Livro Instalacoes Eletricas Industriais 7º Edicao Joao Mamede Filho pdf. Marlon Dias the 'Download' button above. READ PAPER. Download pdf. ×Close. View Notes - instalações elétricas industriais - joão mamede filho - 7ª aracer.mobi from ENGENHARIA at Instituto Federal de Educação, Campos dos. Livro Instalacoes Eletricas Industriais 7º Edicao Joao Mamede Filho PDF - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online.
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Industry must find or invent responsible ways to increase production without environmental consequences. Fast technological development leads to faster product shifts on the market. At the same time the market become more global. The possibility of correcting failures will decrease or disappear. Things simply have to be right first time. That means increasing attention must be paid to development of high quality products. Product development will take place as an integrated process with collaborating skills such as design, planning, production, sales, marketing and recycling.
Greater integration will be required and the developer must be able to overview the situation and make use of specialists and rely on their knowledge. The future engineer must be able to cope with frequent changes. Perspectives on future engineering education are discussed.
Zvacek - Creating Engaging Online Courses Faced with the prospect of developing, and then teaching, an online course, it is only natural to start by pondering, What am I going to do?
The more important question, however, is, What are my students going to do? We know that humans learn by doing things sometimes that doing is observable and easily measured, sometimes not -- but learning will not happen without the learner s involvement in the process. Based on this alone, online courses have an unprecedented opportunity to act as a catalyst for meaningful change in higher education by focusing on student engagement with online labs, remote-access content repositories, and collaborative interaction tools.
Susan M. She is the Director of Instructional Development and Support at the University of Kansas, where she oversees classroom media support, coordinates instructional design and development consultation, and offers seminars and workshops related to technology integration.
Her publications are in the areas of distance education, instructional design, and faculty development and she is co-author of a distance education textbook Teaching and Learning at a Distance, currently in its third edition and the recently-released Blackboard for Dummies. Her presentation will be on creating engaging online courses and will be combined with practical experiences in Portuguese Engineering courses.
Projects approaches to learning are usually aimed at the increase of student involvement in learning, therefore, a symposium on project approaches like PAEE count on active involvement of its participants.
The Organising Committee defined five workshop themes that enable a wide range of discussions, reflections and learning experiences related to project approaches in engineering courses. The workshops are aimed at the active involvement of all participants and seek to contribute to the enhancement of project practice and reflection on practice. The first four themes are prepared by the Organising Committee, based on a number of teaching and educational research experiences at the Industrial management course of the last few years.
For the last workshop theme we are very pleased to announce that Wim Weenk and Maria van der Blij from the University of Twente, the Netherlands, will be the workshop facilitators. The workshop programme is organized in such a way that we try to enable everyone to attend nearly all workshops. The workshops are given in a number of different parallel sessions, announced in the programme. The meaning of projects in engineering education, the dimension, the impact and the perceptions of projects in engineering education are discussed through a number of focused questions.
As most engineering courses work with projects, being characterised by different scopes, dimensions and impact on student learning, this workshops seeks to reflect on how to define project approaches to learning, not only by contrasting project approaches to problembased learning, but also by analysing characteristics of possible project approaches and identifying short and long term benefits of a project approach for engineering students.
The participants of the workshop will discuss a framework that will enable them to consider different types of project approaches. Workshop B Evaluation and Assessment of Project Approaches The main objective of this workshop is to discuss and reflect upon the current practices of evaluation and assessment within the context of project approaches in Engineering Education.
The differences between evaluation and assessment will be discussed as well as ways of monitoring and assessing learning processes based on interdisciplinary projects.
One of the main outcomes of this workshop is to develop a possible framework for project evaluation, including the identification of key aspects and questions to be addressed throughout the evaluation process. Also, assessment of student learning will be explored as an important feature for faculty staff involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of project based learning experiences.
The preparation of this workshop is in charge of Sandra Fernandes, Rui M. Workshop C Student and Staff Involvement This workshop aspires to reflect on the preparation of teaching staff and students for project approaches.
