Refining composition skills pdf

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1 Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar 6th Edition Instructor's Manual with Answer Key Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing. 67 Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar 6th Edition Instructor's Manual with Answer Key cases into a truck all day, or win in close. [PDF Download] Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar (Developing & Refining Composition Skil) Read Book. Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar (Developing & Refining Composition Skil) Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar.

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Refining Composition Skills Pdf

Refining composition skills: academic writing and grammar. by Regina L Smalley; Joann Kozyrev; Mary K Ruetten; Cengage Learning. Print book. English . Refining Composition Skills. Tips for Writing Paragraphs and Essays. Type of Essay. Writing Tips. Narrative. (Chapter 3). • Choose present narration OR past. Good, but it doesn't cover any of the subjects deeply. I believe that if you are " refining" your skills is because you already know those skills and want to go deeply.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Refining Composition Skills: Deval Shah. Smalley Mary K. Ruetten Joann Rishel Kozyrev Contents: It combines extensive practice in rhetorical strategies and techniques with a review of appropriate grammatical structures and verb tenses. With its extensive appendices, the text can further serve as a handbook for writing, grammar, and mechanics.

His mother worked in the kitchen, he did homework and even slept there, his father whitewashed the walls, they washed their selves and their clothes there, the family business was conducted there, as evidenced by the receipts, etc.

The kitchen table, the mirror on the wall over the table, the white walls, the electric bulb hanging from the ceiling, the gas ring on the wall. The corner where the toilet, sink, and washing tub were located, the shelf above the tub, the things on the shelf.

Marie can only be described as plain. Her oval face is unremarkable except that her chin seems a bit too long, and her long, thin nose adds to this impression. Her long, thick eyebrows draw attention to themselves and her high forehead. This effect is heightened by how she frequently wears her long black hair pulled back into a severe ponytail as though her hair bothers her but she is too busy to get a more stylish cut.

Her lips are rather thin and pale, and she rarely troubles with lipstick. Unfortunately, when she does, the bright pink that she chooses draws attention to itself and makes the rest of her face look pale. Her eyes are a pretty blue, but because she is shy, one only catches their sparkle on the rare occasions when she lets her guard down and laughs.

Answers will vary but should generally suggest that Wallace is a mischievous boy. The topic sentence is the first one. So this was to be our home for the summer. My husband and I had rented a cabin on a ranch in Colorado, and here we were. As we opened the front door of Spruce Tree Lodge, my first impression was of a dim, cool place inviting us to relax. With some lights on, I was relieved to notice on the wall in front of me the traditional white cabinets, small electric stove, and humming refrigerator that marked a functional kitchen.

Against the paneled wall to my left, there was a small sofa made of tan Naugahyde. Even though it was not chic, it spoke of years of comfort and service. Beside it, on a table in the corner, perched a funky old lamp made from a piece of unfinished pine. Both table and lamp were straight out of Salvation Army, but the mood they created was just right for long afternoons of reading novels.

On the wall to my right were two big windows with a view of the trees and mountains outside. How glorious! We could sit on the sofa and drink in the timelessness of the mountains while the fir and spruce trees moved in the gentle lull of the wind. In the middle of the room, straight ahead, stood a sturdy oak table with heavy, massive legs and a smooth, worn top.

It would serve as a desk, table, and catchall. My husband was already trying out the padded chairs, made of dark brown Naugahyde, that were pulled up around the table ready for use. We smiled. Yes, the cabin would do very nicely. One of the ugliest creatures in literature is the monster in the novel Frankenstein, The Modern Prometheus, which was written by Mary Shelley in the nineteenth century.

The monster, which was created by Victor Frankenstein when he was a student at a university, has flowing lustrous black hair.

The monster has pearly white teeth. These fine features form a horrid contrast with his other features. He has yellow skin that barely covers his facial muscles. His complexion is shriveled. He has hideous, watery, almost colorless eyes that seem to be almost the same color as the sockets that they are set in. Even uglier, perhaps, are his lips, which are straight and black.

Most people think there is nothing to see in the Mohave Desert, so they drive through without stopping. Subject-verb agreement 2. They want to spend as little time as possible in this vast flat colorless place. Order of adjectives 3. The dry brown earth and the tough plants growing low to the ground seem to repeat for miles. Order of adjectives 4.

If there are any clouds in the pale blue sky, they are often thin and barely visible. Subject-verb agreement 5. However, if you get out of your car and walk around, you will see that the desert is a kaleidoscope whose secret colors and patterns are delightful.

Incorrect subordinator 6. You will start to notice that all the leaves, which are thick and tough to protect the plant from water loss, come in many shades and textures. You can find dark reddish, pocked and angular pieces of lava rock which were discarded by an ancient volcano when it was active. Incorrect subordinator 8.

Desert plants, which work so hard to produce their tiny flowers, favor the color yellow, but with a little patience you can find purples, whites, pinks, and even reds. Incorrect subordinator 9. If you pause and look around, you will start to notice the patterns on the pretty little lichen-covered rocks. Order of adjectives Slowly, you will start to notice the different stripes, speckles, and spots on the lizards, the birds, and the other animals who make their home in this place of quiet but striking beauty.

Chan means that his films are different because he is different. No other actor could play the main character in his films and create the same effect. Long-time fans of kung fu films were most likely to feel irritated. Influences and their effect on Chan: The main idea is stated in the last sentence: The writer tells a story about how Jackie Chan was seriously injured on one movie set.

Discussion Page 76 1. For students with weaker skills, you may want to stick to internationally known people, as it may be easier for them to discuss people about whom most students have at least some knowledge. Answers will vary, and will depend on what is happening in culture at any given time.

