audio description?
How do you deal with such difficulties? The most challenging part in audio description above all is which information to provide in the limited amount of time there usually is for audio description. It is also very important to think of how to pass this information on to the users without influencing the recipient of the audio description in any way.
Therefore, it is really complicated transmitting the information to the recipient in a way that means they receive the information as similar as possible as other people, in our case, the recipient of the source text. In order to throw light on how recipients understand the pieces of information they receive, it is necessary to work hand in hand with the users of audio description and to collect data through questionnaires. When it comes to providing instructions for visually impaired or blind people so that they are able to orientate themselves in spaces and move around by themselves, it also is essential to keep the user of the audio description safe.
This is valid both, for inside and outside spaces, like for example in public buildings such as museums but also when doing outdoor activities like hiking. Visually impaired or blind people must be warned of obstacles in their way or dangerous parts of the way. Audio description and accessible translation is really still a big field to investigate as we are still, from an academical point of view, in our infancy in this area.
In my opinion, the use of new technologies helps enormously to make our environment more accessible.
How important do you consider terminological research for a translator, especially when working on audio description? Terminological research is very important for a translator as well as an audio describer as they have to express themselves precisely, concisely and accurately.
It is necessary, first, to understand the terminology used in a certain text and then, secondly, to translate this terminology correctly, taking into consideration the new communicative situation in which the translation is used. The same is valid for audio description, the audio describer has to bear in mind who the target recipient is and has to ask themselves if the target recipient is familiar with the terminology he would like to use in the target text.
Apart from this, when describing our environment, i. In a specialized environment, this can be very difficult.