The way teachers are being prepared for working in a team that coordinates projects and for their different roles as tutors, teachers and coordinators will be discussed, as well as the necessary actions to support teachers in their new roles and what can departments, course directors and the University. What is the role of staff development in this process and how can performance be evaluated?
The preparation of students for teamwork and the training sessions and other support that prepare them for rather intensive cooperation throughout an entire semester are being explored, from an organisational point of view. Activities to help students to perform effectively within the context of a project are to be reflected on.
Workshop D Project Management and Team Work Project management knowledge area processes have been developed to improve the management performance of projects. Some of these could be related with students teams learning processes involved in project approaches in Engineering Education: This workshop is prepared by Rui M.
Lima, Dinis Carvalho, Rui M. Sousa and Narciso Moreira. The outline of the workshop will be as follows: Introduction on PLEE and soft skills 2. Hands-on exercise simulation 3. Belbin test on team roles. Show an explanatory DVD on the team roles of Belbin. Discussion This chapter includes all these communications.
Martins Dep. The essentials of the modern Engineering Education Methodology are described, associated to the Bologna Process. The Bologna Process Recommendations are referred and its implementation in Portugal. Comments on the several interpretations of the PBL Learning Methods that are running in Portuguese universities are done.
Some principles of Engineering Education as Art and Science are put forward. Teaching and learning in university Engineering Education in Portugal in the s was divided in two cycles. The first cycle include Science subjects: The studies were in part teacher-centered through magisterial lectures.
There were also practical exercises and laboratory works student-centered since the student had to go through library texts recommended by the teacher and study by himself the details of each laboratory work he had to do.
In the lab the Assistant Professor supervised the works of the students only, checking the results obtained by each student. The teachers of the first cycle were, in general, Science PhDs, and knew noting about Engineering. Therefore, the curricula of the first cycle had no Engineering outlook: Mathematics was not Engineering Mathematics. People used to say that the Electricity given in the Science cycle did not flow in wires The second cycle included subjects of the branch of Engineering concerned and also a few subjects of other branches.
There were also practical exercises and design, laboratory and field works some of them student-centered since the student again had to go through library texts recommended by the teacher and study by himself the details of each laboratory or field work he had to do.
In most cases the practical works were done in students groups of 4 or 5. In the design room or in the lab or in the field, an Assistant Professor not only supervised the works of the students but also directed each group towards the goals to be obtained.
During the Easter Holidays there were Study visits to production units of the region or even abroad. The teachers of the second cycle were, in general, Professional Engineers with PhDs. In the first year the education Methods were a mixed of teacher-centered, with magisterial lectures, and student-centered with lab and problem design works done by 4 groups of 5 students.
The lab works to be performed by the student s groups have been designed by the teachers and the problem and design works, within each subject, have been designed by the teacher responsible for the subject. In all cases the student s group had to produce reports showing and commenting results.
There was also a meeting of each student s group with the teacher to discuss the reports handled. During holidays there were field trips directed by a teacher to see and discuss details of geologic structures and geotechnical works going on in the country.
In the second year each student had to perform lab work according to the plan he, and his supervisor, have choose. There were weekly meetings of the student with his supervisor to discuss the work going on.
In the last The thesis was later discussed between the student and an external examiner with the presence of the supervisor. In the author starts to teach at the foundation of the University of Mozambique and from the beginning strived to avoid the shortcomings he has found in his own Course.
First of all it was looked for a good design of the entire 5 years curricula of each of the engineering courses: Civil, Electrical and Electronics, Mechanical and Chemical. The set of subjects in each course had to form a whole directed to the branch of Engineering concerned. The linkage of the subjects was studied in order to avoid lacks and duplications, in order to optimize the use of the total time allocated to each Course.
The curricula included not only subjects of the concerned branch of Engineering but also some subjects of other branches and a few Humanities. In April the 25th the Portuguese Revolution changed abruptly the Education Methods, from teachercentered to student-centered and student-directed learning. Students themselves took power in the universities in a kind of late China s Cultural Revolution style.