Contemporary music offers many examples of musicians mixing in music from existing music, and there are many artists who take their cue from those who came before For example, popular musician Lady Gaga is often compared to Madonna. Pride, Robert J. Hughes, Jack R. Kapoor Comprehension Page 78 1. When the business first opened, it sold only comic books in a small upstairs apartment.

Now, there are 26 stores and six trucks, and they do business all over New England. The four reasons the business has been successful are that the owners: The stores are probably selling more clothing, novelty items, graphic novels, and other items popular with college-aged students.

They delegated legal responsibilities like negotiating leases, downloading decisions like merchandise assortment, and technology design. This helped keep them organized. Because they deal in fashions and fads, paying suppliers protects their relationships with suppliers so that they always get new orders without delay. Fads and fashions change quickly, and the sales that are lost when a popular items is out of stock may never be recovered, as the fad may end before their new stock arrives.

Discussion Page 78 1. Answers will vary, but students may discuss the ways that people download music has changed. They may also discuss how people are doing more shopping online, so Newbury Comics may need to pay careful attention to their online presence or find new ways to attract customers into the stores. Answers will vary, but it stands to reason that since Newbury Comics specializes in music, comic books, and novelty items, their typical customer is interested in these things and is probably a high school student or young adult who has a reasonable amount of disposable income.

Students may tell stories of local businesses from their home country or city. Answers will vary, but typical answers will include creativity, willingness to work long hours, flexibility, etc. Antarctica is a forbidding, dangerous place. The American public has become very concerned with the management of cholesterol levels in the blood. Many people want to work for Google because it is a great place to work. Poor health in a population of frogs can indicate environmental problems. Scientists are developing robots that have human-like qualities.

Going to college can be expensive. Ineffective Support Effective Support Tuition and room and board aren't Tuition and room and board can cost cheap. For instance, the cost of books and For instance, books typically cost supplies is high. Supplies, too, are not cheap, for as any student knows, paper, notebooks, writing utensils, and the many other supplies needed usually cost more at the college bookstore than at a local discount department store.

In addition, there are all kinds of special In addition, there are all kinds of special fees tacked onto the bill at registration fees tacked onto the bill at registration time. Students usually have to pay for parking If a student decides to add or drop a and even for adding and dropping course after registration, there is yet courses after registration. Students should be reminded that the information given is in the present tense; students need to change the tense.

Controlling ideas are listed below. When he is on the bus, he talks to people who look sad. He tells them funny stories that invariably make them smile.

Last week, when he heard that his neighbor was sick, he made some soup and delivered it to her, along with a bouquet of flowers. Plan trips in your car to limit miles driven or use public transportation. download products made of recycled materials. New parking options must be created so that students do not have to arrive for class an hour early to find parking before class.

More general education classes must be offered so that students can take the required classes they need in order to graduate on time. I have learned ten new vocabulary words each week.

I am able to use slang and informal vocabulary much more easily than a year ago. There is a shaver to trim fuzz balls off your sweaters. They have glow-in-the-dark sunglasses. Order of time: Order of familiarity: For example, For instance, First, To begin with 2.

In addition, Moreover, Also, Next 3. In the past several years, we have become much more aware of hazardous conditions in the environment.

They noted that a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica has developed and blamed the widespread use of certain chemicals for the ozone decrease.

The chief gas in the greenhouse effect is carbon dioxide, a byproduct of burning fossil fuels in cars and factories. Finally, waste disposal has become a significant problem. We not only have tons and tons and tons of household garbage to get rid of, but we also have hazardous waste from nuclear facilities and plants.

While all of these are significant problems that must be solved in the near future, at least we are now more aware of them. A surname was a direct link between who a person was and what the person did. For example, For instance, Taylor is the Old English spelling of tailor, and Clark is derived from clerk, an occupation of considerable status during the Middle Ages because it required literacy.

A walker was someone who cleaned cloth; a wright was a carpenter or metalworker; a carter was someone who drove a cart; a steward was a person in charge of a farm or estate; and a turner worked a lathe. One of the few occupational surnames reflecting the work of women is Webster, which refers to a female weaver. Wellness implies more than eating balanced meals, avoiding harmful substances, and practicing good grooming; it also means making time for sleep, rest, relaxation, and exercise.

Sleep is a time for the body to replenish its energy reserves and to heal itself. The amount of time needed may vary with the individual or even with the day. An infant, of course, needs more sleep than does a young adult. Rest, meaning conscious freedom from activity and worry, is just as important as sleep. Only when a person is relaxed and at inner peace can that person rest.

Relaxation means doing something for the fun of it. Examples of relaxation activities include reading a novel or novels , reading to children, playing cards and other games, fishing, painting, or sewing or other handwork. Many experts agree that the best rest follows planned exercises.

During exercise, heart rate and breathing increase, circulation improves, and muscles stretch. Exercise is also a time to free the mind of anxiety-producing thoughts. Whichever form of exercise, rest, and relaxation is best for you, make time for it in each day.

Chapter 6: Yes 4. Yes 8. Yes 9. No Choosing to go to college was a difficult decision. There are three major hazards in storing chemical wastes. Life in the country is better than life in the city. New York City is the most interesting city in the United States.

Universities in the United States should require more humanities courses. Thesis Statement It does not indicate how the thesis will be developed. No missing elements This is a good introductory paragraph. It does not contain a thesis statement. Why is the city the place for me to live? I like the entertainment facilities. What are some other ways to improve your circulation?

A third good exercise for your heart is cross-country skiing. What skills do teenagers gain from afterschool jobs? What difficulties present themselves to such a student? American class expectations often differ from those in foreign classrooms. Classes given in English can create problems.

