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MOTTA-ROTH, D.; HENDGES, G. H. Produção textual na universidade. São Paulo: Parábola, VYGOTSKY, L. S. A formação social da mente. São Paulo . Os significados de escrever no ensino superior: a produção textual no Maria Eliete de Queiroz at Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do. Ação de letramento, produção textual e estudos de gênero: entrevista com Désirée Motta Roth at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.
Atividade 7 - reconhecimento de modalidade. Leia os trechos a seguir: Trecho 1: Trecho 2: Campinas, SP: Mercado de Letras. Discourse in late modernity: Edinburgh University Press.
Socio-Semantic Variation: Researching language in schools and communities London, Washington: Ensino da escrita: Ecos, ISSN , vol. Marked or unmarked, that is not the question. The question is: Ilha do Desterro. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Edward Arnold. On Grammar. An Introduction to Functional Grammar 3rd. Grammatical Metaphor. The Essential Halliday. An Introduction to Functional Grammar 4th. Writing without conviction?
Hedding in Science research articles. Academic attribution: What do they mean? Questions in academic writing. Argument and Engagement in Academic Writing. Journal of Pragmatics 34 c , pp.
Self-citation and Self-reference: Credibility and Promotion in Academic Publication. Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: Stance and engagement: Genre and academic writing in the disciplines.
Disciplinary Voices - interactions in research writing. English Text Construction. Mapping Interactions in Academic Writing. Nordic Journal of English Studies, v. Writing in the university: Language Teaching ,v. Linguagem em Dis curso - LemD. ISSN Escrevendo no contexto: Santa Maria: Pode ser Poderia ser This in turn refers to a core Vygotskian concept in the learning process: For Vygotsky, ideal learning should promote development: From the contact with more experienced people and with the historical-cultural context, these potentialities can be transformed into new actual development, in a continuous dialectical process of creation and re-creation of knowledge, concepts, beliefs and values of the world where one lives.
According to the author, this dialectical process consists of two levels of development: In this sense, the concept of learning process constituted through the ability of subjects to solve problems and perform actions that are beyond their level of development with the help of more capable peers leads to the creation of ZPD.
According to Vygotsky , p. It should be seen as a spiral movement in which relations between learning and development emerging from interactions in the most diverse spheres of the social environment are extremely complex and, therefore, cannot be reduced to a single and unchanged form. Although the concept of ZPD brings a basic conceptual contribution to understand knowledge construction in the teaching-learning process, it is noted, however, that the theory does not present elements that can indeed make ZPD feasible, namely, there is no speciic theoretical-analytical devices to make it applicable to teaching-learning practices.
Mastery learning, recursive feedback and Scafolding: Nonetheless, although treated with diferent focuses, a common core to both perspectives is the centrality of contextual factors, in which the learning subject is seen in their individuality.
The concept of Mastery Learning, developed in the s by Benjamin Bloom, is based on the general idea that most students would be able to learn in the presence of proper teaching and learning conditions. For Bloom , p. Bloom points out that, in order to have successful inal performance of learners greater than what they initially demonstrate in their school activities, irst it should be recognized that students are diferent from one another, which likewise implies diferent attention and methods used by the teacher, and diferent times to perform tasks.
In other words, for the author, the time to learn and the conditions of teaching vary, which determines the academic success of students. For the authors, the diference in learning could be characterized by the strategies used and the way of organizing the learning processes to encourage cognitive development.
In general, feedback is the activity following the task a student should perform, moving on to the next task, which will provide the student with another feedback, and so on. According to Bloom , through feedback, the teacher can point out weaknesses and answer questions from the students in a continuous way, constantly supervising them and obtaining improved results. Feedback, remediation and enrichment activities would in turn be more successful if they were linked with formative assessment.
This study explores the elements of the model, which can be rethought in the light of a sociocultural perspective of learning. The formative evaluation tests also can serve as a means of quality control in future cycles of the discipline.
Therefore, formative assessment is a kind of process evaluation that has three steps in the Mastery Learning model: Pre-instructional assessment determines the initial levels of students and helps design the most appropriate instructional mechanism. The third method of evaluation, diagnostic assessment, is a formative assessment technique that measures the efectiveness of the instructions in progress to improve the instructional process. For the authors, unlike the evaluative dimension of Didactic Pedagogy5, which adopts summative evaluation — an assessment model that has a retrospective and punctual judgment character and is performed at the end of an educational process —, recursive feedback is involved in a prospective and constructive assessment, which provides feedback to students and their teachers during the learning process itself.
In this sense, Cope and Kalantzis , pp. Assessment can increasingly be embedded in instruction, allowing us to realize long-held ambitions to ofer richer formative assessment. We may now have so much interim learning or progress data, why do we even need these strange artifacts, summative assessments?
With the help of data mashups and visualizations, the data points need only be those located within the learning process. The test is dead; long live assessment! Now that we can assess everything, and there is no learning without relexive, recursive, machine feedback, peer and teacher feedback, and structured self-relection, do we even need a distinction between 5 The authors point to a comparative table between what they call Didactic Pedagogy, the traditional teaching model adopted in the last years, which uses summative evaluation as the main method of evaluation, and Relexive Pedagogy, whose perspective is based on what they call recursive feedback and formative assessment.