Although the situation last only one or two years, there still some small remains of all that. It should be noted that along the Peoples History teaching and learning has much to do with the prevailing philosophical thoughts and political situation at the time and at the country. The Paris university student s riots of May should not be forgotten together with the associated psychological complex of stealed degree of the new university graduates.
What distinguish an Engineer from other professional is essentially that he must be able to solve engineering problems. For that the Engineer must use Exact Sciences essentially Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry as instruments and, therefore he must have knowledgement of those Sciences oriented in the direction of the solution of engineering problems. Further than that knowledgement, the future Engineer must learn how to use imagination; local experimentation and practical world accumulated experimental results for the purpose of solving a complex engineering problem.
Engineering is Ingeniousness, Art and Applied Science. Not Pure Science. However, the attempts to understand the Teaching and Learning are very older.
Piaget to In what concerns problem-based learning PBL the first experiences seem to be made in the medical school at McMaster University in Canada Barrows et al to After, they has been extended to university schools of engineering in Europe Gibson et al. E view In reviewing these essentials, it is important to keep in mind the main objectives of the method: The acquisition of an extensive, integrated knowledgement base that is readily recalled and applied to the analysis and solution of As in a problem-based learning curriculum the students work with a problem, they should be able to identify what they need to learn and what resources they are going to use, to accomplish that learning.
In this way students might design their learning to meet individual needs as they all have differing knowledge and experience and their career aspirations. The faculty might allow the students to have the opportunity of assuming this responsibility. The faculty might prepares them to become effective and efficient life-long learners, which is-an absolute essential in a profession where new types of problems and new information increased in a almost exponential way.
The old educational truism states that half of what the students learn in engineering school will be wrong or outdated by the time they are in practice, and no one knows which half that is. This means that the teachers should work with in the student s group but should not provide the students with what the teachers feel is the information the students need in their studies, nor give them reading or study assignments.
The students might learn how to decide on what they need to learn and to seek out appropriate learning resources, using the faculty teachers as consultants, as well as books, journals, online resources faculty resources and other experts, also as consultants. This means that the learning should not be teacher-centered; the teacher should not direct what students should learn or what resources they should use.
Instead the teacher should design and provide the problem simulations and engineering experiences that challenge the students to learn what is needed in their preparation for a career in engineering. Using their teaching skills, the teacher should guide the students in their work to solve the problem as the students develop a problem-solution. The teacher should identify what is needed to do for developing self-directed learning skills. In this role the teacher is usually referred to as a "tutor" and it needs to be well trained for the role.
These illstructured problems must be designed to allow students to freely inquire through history, local examination and the ordering of laboratory tests, in order to obtain the information needed to support or verify their hypotheses.
Although many problems designed for problem-based learning are single engineering problems, it is important that the problems be designed similar to those the graduates will face, such as floods problems or problems associated with ways to reduce casualties in the crashing of vehicles, etc Learning should be integrated from the wide range of disciplines that are related to understanding and dealing with engineering problems and are basic to the practice of engineering.
Information should be integrated from the many disciplines that are basic to the practice of engineering such as: During learning, students should be able to access, study and integrate information from all the disciplines that might be related to understanding and resolving the particular problem they are working with- just as the engineer must recall and apply information integrated from these diverse sources in solving an important engineering problem. This allows the design and construction problems to be the organizing focus for student learning, better ensuring the recall and application of basic science information in their subsequent professional practice.
However, the students must be encouraged to collaborate in all cases during their study. Collaborative work among the students in the group can be the most productive part of their learning process, since the students working together, helping each other to gain an understanding of what they are learning and of its application to the problem, can be rewarding.
It is this collaboration that allows the students to develop the security and authority they need to be responsible for Collaboration is an essential skill the students must have in their careers, since they will be invariably working as members of a team. Before completing their work in a problem, the students should reflect on what has been learned and determine if there are any things missing in their overall understanding of the problem and the basic mechanism responsible.
In addition, they must reflect on how their new learning relates to prior problems and prepares them for future problems. In doing this they can determine and discuss what important overall concepts or principles have been learned. This important step helps convert procedural knowledge, gained through problem solving, into declarative knowledge for use and recall with other problems in the future.