Why should foreign language study be required? It also allows people to explore books and other resources from a different country. Knowing a foreign language is useful in jobs and travel. The learner must spend a great deal of time memorizing the irregular spelling of many English words. Nearly everyone who sees the Grand Canyon for the first time reports having felt a bit stunned by the size and majesty of this sight. Because computers are everywhere, many people now respond to work e-mail even when they are on vacation.

In the afternoons, teenagers who have places to go after school lets out are common on the buses. The first step is to choose the publishing tool you wish to use for your blog. Another problem is that they may be used to different cultural rules about how to interact with professors and other students. The most obvious reason for going shopping is to get something that one needs.

Old Quebec City Controlling idea: The paragraphs are primarily descriptive and expository. Paragraph 1: I know a family whose library has shelves reaching up to their ceiling; they keep a ladder for climbing up to the high books.

Paragraph 2: Paragraph 3: Some think that a library full of the literary classics, dictionaries, and books about art, science, and history make them look well read. They can subtly reveal their interests in Peruvian art, Indian music, philosophy, or animals without saying a word. Paragraph 4: Each book, whether it's The Treasury of Houseplants or Murder on the Orient Express, has transported the reader to another place.

The Standard First Aid and Personal Safety manual, in addition to providing information, reminds me of the first-aid course I took and how assured I felt as a result. Bulfinch's Mythology brings the oral history of Western civilization to my fingertips, reminding me of my link with other times and people.

Yes, because it concludes logically and it does not introduce any new topics. Logical 2. Weak—the conclusion introduces another topic. Why do people save their books? There may be several reasons, but three stand out. One reason people save their books is to use them as reference materials. People whose job training included studying a lot of textbook material may save some of those books for future reference. Another reason some people save books is to make a good impression.

Some think that a library full of the literary classics, dictionaries, and books about art, science, and history make them look well read and, therefore, sophisticated. This impression may be inaccurate. Some have never bothered to read the majority of those books. Also, some people like to reveal to visitors their wide range of tastes and interests. People who enjoy reading have discovered the magic of books. Each book has transported the reader to another place. The Treasury of Houseplants 2.

Murder on the Orient Express B. Each book really represents an experience from which the reader may have grown or learned something.

The Standard First Aid and Personal Safety manual—reminds me of first-aid course, feeling more assured 2. The customs that govern us are what make a civilization; there would be chaos without them, and yet for some reason …we obey them.

Refining composition skills : academic writing and grammar

The thesis is first stated in paragraph 6. It is restated in paragraph All of the examples are from everyday experience. Answers will vary, but generally they come from a broad range of experiences, so are relatively effective. Discussion Pages 1. Unwritten laws represent the collective social conscience. This is stronger than written law.

International students are likely to point out that some of the unwritten laws stopping at a red light when no one is around, fans behaving at a game are not always followed in their countries or not even always followed here.

Answers will vary, but they may include things like giving up a seat on public transportation or always carrying flowers upside down. The word macho has a different meaning to Hispanics from the meaning it has when used by English-speaking people. Macho to Hispanics means manly, responsible, hard-working, a man in charge, a patriarch. Macho to Americans means a chauvinist, a brute, uncouth, selfish, loud, abrasive, capable of inflicting pain, and sexually promiscuous. Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Charles Bronson are given as examples because the characters they play in their movies exude the characteristics that form the American definition of macho.

The characters they play in films tend to be reliable, diligent, and strong, more like the Hispanic meaning of the word. Guilbault cites her uncles as examples. Discussion Page 1. Answers will vary, but most students will be able to think of examples from cultures they are familiar with which value different behaviors: Most students will be able to think of these from their native languages.

Some examples are babushka—in Russian, this is grandma, but it is a scarf in English. Guru comes from Sanskrit and is often misused in English to refer to any person who is good at doing something and not just a spiritual leader. If the class has many Latino students, it might be helpful to have them write on this topic in their journals before discussing this in class.

Americans are friendly to strangers. He gives two examples and explains them well. There are enough for a short essay, but more would be better. Yes 5. These items are just superfluous, absurd trifles. Central idea: Unfortunately, some of these clever items that claim to save time might actually end up making us waste time. Controlling Idea: Comfort and convenience are carried to extremes in the area of personal care. Yes; Yes 5. Yes 6. Thesis Statement: Some of these clever items that claim to save time might actually end up making us waste time.

Devices to save time cutting 1. Devices that need batteries 1. Items for the bathroom border on the absurd. For the bathtub 1. For the toilet 1. To feel better 1. To look better 1.

Complete 2. Complete 3. Incomplete Though the example does talk about recycling, it does not clearly show how this is good for the economy.

Incomplete 5. Not an example 6. It is important to choose words carefully, for words can suggest meanings not intended at all; words can also be used to deceive. The paragraphs are organized from the least interesting to the most interesting point. The author gives three examples. Take, for instance, the language of advertising. Advertisers obviously want to emphasize the virtues of their products and detract from their faults.

A second example of words that camouflage meaning is euphemisms. People use all kinds of euphemisms for death. To make certain jobs sound less unappealing, people use euphemisms. Sometimes euphemisms can be used to camouflage potentially controversial or objectionable actions. A final example of language that conveys unintended impressions is sexist language. The names of many jobs suggest women should not fill these positions. We must always be careful to choose the words that convey what we really mean.

If we not want to give offense, then we should always be on guard against sexist as well as racist language. If we do not want to be misled by advertisements, we must keep our ears open for weasel words. When we use a euphemism, we should be aware that we are trying to make an idea more acceptable. Geographical relationship: Another thing I do to improve my English is work the crossword puzzles in the daily newspaper.

Another mythical character that children love is the Easter Bunny. Another of my favorite neighborhoods is Andersonville, just north of Wrigleyville.

