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As he ascribed a decisive role to the Hebrew text, just like Jerome when he made his Latin translation of the Old Testament, Maniacutia considered his endeavors to correct the Vulgate as completely legitimate. In chapter 2 Chiesa describes how Erasmus — based his printed editions of the Greek New Testament to a large extent on the text-critical method developed by Lorenzo Valla — When their endeavors met with resistance from more conservative circles in the church, they replied that what they did was nothing short of diffusing the Christian truth.
The publication of polyglots was another phenomenon typifying the Renaissance spirit. Chapter 3 shows how seventeenth-century scholars endeavored to apply the profane philological method to the Old Testament in precisely the same fashion as Erasmus had done with regard to the New Testament. As the Hebrew text that Jerome had consulted was much older than the surviving documents of the Masoretic Text, the Roman Catholic philologist Jean Morin believed that the discrepancies between the Vulgate and the Masoretic Text are commonly due to a less reliable Jewish transmission of the Hebrew text.
However, both Protestants and Roman Catholics rejected his point of view and attached much more value to the Masoretic Text.
When discussing the work of the Protestant Louis Cappel, Chiesa demonstrates his ability to take an independent position. In line with Tov, Chiesa shows that when Cappel used the term lectio commodior he referred to the textual variant that best suits the style and the ideas of the biblical author or of the Bible as a whole rather than to the smoothest variant.
Chiesa demonstrates that Jean Le Clerc — was the first to introduce explicitly the lectio difficilior principle, though similar considerations are already found with previous philologists, for instance with several church fathers and with Erasmus.
It is interesting, however, that Chiesa successfully demonstrates that Le Clerc implemented this principle only in those cases where other evidence, such as the age and the quality of the manuscripts concerned, does not tip the scales.
Chiesa endorses the view that in many cases the lectio difficilior principle does not apply, as each case of textual variation is unique and may be more complex than would be suggested if only one principle were applied. However, their importance is partly reduced by three factors: The nineteenth century saw the insight emerging that the extant medieval manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, save the Samaritan ones, all went back to the Masoretic recension and that most variants to be found there were only of minor importance.
The idea that there was more variation before this recension was later confirmed by the discovery of the biblical texts from Qumran. At the end of the eighteenth century, the focus of exegesis started to shift from philology to literary criticism and hermeneutics.
Chiesa argues that textual criticism and literary criticism have different tasks.
Chiesa believes that the time is ripe for the creation of critical editions of the books of the Hebrew Bible, especially of those for which a historical archetype can be reconstructed. During the past decades, several Italian scholars, such as Paolo Sacchi, have undertaken preliminary work in this field, but their studies have received too little attention. In these two volumes, Chiesa has shown himself to be an independent expert who is thoroughly acquainted with the existing literature, both old and modern.
Chiesa offers a magnificent overview of the history of the philology of the Hebrew Bible, paying due attention to periods that are usually disregarded by other authors. He even discusses the contribution of scholars, such as John Philoponus sixth century , whose biblical studies have only recently been brought back into the limelight —9. In the case of several early scholars, such as Clement of Alexandria, Saadya Gaon, and al-Qirqisani, it would have been convenient for the reader if Chiesa had mentioned when exactly they lived.
In some cases, Chiesa leaves some obscurity as to whose work he is discussing see —6: It would have been helpful if a more thorough recapitulation had followed the discussion of this period. The yield of his research deserves to be made available also for an audience that is not familiar with Italian. Related Papers. Review of Steven L.
McKenzie and Michael D. Coogan, eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation. Their contemporaries Augustine and Jerome, who made a new translation of the Hebrew Bible into Latin, the influential Vulgate, subscribed to this point of view.
Though they differed from the Alexandrians in this respect, the Antiocheans as well as Jerome and Augustine shared their view that Scripture does not contain any ideological contradictions.
Also, the assumption that the obscurities in Scripture were intentional was still expressed explicitly by many exegetes. In chapter 4 Chiesa extensively discusses the exegetical method of two important Jewish scholars whose works are wrongfully neglected in most monographs on the history of the interpretation of the Hebrew Bible: Saadya Gaon ca. Saadya Gaon was a representative of the rabbinical tradition of exegesis, but he propounded several innovative points of view.
If there seem to be discrepancies between these sources or within Scripture, these cannot be ascribed to reason or the infallible rabbinical tradition, but only to Scripture, whose language is human and, for that matter, ambiguous. However, Saadya considers a literal interpretation of the anthropomorphisms used for God as incorrect. Al-Qirqisani shared the view that a literal interpretation of the Hebrew Bible is preferable as long as it does not cause incongruities.
This Al-Qirqisani being a Karaite, he did not recognize the authority of the rabbinical tradition and assigned a greater role to reason.
A more thorough comparison with earlier Jewish treatment of such textual problems, as it is reflected in the Targum and the Talmud, would have shown to which extent the exegetical approaches by Saadya and al-Qirqisani were innovative.
Chapter 5 addresses the medieval Jewish discussions on matters such as the divine inspiration of the Hebrew Bible. Whereas the Talmud, Midrash Sifre, and Saadya ascribed the passage to Joshua, al-Qirqisani held to the view that God dictated the passage to Moses before his death. The subtitle of volume 2 indicates that this part addresses the period from the end of the Middle Ages until the present day.
Though the Renaissance opened the door to hermeneutics, the philological approach of the biblical text was less innovative than some may be inclined to think. In the first chapter of volume 2 Chiesa shows that the Jewish scholar Maimonides — systematically addressed the question why the writings of ancient authors are often difficult to interpret. In the same vein, Christian philologists propounded the view that the Vulgate should be purified on the basis of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament and the Greek text of the New Testament.
In this context, Chiesa deals extensively with the work of Nicola Maniacutia, who lived in Rome in the first half of the twelfth century and whose contribution to textual criticism was rescued from oblivion only in the 60s of the twentieth century.
Maniacutia believed that the text of the Vulgate was in need of correction due to erroneous additions, omissions, and alterations. In the case of textual variants, he preferred the variant that was closest to the Hebrew text, also if this variant was only found in a minority of the Latin manuscripts. As he ascribed a decisive role to the Hebrew text, just like Jerome when he made his Latin translation of the Old Testament, Maniacutia considered his endeavors to correct the Vulgate as completely legitimate.
In chapter 2 Chiesa describes how Erasmus — based his printed editions of the Greek New Testament to a large extent on the text-critical method developed by Lorenzo Valla — Dragon tooth vs black knight greatsword, alessandra bosu facebook, top record collection tamil movies, alexia bread coupon, hick full movie free download.
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