The opportunity to develop effective engineering skills must be embedded within a problem-based learning curriculum. Many of the problems in the curriculum can be presented as standardized allowing the development of these skills along with problem-solving study and team skills.
In any learning process students must go through the same activities, as they learn, as they will go through in their professional work with engineering problems. The problems used must be those that are prevalent and important in practice. This ensures that the activities undertaken by the students and the skills and knowledge acquired are relevant to effective practice as an engineer. Although a component of the assessment of students' progress may come from peer assessment that occurs at the end of every worked problem, additional formal assessments must assess the students' problem-solving skills, engineering skills and ability to recall and apply an integrated knowledgement in the solution of an engineering problem.
If PBL methodology is adopted an appropriated curriculum must be designed and appropriated faculty resources must be provided in order to avoid failure in students' motivation. Human Means and Material Conditions for Implementation. A number of Portuguese universities are trying to implement PBL methodology, following the new laws related to Bologna statements that the Portuguese Government signed.
However, several interpretations of that methodology are running. First of all, correct implementation of the PBL methodology requires increasing of costs of human and material resources more staff, larger student s labs and rooms larger space in libraries, etc. However Government is reducing support to universities and does not allow the increasing of fees. In fact, experiences in Australia and elsewhere show that to have good results in PBL in Engineering, each class should not have more than 20 students divided in 4 or five groups.
This implies a large increase in the teaching staff. Second, correct implementation of the PBL methodology requires a large change in the curricula and in the staff, witch takes a number of years. Evaluation of their performance is done mainly on the base of paper examinations at the end of each semester.
Regarding normal students, the PBL methodology process, in relation to evaluation of each student performance, seems to indicate self assessment by the student together with and peer examination.
The self assessment can be done, but should not enter in the final mark. The peer assessment is much time consuming and there is no staff enough for it. Despite these difficulties, there is a point where the PBL methodology is being fulfilled: However, in some cases a number of perversions to Bologna PBL ideal methodology is happening: In some first years basic subjects the teachers, at the beginning of the semester; fix the maters to be read by the students and the corresponding literature.
Also fix the problems to be solved and the lab works to be performed, but there is little help in the search for solutions and the way to do the lab works.
Evaluation is done on the base of paper examinations at the end of each semester. In other cases the responsible the teachers fix the maters to be read by the students and the corresponding literature.
Divide the students in working groups. Give each group a large problem or a set of problems to be solved or lab or drawing work to be performed. Again, little help and little orientation are provided and there is little or no discussion with the teachers during the execution of the works.
Evaluation is based on the final report of the accomplished results signed by the group. The mark for each student is the mark s group.
The best students, those who actually do the works, get frustration due to lack of merit reward and complain about the time lost in writing lengthy reports, which could be employed in deeper study of other subjects.
Misinterpretations of the PBL methodology stated as student-centered learning, are giving rise to a number of perverse situations, not only in Portugal but also in other European countries. On arrival in Belgian University the student has been handled do a junior teacher for a program of work the teacher has designed. The program of student s work was just part of the work the teacher had to do for his PhD. Remaining in Oporto Faculty of Engineering in the final semester, the student would have 4 subjects centered in practical design, very useful for the professional engineer in the future.
This does not mean that it was not good for the student to be in a foreigner country. She learned to speak fluently the French, made some friends, etc. In this case the student was not in the final year. Also he has some subjects in retard and did not know well the Portuguese language. On arrival the student asked for a special program of study that could match his position in his course and special examinations in Italian.
Of course the Minho University Engineering teachers could not accept those conditions. What could be done was to make a special plan for him to attend the running subjects in the 3rd and 4th years. In each subject the foreign student had to pass examinations just like any other national student of the subject concerned. The above examples, and others, show that an engineering student must have a senior teacher as tutor and, when going abroad for a program of study directed towards the future professional work of the student, his tutor must approve that program witch must have been in accordance with the teacher of the foreign university or other foreign appropriate entity , responsible for the provision of the facilities for the performance of student swork.