He did it by selling gerund thousands of downloads of a game he developed for the Apple iPhone. Ethan Nicholas worked for Sun Microsystems when he started programming his iShoot game for the iPhone. Within six weeks he was ready to submit infinitive the finished product to Apple for its approval. That approval was quickly received. For every game sold, Apple receives subject-verb agreement 30 percent of the selling price.

The game drew some downloaders, but Nicholas believed that noun clause even more people would download it if they could play before they paid. After he submitted a stripped-down version of the game as a free download, 2 million people downloaded it.

The experience convinced him to quit infinitive vs. Chapter 8: When Sakamoto first began participating in Japanese conversations, she startled and confused the other participants because she was conversing with American English conversational expectations. She compares a Western-style conversation to a game of tennis. A Western-style conversation is like a game of tennis in that people are expected to lob the topic back and forth, generate excitement, and not necessarily take turns. She compares a Japanese-style conversation to bowling.

The participants take turns, start from the same position, and generate an atmosphere of calm expectation. In Western-style conversation, turns are not necessary, but they are expected in Japanese-style conversation. In Western-style conversations, participants pick up the topic from the position in which it is left by the previous speaker, while in Japanese-style conversations, everyone starts from the same conversational position.

In Japanese-style conversations, there are pauses between the contributions of the participants, but Western-style conversations contain multiple interruptions and rapid-fire commentary. In Western-style conversations, everyone is expected to keep the conversation going and not speak for long periods. In Japanese-style conversations, everyone waits while the speaker finishes commenting and pauses to evaluate what has been said.

The thesis is that differences in conversational styles contribute as much confusion to cross-linguistic communication as do differences in language. Answers will vary, but in addition to different cultural rules, where people have different tolerance for pauses and interruptions, students might want to consider conversations with people from different age groups or social backgrounds.

Home Ground, Schoolyard: The topic of the essay is her own behavior. She contrasts the way she behaved at school and on the bus with the way she behaved in her own neighborhood when she was at home. The essay focuses primarily on contrasts. Answers will vary, but it is clear that Daria feared that school behavior would have made her a target for victimization in her tough neighborhood. Had she used neighborhood behavior consistently at school, various kinds of punishment would have undoubtedly followed.

Students should consider the different roles they play in life, such as employee, student, leader, parent, child, grandchild, and how they may act different and choose different behavior, language, and dress in these roles. If they have trouble answering, ask how they dress, speak, and carry themselves when visiting their grandparents as opposed to at work or school. Ask if there are words that they use in some situations but would never use in others.

Students may discover that the flexibility to be successful and wear different masks in different situations is a sign of intelligence and breadth of experience. You can still turn to the instructor for help if you are lost or confused.

I can read or do work during my commute. Public transportation costs less than insurance, registration, gasoline, and parking. The number of assignments and opportunities to improve a poor grade c. The degree of independence that students must show in remembering to complete assignments d. It focuses on contrast. It follows Pattern A. Possible answers include that the writer felt that Pattern A emphasizes the contrast for the reader or that it treats the brothers more equally rather than making one first and one second.

The topic sentences: In contrast to Nhan, Hung, who is his younger brother by ten years, looks more like an American boxer. Nhan and Hung also differ in personality.

Concerning their attitudes toward life, they are as different as the moon and the sun. The conclusion is logical. Even though they have the same parents, their considerable differences in looks, personality, and attitude toward life reflect the differences between Eastern and Western culture.

Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar by Regina L. Smalley

They differ greatly in appearance. Nhan is short, small, and has a moon-shaped face. His manner of dress is traditional. Hung is muscular and large. He prefers to wear sports clothes and casual clothes.

They differ in personality. Nhan is patient and quiet. Hung is self-centered and independent. They differ in their attitudes toward life. Nhan is concerned with spiritual values. Hung puts his trust in science and technology. I sadly realized that the best memories are those left undisturbed. Pattern B. This pattern creates a more coherent picture of the past and the more recent past, twenty years later.

The branch was a romantic place for exploration. No longer romantic, the branch was now polluted. This paragraph functions as a transition between the past and the present. However, what I saw and what I remembered were not the same. As I remember my old apartment building, it was bright and alive. I would steal away with my friends and play in the basement. Our favorite place to play was the coal bin; we used it as a rocket ship. The branch near our apartment was a place for adventure. We enjoyed the honeysuckles there.

Our biggest thrill was the day the police caught an alligator there. Unlike before, the apartment building was now rundown and in disrepair. The court was dirty and broken up, and the windows were broken. The once-clean walls were covered with graffiti and other stains.

Instead of medieval knights, etc. The area where I used to play was hardly recognizable. The branch was polluted and the honeysuckles had died. The branch was filled with old bicycles, broken bottles, and garbage. Now one would expect to find rats instead of alligators.

The once sweet-smelling area now smelled horrible. Conclusion This essay could also be outlined more briefly this way: My old neighborhood in the past was a romantic place. My old apartment building was bright and alive.

The area outside the building was a place of adventure. My old neighborhood twenty years later was decayed. My apartment building was now rundown and in disrepair. The area outside the building was rundown and polluted. New Orleans does not have a harsh winter. On the contrary, it is quite mild. On the other hand, its summers are terrible. New Orleans does not have a large population. On the other hand, it is not a village. Many people think that New Orleans is a large city. On the contrary, it has quite a small population.

New Orleans was not originally settled by the Spanish. On the contrary, its first European settlers were French. New Orleans is a big seaport.

On the other hand, its manufacturing industry is quite small. Like Borges, Mishima is considered one of the greatest modern writers. Borges is a great modern writer. Mishima is also considered a great modern writer. Similarly, Mishima is considered to be a great modern writer. Unlike Borges, Mishima was educated in his native country of Japan.

