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In the early years of this century, such a linen-weaver, named Silas Marner, .. words in his hymn-book knows nothing of abstractions; as the little child knows. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Silas Marner by George Eliot. No cover available. Download; Bibrec. Silas Marner by George Eliot. Adobe PDF icon. Download this document as a. pdf: File size: MB What's this? light bulb idea Part 3 · Part 4 · Book of the day.

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Free download of Silas Marner by George Eliot. Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. Read, write reviews and Book Description HTML. Download the FREE . PDF version of Silas Marner by George Eliot. Download the FREE e-Book version of English author George Eliot's classic story about a linen weaver who. THE NOVEL THE PLOT Silas Marner, a linen-weaver, works in his solitary cottage by a stone-pit outside the English village of Raveloe. In a flashback, you learn.

Download revision notes for Novel Silas Marner class 12 Notes and score high in exams. The revision notes help you revise the whole in minutes. Revision notes in exam days is one of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days. She was sent to boarding school, where she developed a strong religious faith, deeply influenced by the evangelical preacher Rev. John Edmund Jones. There she met Charles and Caroline Bray, progressive intellectuals who led her to question her faith. Evans became acquainted with intellectuals in Coventry who broadened her mind beyond a provincial perspective. Through her new associations, she traveled to Geneva and then to London, where she worked as a freelance writer. In London she met George Lewes, who became her husband in all but the legal sense—a true legal marriage was impossible, as Lewes already had an estranged wife. At this point in her life Evans was still primarily interested in philosophy, but Lewes persuaded her to turn her hand to fiction instead.

Eppie restores his lost love and faith to God and to people since his hatred for folks diminishes and he starts to appear in society. By the advent of Eppie, he acquired his previous ostentatious faith to people and God and he became an ethical person through the love he devotes to the upbringing of Eppie. He returns to the society since he chooses to be so. If he accepts the obligation of rearing Eppie, it is because he has the freedom to do so, to mold himself on the basis of shared love for the community through love for Eppie.

Silas should not be juxtaposed to Abraham since he not only failed to endure in the face of uncertainty but also sank into despair of weakness for fifteen years. It maybe provokes this contention that his love for Eppie is not germane to religious faith. The angel has been domesticated into a child, but the sense of the wonder and the miracle remains.

The initial choice of the ethical life is something that purifies, matures, and unifies the personality. Through love and acceptance of the responsibility to bring up a child he reclaims his solid place as a true moral person in Raveloe. Godfrey Cass, the elder son of a landowner in the Rainbow, is replete with sense of guilt as he secretly married a low-birth girl Molly.

So much entangled with his past that he seeks refuge in Nancy for a remedy of forgetfulness. Here again the process of self-forgetting is at work. Godfrey seeks recourse to Nancy not only to suppress his past but also to lose individuality. He cannot accept the responsibility of his action, the freedom and the will. The narrator does not allocate so many a passage to Dunstan to assess his sphere of existence, but for sure he is regarded neither an ethical person nor a religious one.

He is a mere hedonist driven by pleasure principle, the overriding force of aesthete. To take the persona of an aesthete does not denote that aesthete is necessarily vicious, but to lead life frivolously and not to bind to any pole of pre-defined morality. Aesthetic life per se excludes any yardstick of morality. It is the notion that the good life can be defined without reference to good and evil, right and wrong.

It should be noted that he is not a sophisticated aesthete like musicians or painters who seek to refine their tastes. Dunstan stands at the lowest rung of aesthetic sphere. Godfrey is well placed in ethical stage of life, best shown in his anxiety over his secret marriage to Molly since he, as a son of Esquire, has violated social mores of his community. An individual who opts for the ethical morals is already perceived as a member of his society awash with institution and practices.

Being a member of a society reflects the denotation of assimilations of favorable rules and impositions. Being an ethical person, an individual conforms to the practices and norms of his community. On the contrary, Godfrey not only surreptitiously married a girl much inferior to his rank but also in the process of novel conceals his past from his wife, Nancy and evades the responsibility of his action. Therefore it is double- sided; breaking social custom of his community thus one step reversing in his stance as a respectable son of esquire and breaking with his own past to forget his anxiety over his fault.

An ethical person lives according to mores of his community and accepts the responsibilities of his deeds. Consequently this has two facets. He remains a respectable member of his society through concealing his wrongdoing but at the expense of anxiety and at the same time he fails to be a true moral individual denying his own existence.

This causes the blurring of boundaries between sincerity, true ethicality and a mere patina of respectability. Again the irony of life is at work since mere appearance and the truth is blurred and people are always judged by their appearance.