Concerning engineering student s stages in external companies, a similar kind of cares must bee put forward. An engineering student going to external company to do a final year stage must have a program of work usually an actual engineering design useful for the company and the company must provide for the student a senior engineer has supervisor. The program of the student s work must be approved by both, the university tutor and In many cases is useful the stage to be done by two students since they can help each other in doing field, design or computer work.
The company must provide working space for the students and complements computer access with appropriate software, drawing equipment, etc. A case can be referred were two Civil Engineering students of the University of Minho got a final year stage at a Municipal Authority. It was agreed,for the student s work, the design of a short span bridge useful for the Municipality. Also it is necessary to have in situ borings to know the depth of the bed-rock.
The Municipality did not like to spend any amount of money for those purposes. The students had to find other place for their stage. There are also other cases with companies. In many cases the final year stage work done by Engineering University students is not understood by the Community as serious and useful.
In other cases companies take the student s work as manpower at zero cost, giving the students minor jobs such as budgetary calculations, etc.
In Portugal the carrier of an Engineering teacher does not depends at all of his teaching skills and teaching dedication, but of the level of his research team, the number of papers he publishes in top journals of his specialty and from the importance of his professional works: Therefore, the Portuguese university teacher does not spend much time in searching for new methods of teaching and, as a rule, is not much interested in providing good guidance to the first cycle students.
Many of the teachers of the basic subjects such as Engineering Mathematics and Engineering Physics are much interested in research in Pure Mathematics, not in research in Mathematics Applied to Engineering Problems.
Also, many of the teachers of Engineering Physics are much interested in research in Theoretical Physics, not in research in Physics Applied to Engineering Problems. The Electricity teacher may even teach High Electricity that does not flow in the wires Of course, there are many exceptions, also.
Most Engineering Teachers understand Teaching as a mission. Those teachers look for the best way of, within the time available for his subject, lead their students to wok hard from the beginning of the semester in order to assimilate the fundamentals of the matter, to think deeply on the proposed problems to be solved or on the lab and filed works to be done by their students.
Such teachers start to chose and prepare for their students a short list of text books to be read. A good text book must have in each chapter: All the examples and problems should be related to actual engineering cases. Surely, in a student-centered and student-directed PBL Methodology the student can search in the internet bibliography for the subject at stake, but he would fail to get the best and would take him most of the time needed for the study itself.
So, the advice of the teacher to the student in searching the right texts is fundamental. Otherwise the engineering student gets lost. Concerning lab tests to be done by the students, the teacher must choose and prepare them carefully in advance and the staff must provide all pieces of equipment in good conditions for the tests. Furthermore, in many cases the full test would takes several hours or days.
In that case the teacher has to choose the essential part of the test to be run by the students and the rest must be prepared by the staff. However, the whole set of results must be provided to the students and they must organize the results and take conclusions on their reports on the work done. In all this again the role of the teacher is essential. The pretended student-centered and student-directed PBL Methodology would fail in this case. The students would loose too much time in doing minor mechanical tasks not essential to the understanding of the phenomena concerned.
The lost time might be better spent by the student in studding other parts of the mater. The role of the teacher is always essential and cannot be discarded has it would be understood in a quick reading of the Bologna recommendations. Therefore, although Engineering Education must be student-centered it can not be studentdirected.
It must be teacher directed. In the last two years, during the Easter Holidays, there must be planed study visits to site Works with a leading teacher. It is an opportunity for the students to contact the real world of their future profession, to ask questions about the Works going on, etc.. The students are divided in groups and at the end of the visit, each group must elaborate and produce a report to be discussed in a joint meeting.
One important role of the experienced engineering teacher is to orientate his students for the reading and application of the best Standard Codes of Practice in Design and Execution, available in the world technical literature.
Codes of Practice are the repository of the best results of the world accumulated experience in the item concerned. Also the engineering teacher must guide his students in the analysis of history cases failures of works or equipments searched by the students in the world technical literature, since actual failures are the best actual experiments to learn from.
From the analysis of history cases the student must find what was done wrong for the failure to happen. Regarding evaluation of the knowledge of each student on a subject, again the role of the teacher is essential.