Borges was educated in Europe, but Mishima was educated in Japan. In his early days, Borges worked as a librarian, in contrast to Mishima who worked for the Finance Ministry. Borges served as a librarian, whereas Mishima worked for the Finance Ministry. Similar to Borges, Mishima was a prolific writer, authoring short stories, poems, plays, essays, and novels. Borges wrote many novels and short stories; likewise, Mishima was a prolific writer.

Mishima was critical of the Japanese military policies. Mishima performed as an actor; however, Borges did not. Mishima performed as an actor. In contrast, Borges became a professor of literature. Possible replacements for the italicized sentences in the passage follow. The right brain can interpret tone of voice and facial expressions; however, whenever we use language, both sides of the brain process information.

However, that is not so. It is true that the right brain recognizes chords and melodies and seems to mediate pure and slow tones, but the left hemisphere is also involved in music. Suggested answers follow. Students should be encouraged to write an introduction and conclusion for each essay.

The examples below are possible body paragraphs that represent each pattern of organization. Here are example body paragraphs using Pattern A Point-by-Point: The Roman Empire ruled the Mediterranean world from about B.

The Chinese Empire ruled much of Asia from B.

Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar

There are some interesting parallels between these two empires even though they ended differently. The first parallel is the time at which both empires began and the way in which they spread. Interestingly, both empires began at about the same time in history. The Roman Empire began in B. Both empires also began around a small geographical base and then spread out farther and farther to include more territory.

Second, both empires developed higher levels of civilization than the areas surrounding them. The Roman Empire, for example, developed a complex governmental structure and bureaucracy, while the people surrounding it were barbarians and nomads. In the same way, the Chinese Empire became a center for art and philosophy while in the midst of barbarians called Huns and Mongols. Perhaps the most interesting parallel is the ways that both empires dealt with intruders.

Because the barbarians surrounding the Roman and Chinese Empires constantly threatened them, the leaders of both empires devised three ways of handling them. First, they conquered territory whose outer boundaries were natural barriers. For example, the Roman leaders conquered the land in Europe up to the Rhine and Danube Rivers and then used these rivers as barriers against invasion.

Second, the leaders of both empires built fortifications to keep out invaders. Similarly, the Chinese erected the Great Wall to keep invaders out. The third method of dealing with invaders was to colonize countries on the borders of the empires and use them as buffer states.

Many times these countries were midway between barbarism and civilization. As colonies and buffer states, these countries became more and more civilized and thus more likely to protect the empires. Both the Roman and Chinese Empires used these buffer states to help protect their outer boundaries. There are some interesting parallels between the Roman and Chinese empires even though these empires ended differently.

It developed a higher level of civilization than the areas surrounding it. It had a complex governmental structure and bureaucracy, while the people surrounding it were barbarians and nomads. These barbarians were a constant threat to the Roman Empire.

Therefore, the leaders of the empire devised three ways to protect it. Examples of these are the Rhine and Danube Rivers. They also built fortifications to keep out invaders. They built some, for example, between the Rhine and the Danube and between Scotland and England. Third, they used precautionary buffer states, like colonies, which were midway between barbarism and civilization. These all helped to protect the base of the Empire, Rome itself. The final collapse occurred when the German and Slavic barbarians broke through the fortifications.

In a short two hundred years, the Roman Empire fell to the power of the Germans. The Chinese Empire shares many similar characteristics with the rise of the Roman Empire. The Chinese Empire began around B. Just as the Roman Empire started from a small geographic base and spread out, so did the Chinese Empire.

Starting from a geographic base around the Yellow River, it spread northward to Peking, west to the Central Plain, and south to Canton. Another similarity between the Chinese Empire and the Roman Empire was the high level of civilization both obtained.

Just as Rome had a complex governmental structure and bureaucracy, the Chinese Empire became a center for art and philosophy in Asia. Furthermore, the Chinese Empire was surrounded by less civilized people and barbarians in the same way the Roman Empire was.

Refining Composition Skills: Academic Writing and Grammar

Perhaps the most interesting parallel is the fact that the Chinese Empire dealt with invading barbarians in the same three ways as the Romans did. For example, just as the Romans used the Rhine and Danube Rivers for this purpose, the Chinese used the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers to serve as natural boundaries.

Second, the Chinese built imposing fortifications, for example, the Great Wall, to keep out invaders just as the Romans built walls between England and Scotland to protect their territory. Third, the Chinese colonized buffer states, states midway between barbarism and civilization, to protect their outer boundaries.

As colonies, these countries learned much from China, becoming civilized in the process. This technique parallels the actions of the Romans as well. The behavior of the attendees is subject-verb agreement also not very similar. At the classical performance, the audience sits quietly and expectantly. They do not dance or talk verb form and may even close their eyes so they can be better comparisons listeners.

At a rock concert, the crowd dances and sways. Shouting, pushing, and jumping are subject-verb agreement common as well. At a classical music concert, it would be very surprising indeed if an audience member began irregular verb form to sing along with the performers. On the contrary, rock musicians sometimes point subject verb agreement the microphone toward the crowd to encourage them to sing along with favorite lyrics.

However, classical concerts were not always so dignified. In the 18th century, the audience clapped, yelled, and sometimes even threw irregular verb form food.

Even though the manners at these concerts are subject-verb agreement not very similar, neither audience is less passionate comparison about the music, and their appreciation for the talent and effort of the musicians is similar.

Chapter 9: Ferrell Comprehension Page 1. The marketing mix consists of the four activities that marketers engage in. The four variables are product, pricing, distribution, and promotion. A good, a service, or an idea can be a product.

A high price can give a product a reputation of luxury and status if the product is worth the premium price. Because of the Internet, marketers can more easily reach customers all over the world. Discussion Page Answers will vary. Services include www. Some may report that they are skeptical of low prices as indicators of low quality; others may report that they sometimes download something they do not need because it was cheap. The Subway restaurants are indirectly given as an example of convenience and reaching as may customers as possible.

