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Index PC Revue and Infoware. search; information are linked to a specific magazine in PDF format; Title, subtitle, Part, Code, Title magazine. PC REVUE. Under the auspices of the Slovak Presidency of the Council of the EU and the. European Commission, and the Ministry of. PDF | Primary Care and Primary Health Care are very similar terms which are often Revue canadienne de santé publique 97(5) · December with.
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As soon as you have enabled a button, the social network in question can collect data, irrespective of whether or not you use the button. In order to better understand plant dynamics within a peatland network, we assessed the effect of population isolation on genetic distinctiveness, phenotypic variations and germination rates using the peatland-obligate white-fringed orchid Platanthera blephariglottis.
Methods Fifteen phenotypic traits were measured for 24 individuals per population 20 distinct populations, Quebec, Canada and germination rates of nearly seeds were assessed.
Genetic distinctiveness was quantified for 26 populations using single nucleotide polymorphism markers obtained via a pooled genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Geographic isolation was measured as the distance to the nearest population and as the number of populations occurring in concentric buffer zones within a radius of 2, 5 and 10 km around the studied populations. Important Findings All phenotypic traits showed significant differences among populations. Finally, all phenotypic traits, as well as a reduced germination rate, were correlated with either geographic isolation or genetic distance.
We conclude that geographic isolation likely restricts gene flow, which in turn may affect germination. Consequently, it is imperative that conservation programs take into account the patchy nature of such ecosystems, rather than targeting a few specific sites with exceptional character for preservation. Increasing pressure from land use change often results in habitats and populations that are fragmented within a human-modified matrix Lande , Young et al. Human-induced isolation resulting in the loss of connectivity among populations may reduce their fitness and capacity for adaptation, eventually resulting in a higher risk of extinction Aguilar et al.
As such, it is essential to document the effects of population isolation and evaluate how these affect fitness in natural systems.
The response of plant species to habitat fragmentation and subsequent isolation depends to a great extent on their life-history traits Ewers and Didham ; Henle et al. For example, genetic drift will be more important for species with shorter generation time Young et al.
As well, plants that produce short-lived seeds are more susceptible to genetic loss than those that safeguard genetic diversity by producing a durable seed bank Henle et al. Obligate outcrossing plants are also more likely to experience deleterious impacts from a reduction in population size and isolation than are selfing plants Aguilar et al. Although threatened or rare species have often been associated with higher vulnerability to fragmentation and resulting isolation Cruzan ; Ellstrand and Elam ; Gonzales and Hamrick ; Leimu et al.
Furthermore, fragmentation and isolation could have a more severe negative effect on species that became rare as a consequence of anthropogenic habitat loss than species that have been historically rare Aguilar et al.
In naturally patchy ecosystems, plant populations may already have evolved traits providing them the ability to survive in patchy environments Putz et al. The conservation of naturally patchy ecosystems such as cedar glades, alvars, sandstone outcrops, sky islands and serpentine outcrops, has mainly focused on the exceptional character of specific sites, without considering their potential interconnectivity Bragg et al.
Although peatlands may have suffered from fragmentation or habitat loss in some parts of the world, they also often represent a naturally patchy ecosystem, especially in temperate regions, for which connectivity among plant populations has seldom been investigated.
In addition, the few studies that have examined how isolation influences genetic and phenotypic diversity in peatland plant populations were focused on the impact of artificial isolation resulting from anthropogenic landscape transformation.
For instance, Thingsgaard observed lower genetic diversity in the peatland moss Sphagnum affine Ren. In another study, peat mining was found to increase differentiation in Polytrichum commune Hedw. Finally, anthropogenic fragmentation was shown to reduce genetic diversity and plant fitness in the common fen species Swertia perennis L.
Lienert et al. Taken together, these results suggest that peatland plant species remain sensitive to anthropogenic isolation, even if they have evolved within a naturally patchy ecosystem.