The evaluation of each student s knowledge of a subject should be done not only through paper examinations at the end of the semester, but also along his work during the semester. Each student should be asked to do oral presentation of a part of the subject in front of his colleagues and the teacher.
Learning to speech and to reason in public, plays an important part in the formation of the future engineer. The author has used with success a kind of written-oral examinations. Three rows of about 5 students were seated far a way from each other in a quiet room with 3 three examiners, one for each row.
A written question was put to each student, the question being different from student to student in each row. The students were asked to think, calculate and write the solution they understood to be adequate. After time enough for the answer, each examiner were going to each student s place to dialog with him on the question, registering the level of knowledge the student showd on the subject.
In this way a right mark could be given to each student. It was also an opportunity for the teacher to correct faults on the way of the student thought and in the way the student approached the solution of the problem. In relation to works done in groups, the report of each group was discussed in a session assembling the teacher and the group.
Questions about the problems involved were put to each student, allowing in this way the teacher to give a right mark to each student of the group. At the University of Minho in the last session of a subject of a semester, the students fill a form with questions of evaluation of the work done by of the teacher and his performance.
The student himself has to evaluate his own work and the conditions of the learning process rooms, labs, equipments, libraries, etc. The forms are kept in sealed envelops and handled to higher instances. A final mark was secretly transmitted to the teacher responsible for the subject taught. Experience shows that every student is well aware of the teaching value of each teacher, regardless of the mark the teacher gave him, in the subject concerned.
There are strong similitude between the Engineering Practice and de Medical Practice. As Medical Schools, in the final years, resource to practical work done by the students in hospitals, in the middle of professional doctors and staff, the students of Engineering must do practical work in Works going on outside the University in the middle of professional engineers and staff.
Due to this, the Curricula of the Course for each Engineering Branch must be redesigned. The time tables of the subject must also be remaked. He also must select the best textbooks to be used. He and his collaborators must design each lab work to be performed by each group of students. At the same time the stages of the students in those entities can be discussed and fixed. The group stages must start in the 3rd year using the large holidays and should be planed one year in advance.
Stages may be done in a foreign entity or university, but the program of work to be performed by the student or the group, must be agreed with the students tutor. At the same time, for each subject, the subjects preceding it, to be first attended by each student, must be assigned.
Otherwise the student will not be in conditions to learn the matter. The paper examinations or the paper oral examinations referred above are quite important, because students in this way practice retrieval of memorized concepts. Researchers in Cognitive Science Roediger, H. Nevertheless, every good Engineering Teacher, other than to have skill in Teaching, should be a reasonable Engineering Researcher, Designer and Builder.
This is so because nobody can teach what, he or she, does not know and do not uses in practice. How to develop them? Is inventive power an innate skill? Is inventive power developable? How to develop it? Can the innate skilnesses of a candidate to Engineering student to be accessed via psychological examinations?
Is intuition instintictive knowledgment innate? Is intuition developable? How to put internet in Practice helping in university Engineering Education? How to create student s motivation for Engineering Studies? Can marketing techniques be applied and useful in Engineering Education? How to apply them? Does the best method depends of the subject?
All the Engineering senior university teachers might be Industry Professionals, rather then University Researchers? Assuming that part of the Engineering senior teachers must be Industry Professionals, what part, Greater or smaller part? Engineering International Standards are repositories of accumulated world experience in the branch of Engineering concerned. How to fit the application of those Standards in Engineering Education?
In the s at the Imperial College London the Science and Engineering students attended between 12 and 14 o clock lunch time and after An innovative course in undergraduate neuroscience: Experiment in problembased learning with "problem boxes. Barrows, HS, The essentials of problem-based learning. Journal of Dental Education. Education and Research, Dec.
Delft University, NL. Gibson I. Reilly C. Taylor and Francis Ltd Heitmann, G. Jacques Rousseau, , Emile; or, on Education trans. Allan Bloom. Agreement on Quality Standards within University Networks: EU Tuning Project. Perspectives of European Engineering Education. The position of the Universities. Technical University Wien. Kirschner, P. Sweller and R. Krishan, S, C Vale and R. Some Lessons to be Drawn,.