Favorable Chance, I fancy, is the god of all men who follow their own devices instead of obeying a law they believe…… let him neglect the responsibilities of his office and he will inevitably anchor himself on the chance that thing left undone may turn out not to be of the supposed importance. Eliot, - - Godfrey consolidates his stance in community by means of marriage with Nancy whom he loves. Rather than admitting his wrongdoing and the corollary of his action, he simply evades it.

To neglect not only what morality bears upon but trying to slip his past into oblivion is the greatest moral error of Godfrey.

Silas at the end, united with his past, restored, is rewarded through genuine love for Eppie and he stands as an ethical person in his community. In other words, his philosophy helped them to expand the realm of existential perspectives to a great extent. Not only is he regarded as a philosopher but as a theologian, who put enormous efforts into redefining many preconceptions and already-assumed notions of Christianity.

His entire oeuvre spins round a new definition of Christianity. He considered Christianity not to be a series of norms and beliefs to be inculcated into a new-born Christian child, and then to be performed through a series of rituals, but a way of living with passion and inwardness in the presence of God.

Both the questions of existence and his philosophy are deeply rooted in his understanding of Christianity and three spheres of existence.

To Conclude, Eliot in Silas Marner showed the necessity and the value of morality in her characters, particularly in case of Silas and Godfrey. Characters are set in a situation like that of ours in our daily life but the choices they make in the face of a bewildering array of odds highlight the importance of freedom and responsibility.

Compared to Abraham, Silas is not capable of putting aside his reason to face and accept objective uncertainty with infinite passion and inwardness, to embrace his sufferings and tragedy of life, that is to say, Silas is an ordinary man who at best remains in the ethical stance of existence. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bloom, Harold. How to Read Kierkegaard. New York: W. The perplexed Guide to Kierkegaard. London: Continuum. A History of Philosophy. New York: Doubleday. Silas Marner. New York: Dell. Kierkegaard, an Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dane, however, with his narrow eyes and egotism, forms a definite contrast to Silas, with his deer-like eyes and his gentle, trusting nature. The very name suggests that its faith casts only a dim light a lantern of knowledge in a closed-in space a yard. She says that it gives its members a sense of security, but she describes their joyless beliefs with heavy irony.

She also shows how they persuaded Silas to give up his herbal studies, which he enjoyed. So when you see Silas sharing with William the job of nursing an ill deacon of the church, you may suspect trouble.

Silas falls asleepor probably has a fit- and when he comes to, the deacon is dead. Silas innocently goes off to work as usual. But when the brethren search his house, William finds the money he probably hid it there. While William is accusing him, Silas remembers with a sickening jolt that William had borrowed his knife the day before, but loyally he says nothing.

The congregation tries the case by praying and drawing lots. They bypassed the legal process, believing that only God should judge and punish offenders. In this ritual, everyone in the group drew a slip of paper. Whoever drew a particular marked slip was judged guilty.

William Dane probably fixed it so Silas would draw the damning piece of paper. Then comes the shocking decision- the lots show that Silas is guilty. What could he have done to prove his innocence? What would you have done in his place? He is asked to leave the sect, to return the money, and to confess his guilt.

He protests, explaining that William had the knife. But in the heat of emo- tion, he speaks against God, causing the brethren to side with William. Silas leaves with his faith in God as shattered as his faith in his fellow man.

He seems helpless and passive. As you might expect, Sarah soon marries William Dane. Imagine trying to talk to the natives- purple blobs of flesh that emit high-pitched whines. You might feel the way Silas Marner does when he arrives in Raveloe.

His thoughts fly back longingly to Lantern-Yard, picturing the chapel and hearing the familiar service again. Already Eliot is foreshadowing the attachment to Eppie which will be his salvation. Eliot, however, thought there should be room on Earth for many different religions.

Eliot the psychologist reveals how young Silas Marner turns into that bent old man you saw earlier. First, he takes refuge in his work. Eliot compares him to a lower life form, a spider insect imagery , especially apt because like a spider Silas weaves a web.

Osgood pays Silas in gold for the linen he weaves for her. Although Silas has no purpose for the coins, he likes them for physical reasons- they feel and look good. His old Puritan work ethic becomes transformed into a desire for the money itself. The new feeling grows like a plant, rooted in old feelings here is another major strand of imagery. The memory of his mother reminds him of his herbal medicines, and he treats Sally. In a place like Raveloe, however, there are few private deeds.

Eliot notes ironically that this deed, which might have forged human ties for him, only drove him farther away. He hides them in a hole in the floor, which Eliot shows you precisely.

Some readers believe here that Silas feels his loom and his coins are alive. Consider this as you read on. The familiar object felt like a real living thing to him. He grieves when it breaks, and he carries the pieces home to keep on a shelf.