Recent uses of viral marketing are usually good options for discussion. It may depend on what is being marketed. It is usually important that the product be properly developed for the market, but for a name brand with a long history, promotion may be most important.

Motivation by Charles Lamb, Jr. People download products to fulfill a need. A motive is the feeling that creates a specific need. Hunger motive creates the need for food. The most commonly experienced needs are physiological, but social needs are the most commonly targeted.

Answers may vary, but one possibility is that in societies developed enough to have advertising, physiological and safety needs are somewhat easily met. Some psychologists have identified the need for beauty aesthetic needs , the need for knowledge and learning cognitive needs , as well as the need to help others.

They do not express positive or negative judgments about advertising. This makes sense for a textbook, especially one on marketing.

Examples of advertising that fits with each kind of need are given without being critical of their effects or praising their success. Marketers and advertisers study consumer motivation in order to understand why people download products. Thus they can design marketing plans and advertisements to appeal to these motivations. The pyramid shows that those needs lower on the pyramid are more commonly experienced and met than those higher on the pyramid. Intangible 2.

Dissatisfaction 3. Unrelated 4.

Unacceptable 5. Insignificant 6. Unavailable 7. Inconvenient 8. Nontraditional 9. Uninformed Disinterested, Uncontrollable Infrequently Inexpensive Insufficiently Unimportant Illegal Nonessential Nonexclusive The first is dissatisfied meaning that you are unhappy with the situation, such as dissatisfied with the customer service in the store. The second is unsatisfied which, in addition to meaning unhappy, can also mean that you have a need that is not yet met.

He forgot his water bottle, so his thirst remained unsatisfied. Possible Responses: True Shoppers love to shop and enjoy the whole process and get a feeling of a satisfaction when they download something. The downloader considers the download carefully and probably does a lot of research.

Price and getting a good deal are the main motivations for the Bargain Hunter. The Anti-Shopper hates it and avoids it. Students will probably be able to think of other kinds of shoppers but should be asked to make sure that they are naming a different attitude toward shopping and not introducing a new principle of classification. Hotels are found in every country and city of the world and even in communities with few inhabitants. Today, the lodging industry offers many new alternatives for the traveling public.

Some properties offer luxury accommodations; others offer budget accommodations; still others accommodate the need of travelers to be away from home. Whatever the reason, there are many different kinds of hotels, and they can be classified according to their size, facility type, price, or service. Generally, we can classify these hotels into three large groups based on location.

First, airport hotels accommodate the air traveler. Because air travel has become more common, this kind of hotel has become more popular. The principal distinction is that it is located near airports. Therefore, it is very convenient to the traveler. Airport hotel guests include passengers with short stay-overs or cancelled flights and travelers who are on business.

The length of stay is between one to three days for the guests. These kinds of hotels provide a limited level of service, and the rates are usually between low and medium. The Hilton, the Marriott, and the Holiday Inn are large chains that have hotels near airports. Best Western and the Travelodge are among the smaller hotel chains. Next, downtown hotels, also called commercial hotels, are located near large office complexes and retail stores in the major metropolitan areas.

They began to drink wine, compose poems, and throw dice. He continued to drink, even after night came. He drank some more until he became completely tipsy. When he saw some fellows playing chess, he asked to join them. After they played a few moves of the game, Wu Kang lost the pearl. As soon as he had wagered and lost the dragon pearl, he wagered and lost the mighty dragon.

When the immortals learned of the loss, they were furious. They immediately sowed a pearl in the ground and a tall cinnamon tree grew from it. When the tree reached a great height, they gave Wu Kang an axe and told him to cut off the branches. As soon as he had cut off all the branches, bigger ones sprouted and grew. Wu Kang had to cut them off, too.

Wu Kang is still there to this day cutting off branches. Whenever you see shadows on the moon, you know that they are the branches of the cinnamon tree falling down. Unlike in high school, in college, students have a lot of homework.

While students have very little homework in high school, they have quite a lot in college. Different from high school, in college, nobody watches the students. In high school, students are constantly watched by the teachers and school officials. In college, on the other hand, nobody watches the students. Whereas in high school students are constantly watched by the teachers and school officials, in college nobody watches the students.

Unlike in high school, in college students do not need permission to go to the restroom. In order to go to the restroom, high school students must get permission, but college students do not need permission to go to the restroom. While high school students need permission to go to the restroom, college students do not.

If high school students do not attend classes, the principal will call their parents to check on them. In contrast, if students do not attend class in college, no one calls the parents.

In contrast to high school, no one calls the parents if students do not attend class in college. Whereas the principal will call the parents of students who do not attend class in high school, no one calls the parents if students do not attend in college.

In high school, basically, students are treated as if they were children; however, in college, students are basically treated as adults. Different from high school students, college students are basically treated as adults. Just as students had to study hard in high school, they have to study hard in college. Just as students enjoyed going to high school football and basketball games, college students enjoy going to college football and basketball games. Just as students enjoyed talking with their classmates in high school, college students enjoy talking with their classmates.

Although high school students have very little homework, they learn a lot during their classes. Even though there are many rules in high school, they are meant to protect the students.

You should think about your intended major in order to choose a university that is well qualified and staffed in your major. You should think about your intended major so that you can choose the best university with that major. You should think about your financial situation in order to determine which college you should go to. You should think about your financial situation so that you can determine which college you should go to.

You should find out about financial aid in order to plan your budget. You should find out about financial aid so that you can plan your budget. You should find out about part-time jobs in order to earn some extra money. You should find out about part-time jobs so that you can earn some extra money. I like biology because of its systematic classification of living things. Biology systematically classifies living things, so I like it. Biology systematically classifies living things; thus, I enjoy it.