UC Louvain. Concepts and experiences. Danish TU, Copenhagen-Lyngby. Ostlund, S. Outcomes and Competence Curriculum Development. RTH Stockholm. Psychology of Intelligence. Routledge and Kegan Paul Piaget, J. Studies in Reflecting Abstraction. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Private mail. Renato Morgado, , Teaching Engineering, in Portuguese.
Renato Morgado, Comments on the draft of this paper, in Portuguese. Rojiter, J, , PBL as means to better engineering education? TU Berlin. Venkatesan, S. It is describing the major problems the educational system of engineering is facing today and searches for some solutions. An overview of how to change the learning process more interesting is given and a concept of the first PBL project is presented. Over the years our university has been facing the fact that mechanical engineering is one of the least favourite field of study.
This has two major reasons. First, there is a worldwide lack of interest in natural sciences among youth. Second, the background of today s students and the need of specialists in the economy of Estonia have changed.
Historically our faculty trained maintenance engineers for agricultural machinery of huge collective farms. Today the emphasis is on design and production engineering. Students used to come from rural families.
Today the majority of students come from urban areas and they have less interest in farming machinery. Currently we are facing the following problems in engineering education: Students are not very enthusiastic about their studies. There is a prevailing tendency to test what are the minimum requirements for getting a positive or desired grades; The percentage of bachelor students continuing their studies in the masters programme is too small. The students of bachelor level have a little idea what is waiting for them in the master s programme.
We consider bachelor level is not a separate degree but a part of 5 year studies. The tasks students solve during the machine design course are not connected to real life. Young people are not used to doing something with their hands. It is affecting their ability to work as engineers in companies where it is expected that an engineer solves problems in a workshop as well.
The high school students are not aware of possibilities of engineering education. Technical education has not been popular for years. Engineering education is not popular among high school pupils nor possible lecturers. The main reason is that it does not look interesting.
Our task is to find ways to make studies in our university interesting to the changed target group. We see one of the ways through developing interesting project works for students.
There are some national initiatives like the programme Techno Tiger which is focused on introducing schoolchildren to engineering. Every year there is a pupils contest of design and manufacturing.
This year the task was to design and manufacture an aero plane. There is an Engineering Students Club an initiative from the students of our university. The faculty supports this club with premises and advise from staff. This year they took part in Fun vehicles contest during the students spring days event. The students initiative is more emphasized on having fun. These programs do not lead youth to the engineering education. It is necessary to create and present interesting example pieces to show what students are doing during their studies and thus make the option of learning in the Institute of Technology more visible to the high school youth.
The students graduating the Institute of Technology in majority go to work as designers, process engineers and maintenance engineers in local enterprises. The fields of occupation and tasks are different and changing. So it is impossible to teach our students how to solve problems which they face after graduating. What we can do, is to teach them to find ways of solving problems.
Tools for solving technical problems: The best way to learn how to act in a certain situation is to simulate the situation during the learning process.
Description of a possible real life situation: A customer needs a solution to a problem that is relatively new to you, but is not too far from previous experience.
The engineering company has to: For example in the subject of Machine Design students have made a lot of projects about transmission for a conveyor throughout years. The majority of student projects have been just paper projects consisting of drawings and explanatory notes. The staff has been urged to involve students more into projects and to put these projects into reality.
Over the years involvement of students in projects has increased. The movement towards learning through projects has been stable but not very efficient and coordinated. As the objectives have not been set the results are not measured systematically and the output of those projects is not very obvious. This leads to the need of formulating the objectives of the projects of the students in the Institute of Technology.
It is necessary to establish the criteria how to: A project should involve several subjects of several levels so that students of junior levels would get a hint what is waiting for them in the future. This should also give students a good opportunity to learn the skills of supervising the work of others.
The planned project should be multidisciplinary in a way that different grades have to complete different tasks. Our approach to change the learning process is an evolutionary not revolutionary way. We will try the approach in a subject in which the evaluation of work of students has based traditionally on a project. Starting with relatively small changes in process it should have two advantages: If the first project will be successful it is easier to encourage staff resisting change.