Before the chapter ends, Eliot gives you another detailed picture of Silas, weaving all day, caressing his coins at night. Literally, he never walks off the path on his daily journeys. Metaphorically, his life has become like a dried-up rivulet, trickling through the sand. Squire Cass is the greatest man in Raveloe, she tells you, although her tone is ironic. She makes you aware that political conditions later brought this class to ruin, through their wasteful living habits and poor farming.

Yet when she describes the generous feasts that people like Cass and Osgood hold, she paints a glowing picture of old-fashioned plenty. The poor enjoy this bounty, too. Do you think Eliot approves or disapproves of this social system? What evidence supports your opinion? Lacking a mother, the Cass sons have turned out badly. Eliot lets you hear the village gossip about Dunstan and Godfrey.

While Dunstan sounds thoroughly bad, Godfrey seems good-hearted. Now you meet the Cass brothers in person, so you can make up your own mind about them. As Godfrey stands by the fire, the parlor around him defines his gloomy mood. Dunstan knows how to manipulate Godfrey, though.

Dane was like a brother to Silas. What obvious contrasts, however, can you point to? This is the first scene Eliot dramatizes directly. Afraid of their father, they blackmail each other. He thinks over the consequences of confession: losing Nancy and being disinherited. Dunstan knows how to handle his brother. He sits back, waiting until Godfrey has cowardly talked himself out of this move.

Silas Marner

Godfrey realizes that he must sell his horse Wildfire to get the money. Which brother seems the stronger in this scene? Which brother do you like better?

Surprisingly, even though Godfrey is from the top rung of rural society, Eliot says he lacks culture. Typically, she tangles herself up in a long, indirect, abstract sentence to express this. Next Eliot explains how Godfrey got into this jam- Dunstan urged him on in his brief passion for Molly.

Read this passage carefully. Do you think Eliot blames him or excuses him for his mistakes? After all his soul-searching, he lets his mind slide back into bad habits and heads for the pub.

Eliot shows his growing hardness as he pushes his dog aside. He decides to go on and sell Wildfire, though, for the fun of horse-trading and of hurting Godfrey.

At the hunt, he lies for the sake of lying.

Maybe his vices are typical of this social class. Dunstan wangles a high price for the horse, as he expected. But this good luck goes to his head. Instead, he takes Wildfire on the hunt. When he falls behind the other hunters, he rides recklessly. He pushes the horse to jump over a hedge, and Wildfire falls onto a sharp stake. All of his reasoning centers on what he can do next. It may remind you of scenes in movies in which swirling mist creates a sense of imminent danger.

Eliot often uses weather to express a moral environment. Watch the role that weather plays as the story moves on. Note the darkness and light imagery again. He decides to get started on it right now. The brightness and warmth inside are inviting, though, so Dunstan walks in and makes himself at home. Dunstan, with upperclass prejudice, is surprised that Silas has pork roasting for dinner.

Remember this when you see how the gentry eat. He notices the pork roasting slowly, hung over the fire from a string attached to a door-key. Silas obviously has stepped out only for a moment.

Dunstan thinks of the nearby stone-pit and leaps to the conclusion that Silas has fallen in. This is such an attractive idea that he assumes Silas is dead and starts to wonder where the money is.

Dunstan can only think of obvious hiding places, but Silas has chosen an obvious one. Dunstan notices a spot in the floor where the sand has been moved around.

People scattered sand over their floors to absorb dirt back then. Look at how easy, almost accidental, this theft is. Others see it as a sign that life is random, and that Silas is still a victim. He scoops up the gold, replaces the bricks, and slips outside. The darkness of night seems to be his element, now- he seeks refuge in it. Wait and see how things turn out. He looks pathetic, huddled under a sack against the rain, but unlike Dunstan his mind is at ease.

Eliot finds this ironic- the deed that will devastate him is already done. After a long convoluted sentence explaining this in the abstract, she gives examples from everyday life. What tone of voice do you hear her using here? Silas innocently looks forward to his hot dinner. Eliot describes the chain of events carefully, showing how each decision- unimportant in itself- led to the robbery.

In your opinion, does this make Silas responsible for what happens to him? Entering his cottage, he sees nothing unusual. The fire blazes as he moves around the room, putting his lantern, hat, and sack in their usual places.

As he adjusts the meat and settles near the warm hearth, you view his face, lit by the fire. You see him as the villagers do- skinny, bug-eyed, and pale. Silas decides to give himself his nightly pleasure of looking at his gold. Watch the shifting value of gold in this chapter.

Have you ever lost or broken something valuable? If so, you may understand this sense of stunned disbelief.

Silas Marner | Study Guide

He feels around the hole again. He rocks back, looks feverishly around the room, and then puts his hands to his head and cries out. Finally, he staggers over to sit at his loom, the one comfort he has left.

Silas tries to think clearly. He focuses on the idea of a thief, because he might get the gold back from a thief. Reasoning that his money had to have been taken that night, he searches outside in the rain and mud for footprints.