Because of the explanations that biology gives for the characteristics of living things, I like it. I like biology for its explanations of the characteristics of living things. Biology explains the characteristics of living things; therefore, I enjoy it. Biology explains the interdependence of living things, so I like it. Biology explains the interdependence of living things; as a result, it is enjoyable to me. Since biology explains the interdependence of living things, I enjoy it.

Biology encourages curiosity and research; consequently, I enjoy it. Biology encourages curiosity and research; for this reason, I plan to study it. Because biology encourages curiosity and research, I like it. The snowstorm was so terrible that none of the planes could take off.

There were so many people trapped at the airport that some of them slept on the floor. Some of the people were having such a good time that they did not care about the snowstorm. However, some of the people were so angry that they demanded their money back. They said that the airlines were giving such bad service that they would never fly again.

The airline officials explained that it was snowing so hard that the pilots could not see. Before laying her eggs, the female monarch butterfly finds a milkweed plant.

After being hatched, the young monarch caterpillar eats the milkweed. While eating the plant, the caterpillar continues to grow. Growing constantly, the caterpillar sheds its skin several times. Having been nourished by the milkweed for about three weeks, the caterpillar forms a chrysalis. Having been spun, the green chrysalis is attached to a green leaf. Having spent a week inside the chrysalis, the caterpillar undergoes an exciting transformation. After spending a week. Note: In order for this sentence to be transformed, the students must make some changes.

The subject in the adverbial clause is not the same as the subject in the main clause. Emerging from the chrysalis, the caterpillar is no longer a caterpillar, but a beautiful monarch butterfly. Having been born, the butterfly begins to search for flowers in order to sip their nectar. After being born. Having been completed, the life cycle of the monarch butterfly will begin again.

After being completed. How do you go about finding the right job for you? Here is one way to begin your job hunt. Of course, this depends on your particular job interests. If you are a business major, for example, and want to work in a bank, you will want to make a list of the banks for which you would like to work.

The reporter asked him how long they had been on strike. The reporter inquired if any of the civil service employees were on strike. The reporter asked Foster why the student workers were on strike. The reporter asked how much money they made and how much they were asking for. The reporter wanted to find out how the strike had affected the people who ate in the cafeteria. The reporter inquired how long they expected to continue the strike. Possible response: A student worker strike is underway in Harding Cafeteria on campus.

The Campus Herald spoke with Ben Foster, the student organizer leading the strike. When asked who was on strike, Mr. Foster replied that all of the student workers were and that they had been striking for four days. According to Mr.

Foster, the strike does not extend to the civil service employees. He indicated that they were not on strike because they already had a satisfactory contract. He stated that the student workers are demanding they be paid minimum wage. Foster said that the service was slower because there were no student workers to carry the trays or wash the dishes and that now the cooks had to do their jobs.

Slow service could continue for some time as Foster insisted that the student workers would not go back to work until the administration was willing to negotiate. I urge Sandra to make a checklist of household chores that she must attend to every day to keep the room neat. I urge Lucy to try to find out why studying is so important to Sandra in order to understand her better. I suggest that the girls make a schedule and take turns cleaning the room.

It is advisable for the girls to discuss their feelings openly without speaking angrily. I propose that the girls agree on a quiet hour until Lucy can have friends over and play music. It is important that each one try to understand the other.

The classification of the chimpanzee and the gorilla is the same. The chimpanzee has the same classification as the gorilla. The height of adult chimpanzees and gorillas is the same. The weight of the adult chimpanzee and the adult gorilla is different. The sleeping habits of the female and young chimpanzees and gorillas are similar. The sleeping habits of male chimpanzees and gorillas are different. The diets of chimpanzees and gorillas are similar.

Check your rearview mirror. Otherwise, a car behind you might accidentally hit you when you stop. Unless you line your back bumper up with the back bumper of the car in front of your chosen space, you will not be able to pull into the space. Shift into reverse and check your rear view mirror. Otherwise, you may accidentally hit someone. OR If you reverse too quickly into the space, you may lose control of the car and hit something.

Turn your head to check the front of your car and the back of your car often. Otherwise, you might accidentally hit the car in front of you or the curb. If you can, center your vehicle in the space by driving slowly forward and steering to the right. Otherwise, you will have to pull out of the space and try again. If television programs were not violent, they would not result in increased violence among some viewers.

If we did not have the international Olympic Games, we would have more international violence. If we had not allowed the oil company to build this refinery, we would not have oil pollution now. If this university had more student housing, it would attract more international students. If we did not have to deal with a computer when we pay our bills, our business transactions would not have become would not be impersonal. If cigarette smoking were against the law, many people would not get sick from it.

If the government had dealt with the crisis properly, inflation would not have continued at high levels. If Adalberto had not stolen her money, she would not have had to move into the slum. Both physics and chemistry are classified as physical sciences. We classify neither mathematics nor psychology as a biological science.

Not only are botany and zoology normally considered biological sciences but they are also generally requirements for a B. All liberal arts majors could take either two physical science courses or two biological science courses. In order to graduate, all students in college must take not only certain required courses but also some electives.

Taking a math course every semester is difficult. To take a math course every semester is difficult. It is difficult to take a math course every semester. Going to class every day during the semester is a good idea.

To go to class every day during the semester is a good idea. It is a good idea to go to class every day during the semester. Taking notes as the professor does the sample problems on the board is useful. To take notes as the professor does the sample problems on the board is useful. It is useful to take notes as the professor does the sample problems on the board.

Doing the homework problems regularly takes time. It takes time to do the homework problems regularly. Turning in the homework every day gives her a sense of satisfaction.