If the first attempt should have setback the damage made is not so big and it is possible to make some adjustments. Make learning process more interesting and rewarding for students so that they will acquire knowledge better. Teach them what is waiting for them after graduation. Use the output as a sample of promoting studies in the Institute of Technology.
To introduce bachelor level students what is waiting for them in masters programme. Creating a project for a specific course should consider the following criteria: It must be related to the course.
It must be attractive and challenging. It should be presentable to wider public. It should be completed through several subjects by different grades of students. Introduction of PBL has to overcome some obstacles: The equipment of school workshop may limit the realisation of the ideas of the students. Some students may be difficult to motivate.
The ability and motivation of staff to lead and supervise the projects. Limited budget for the projects. A project starting during the autumn semester must be described and have the necessary equipment and materials for the coming spring semester. Students involved in this project will have to design and build a multigear transmission for a racing car that is equipped with 1,3 kw chainsaw combustion engine and an axles from a passenger car. They will also have to take part in a race with this transmission.
The criteria for evaluating the project are: The transmission is designed and manufactured to suite the car. Every less performed or additional round will give penalty points All phases of the project are finished and handed over in time.
Extra points will be rewarded for original design and low weight As it is a pilot project, only two subjects and students learning it will be directly involved in this project. These subjects are: Design of Machine elements for the first year students of masters programme.
This subject is scheduled to the autumn semester; Technology of mechanical engineering for the second year students of bachelor programme, which is scheduled to the spring semester. There are some subjects that will be involved indirectly: Theory of automobiles and tractors Engineering graphics The project will be announced during the first weeks of autumn semester.
The deadlines and the date of completion will be announced. The workgroups for autumn semester courses will be assembled by cast lots, which helps to equalize the level of workgroups. Each design group of As there are some problems to solve with this car prior to fitting a transmission to it, every group will have their unique task. Those tasks are: Design of a safety cage and frame of the car; 2. Design of controls and drivers compartment. Placement and connection of axles and engine to the transmissions.
The task for the students in spring semester is to manufacture all the transmissions and their parts. Steps to be taken Getting more information about project based learning Starting and carrying out the first project Making conclusions of the first project Improving the methods and spreading it to subjects not involved during the first year.
Benefits from the project Second grade students who have to manufacture parts for the project will have a real life experience of information necessary on a drawing Designing and manufacturing a real product should be rewarding enough to stimulate students to be more enthusiastic about their studies.
References Mohamed S. John W. Thomas, There have been many attempts to solve this problem. Many of the proposed solutions get freshmen involved in design projects assuming that this will motivate and inspire them to stay in engineering while they take math, science and general education courses.
The solution proposed here is a sequence of three, 1 unit courses taken during the student s first three quarters at the university. The first course introduces the product development life cycle and gives students the opportunity to design simple robots.
The remaining two courses team freshmen with senior engineering students who are working on capstone projects. The freshmen are given tasks by the seniors that are commensurate with their abilities. This is a work in progress and only limited results are yet available to prove or disprove the effectiveness of the approach. Attracting students to engineering disciplines and retaining students in the programs are long standing problems.
There have been almost as many attempts to solve these problems, as there are engineering programs. Many of the proposed solutions attempt to get freshmen students involved in design projects assuming that this will motivate and inspire students to stay in engineering while they take math, science and general education courses. The conference stressed defining projects for freshmen that relate to contemporary issues. Integration of just freshmen and seniors in capstone design courses is not entirely new.
A few universities have developed programs that focus on getting engineering students involved in meaningful project starting in the freshmen year. The EPICS program focuses on service learning projects that give students at all levels, freshen through seniors, the opportunity to get involved in project that benefit the community.
However, they are not required to take it any given semester. The UWT program requires enrollment all three quarters of the freshman year. The EPICS program does not guarantee that freshmen will see the entire product development life cycle but the UWT program does give the freshmen this exposure. The UWT program focuses primarily on attracting and retaining freshmen students whereas the EPICS program has broader objectives that include attracting and retaining students but also stress service learning and working on large teams that can include students from disciplines other than engineering.
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