For a moment, his hysteria surfaces and he fears a supernatural power at work- the same one that struck him down before- but he pushes that thought away and returns to the idea of a thief. Naturally, he suspects people from the village and seizes upon one man, Jem Rodney, as the probable thief.

Remember Jem Rodney- the poacher who discovered Silas having a fit once by the roadside? Because it relieves his mind, Silas invents evidence pointing to Jem. Eager for action, he runs out into the rain to summon the authorities. NOTE: Eliot explains the social hierarchy of the pub. The richer customers drink in one room, the parlor, while commoners gather across the hall in the kitchen. Many English pubs today still have a refined saloon bar and a plainer public bar.

The people of Raveloe seem to like this stratification. It is fluid, though. Does this seem confusing to you? If so, just think of how a stranger would react to the different cliques and social categories in your school. You can see here figures side-lit by the fire, and pipe-smoke hanging in the air.

Facial expressions are drawn dramatically. Social distinctions are clear in details of drink and clothing. Snell, the landlord, like a master of ceremonies, begins the conversation by speaking to his cousin the butcher. As you read this scene, be aware of how slow it is, full of long pauses, repetitions, and rambling arguments. Today, people talk quickly, getting right to the point, and jump from topic to topic. The butcher and the farrier blacksmith get into an argument over the breed of a slaughtered cow.

Snell ends this pig-headed quarrel and shifts the topic to the Lammeter family, who owned the cow. He calls on the parishclerk Mr. Macey, who sparks another quarrel with his new deputy Mr.

The whole community cares about how Tookey does his job. They also care about music and the ritual of the church service. Originally, George Eliot wanted to write Silas Marner in verse. She changed to prose because she felt the story would need humor.

This chapter demonstrates the kind of humor she meant- based on funny personalities rather than wisecracks. Part of you may be laughing at these yokels, like the pompous farrier with his thickheaded arguments.

But another part of you may laugh with them- at the interplay of characters, the teasing banter, and the droll understatements, like Mr. Snell always restores harmony. Notice the several techniques she uses. Macey once more to tell his story about Mr.

Eliot wrote this long anecdote for another reason- to show how people in Raveloe regard aliens. The first Mr. Lammeter, like Silas, came from the outside world, which to Raveloers seems like another planet. But Mr. Lammeter fit in with their values.

Silas Marner Notes

Note how outward forms and rituals are important. The next story Macey tells is in direct contrast. Another outsider, a man named Cliff from London, owned the Warrens before the Lammeters. Though he was a tailor, he tried to move into the upper class notice how horses symbolize the upper class here.

Not only did Cliff violate the Raveloe class system, he also rejected the dignity of his trade.

Silas Marner Notes

One more element of the Raveloe mind surfaces in this story- superstition. Cliff was rumored to have a relationship with the Devil much as Silas is supposed to. Not everyone in the pub believes in ghosts- the farrier, Mr. But this lively debate suggests that plenty of people in Raveloe do believe in ghosts. Belligerently, the farrier dares any ghost to come stand inside. At this moment, Silas walks in.

Eliot gently mocks their reaction to Silas, using insect imagery again, in their curious quivering antennae. Their minds still running on ghosts, the men look at him as if he were one. Then Mr. Snell, as the host, addresses Silas. Silas replies in broken, agitated phrases, calling for the authorities. He injects a note of tragedy into this comic evening. When Silas accuses Jem Rodney, Jem seems more annoyed than afraid. Eliot moves inside his mind to describe the effect of this. Everyone chimes in with his own opinion.

And Mr. Macey, who believes in authority, starts talking about the proper legal proceedings. For how was it possible to believe that those large brown protuberant eyes in Silas Marner's pale face really saw nothing very distinctly that was not close to them, and not rather that their dreadful stare could dart cramp, or rickets, or a wry mouth at any boy who happened to be in the rear?

They had, perhaps, heard their fathers and mothers hint that Silas Marner could cure folks' rheumatism if he had a mind, and add, still more darkly, that if you could only speak the devil fair enough, he might save you the cost of the doctor.

Such strange lingering echoes of the old demon-worship might perhaps even now be caught by the diligent listener among the grey-haired peasantry; for the rude mind with difficulty associates the ideas of power and benignity. A shadowy conception of power that by much persuasion can be induced to refrain from inflicting harm, is the shape most easily taken by the sense of the Invisible in the minds of men who have always been pressed close by primitive wants, and to whom a life of hard toil has never been illuminated by any enthusiastic religious faith.

To them pain and mishap present a far wider range of possibilities than gladness and enjoyment: their imagination is almost barren of the images that feed desire and hope, but is all overgrown by recollections that are a perpetual pasture to fear. And Raveloe was a village where many of the old echoes lingered, undrowned by new voices.