To turn in the homework every day gives her a sense of satisfaction. It gives her a sense of satisfaction to turn in the homework every day. Getting good grades is the best reward. To get good grades is the best reward. It is the best reward to get good grades. Many look forward 1 to working as competent engineers, teachers, or chemists. Before they can begin 2 working to work , however, they must find a job. Usually, they are interested 3 in finding a job that offers a good salary and a chance for promotion.

The first hurdle for them 4 to jump is the job interview. Even though they may be well qualified, getting the right job can be difficult if they are not prepared 5 to handle the job interview. While in school, Kim worked hard to learn his chosen profession, computer science.

When a program did not work properly, Kim kept 6 on trying until it did. He never hesitated 7 to ask his professors about aspects of computer science that he did not understand. He even managed 8 to work in the computer room on campus to get experience. All of his professors agreed that Kim was a well-qualified graduate. A month before Kim graduated with a B. The company needed someone 10 to be a programming supervisor. Kim thought he would be good 11 at doing that job because he had always enjoyed 12 working with people.

His advisor told him 15 to make a list of possible questions and 16 to practice 17 answering them. He also urged him 18 not to be afraid 19 of saying anything too controversial. Finally, his advisor assured him that he was capable 20 of handling the job. Kim thanked his advisor for his encouragement and agreed 21 to practice 22 answering some possible questions.

As Kim waited in the outer office to meet the interviewer, however, all of this good advice seemed 23 to fly out the window. For a brief moment, Kim considered 24 escaping out the side door.

The next thing he knew, he was sitting across the desk from the interviewer trying 25 to remember all the answers he had planned 26 on giving to give. Although he had practiced and was used 27 to giving the right answers, at the moment he could only stutter and stammer.

To this day, he can only remember that the interview was very short! You can see that a person can be well qualified for a job but fail 28 to get it because he or she is not accustomed 29 to performing in a job interview.

Perhaps for students like Kim, how to manage a job interview should be a required course in college. This famous structure is located on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan.

Construction was begun in and was completed in This enormous building rises 1, feet into the air. It has stories, most of which are used for offices. The Empire State Building was once the tallest building in the world and became especially famous as the building from which the original King Kong fell. Many tourists who have ridden the elevators to the observation deck have enjoyed a fascinating and unforgettable view of New York City. The passive voice is used here when the writer wants to emphasize the building itself and not the people who planned its location, constructed it, or who use it for offices.

The counselor lectured the new students about academic honor. I sailed a sailboat around the world. The four-minute-mile record has been broken several times. Everyone will enjoy the dinner. My teacher has advised that we study every night.

Present progressive verbs are underlined twice. Much of David's life is centered around his future career. He wants to be a sports announcer, so he is attending the University of California and is majoring in communications. This semester, he is taking his first course in broadcasting. Next week, he is giving his first demonstration broadcast, and he is planning to demonstrate his skills in sports announcing. He does not know how he will do; in fact, he worries about it all the time.

He does not want to fail, so each night he practices in front of the television while a basketball game is going on. He always records his practice session on a tape recorder. The arena is filled to capacity tonight, and the fans are anxiously waiting for the game to begin.

There appears to be a good deal of excitement in the arena tonight! Here they come! The fans are cheering wildly! Yes, folks, this crowd loves its team. The game is about to begin as the players assume their positions on the court for the tip-off.

The referee tosses the ball in the air, and Lawrence Jones, wearing jersey number twenty-two, tips it to his teammate Tommy Evans. Evans races down the court and slips the ball to Raoul Gomez. Gomez breaks through the defensive line, shoots, and he misses! Robinson is there. He catches the rebound and lays that ball in.

The crowd is going wild! Pleasantville takes the lead. Each time, he improves his performance. It is wise to discuss the meaning that students had in mind when choosing any answer not represented here, as they may have discovered yet another correct answer. Preferring the simple present emphasizes the repetition of the dream each semester. Choosing to use the present progressive more frequently makes the reader feel as though the dream is happening right now and emphasizes the urgency that the narrator feels during the dream.

At the end of each semester as final exams 1 approach are approaching , I 2 have the same scary dream. I 3 dream that I have forgotten to drop a class I have not attended since the first week of school. I 4 rush am rushing to the administration building where there 5 is always a long line.

After nervously waiting in line, I 6 get up to the window and 7 inquire am inquiring about dropping the class. The clerk always 8 tells me that I 9 cannot drop the course because it 10 is too late. I then 11 realize that I 12 have to take the final exam. In the next scene, I 13 am sitting in a room in a very old library, which 14 smells like dusty books. There 15 are several other students who 16 are waiting wait at tables all around me.

Everyone 17 looks very serious. All of the other students 18 are wearing wear formal clothes. Suddenly, I 19 realize that I 20 am wearing my pajamas. Since I 21 feel am feeling embarrassed and humiliated, I 22 try to conceal my pajamas by sliding down in my chair. As I 23 sit am sitting there at the table, I 24 look am looking around for a way to escape, but it 25 is impossible. I cannot do anything because the instructor 26 is starting starts to pass out the exams.

When I 27 get my exam and 28 read the questions, my heart suddenly 29 sinks, for I 30 find that I 31 do not know any of the answers. In fact, I 32 do not even recognize any of the material on the exam. Nevertheless, I 33 try am trying to take the exam. Just as I 34 start am starting to write, the bell 35 rings. Please, I need more time! It started out as a nice enough day. The weather was unusually warm for the third week in November, so I was in a good mood when my mother dropped me off at school.

Everything went as usual that morning: the classes were boring, and nothing exciting was happening. At noon, I went to the cafeteria for lunch. While I was standing in line with my friends, I noticed that some of the other students were excited about something. Then a girl in line asked me if I had heard that someone had shot the president.

I was surprised at this news; however, I figured that it was probably just a minor wound. Suddenly, a voice came over the loudspeaker announcing that the president was dead.

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