There should be no instruction without embedded recursive feedback, and no feedback that does not directly and incrementally contribute to learning. The focus of what is assessable now shifts from individual cognition, to the artifacts of knowledge representation and their social provenance.
The focus of what is assessable moves from the repetition of facts and the correct application of theorems to what we call complex epistemic performance, or the kinds of analytical thinking that characterize disciplinary practices—being scientist, or a writer, or to apply mathematics to a problem.
The proposal of recursive feedback, which is based on a continuous and prospective process of formative assessment and is not focused on individual cognition, but on the artifacts of knowledge representation and its social origin COPE; KALANTZIS, , is associated with another concept: It is a metaphor that refers to assistance or support — verbal or nonverbal — that a more experienced member of one culture a more capable peer can provide to another person.
The term was irst coined by Bruner, Ross and Wood , whose purpose was to explain the means by which an adult could help a child in a teaching-learning relationship. In the present case, this often involved getting the children not only interested, but weaned from initial imaginative play with the blocks. Reduction in degrees of freedom. This involves simplifying the task by reducing the number of constituent acts required to reach solution.
Direction maintenance. Learners lag and regress to other aims, given limits in their interests and capacities. The tutor has the role of keeping them in pursuit of a particular objective. The children often made their constructions in order to show them to the tutor. In time, the activity itself became the goal—but even then, the older children often checked back.
Marking critical features. A tutor by a variety of means marks or accentuates certain features of the task that are relevant.
His marking provides information about the discrepancy between what the child has produced and what he would recognize as a correct production. His task is to interpret discrepancies. Frustration control. The major risk is in creating too much dependency on the tutor. Although the authors do not make any explicit reference to the concept of ZPD, an interrelationship between both concepts is observed. These concepts will be used as theoretical-analytical devices in a speciic teaching- learning context: Contextualization and analysis of the teaching-learning procedures of the discipline of academic text reading and production from Prois Prois and the discipline of academic text reading and production Prois is a Unicamp interdisciplinary pilot program for students who attended public high schools in Campinas, SP.
This procedure ensures a seat for each public high school student in the municipality of Campinas. The program has a curriculum that includes disciplines from diferent areas of knowledge human, biological, exact and technological sciences that are taught during the program that lasts two years. The teacher in charge of the discipline developed in a program to promote reading, writing and rewriting criteria of scholarly works, involving cohesion mechanisms for the construction of textuality and syntactic-semantic articulation use of argumentative operators , paragraph structuring phrasal topics and elements of nominal and verbal agreement for the development of two academic genres: During the period analyzed and evaluated in this study to , eight PhD and twelve undergraduate students participated in this study.
Then, the number of students in the discipline may vary from year to year. I am grateful to all the students for their support: PhD students: First, the procedures adopted are consistent with the characteristics of LA discipline, which ofers four hours a week two for theoretical classes and two for practical classes to four groups an average of 35 students on each group.
To serve all four groups, the teacher in charge had to develop a joint work with the PhD and undergraduate students involved in the discipline. As the PhD students were also teachers12, they could take over the classes, and then be responsible for conducting the practical classes.
The students with undergraduate scholarships supported the teacher in theoretical classes, as well as the PhD students in the practical classes.
They also helped discipline students with the activities to be posted on an online learning platform. At these meetings, the PhD and undergraduate students were involved in class planning and provided insights, questions and challenges that they and the discipline students had during the process, and where all decisions regarding the progress of the classes were made together.
At the irst meeting of the group, the content and methods of the discipline were discussed and outlined. Based on the discipline syllabus, they decided to focus on two academic genres in particular: Then, the objective of the discipline was to develop a number of procedures, contents and activities that mainly addressed reading and production of abstracts, extending until the end of the irst half of the six-month period. In the second half, the same would be done for critical review of academic texts.
Available in: Access on: Some students had already experienced abstract production in other Prois disciplines.
It involves elements of communicative persuasion, often decisive, that inluence the selection of a particular text for reading, showing its communicative intention and the point of view of the reviewer regarding the study analyzed. In the four years during which the discipline was ofered to , it started with a theoretical presentation about academic abstracts concepts, uses, purposes, audiences, examples. The purpose of the irst class was to show students the abstract production context and make them realize the importance of learning that academic genre.
In the subsequent practical class, students should read an academic empirical study, followed by the production of an abstract of the study. However, for the students, the production of the irst abstract did not have an evaluation character, since they did not receive the grades attributed to their texts, because the text production activity was not considered as a test.
The idea, in this case, was that, by simplifying the size of the task, it could be recognized and performed by the students.
From a pedagogical-evaluative point of view, the proposal of an initial text production is associated with the idea of formative evaluation from Mastery Learning BLOOM, , as it is, in the process evaluation, a pre-instructional assessment that determines the initial levels of students and helps design the most appropriate instructional mechanism.
This pre-instructional assessment enabled the group, through 14 All text production activities were performed by students in computer labs, where students had access to online dictionaries and could conduct internet searches. At each edition of the discipline, the basic texts for the production of academic genres articles, abstracts and reviews were re-evaluated and changed.
For each program content, three procedures were developed: The practical classes presented a detailed aspect for discussion, based on more general examples that acted as a parameter for the students to clarify their questions regarding the macrostructure of the genres in question and issues related to their internal composition structure.