Signs of global warming in the United States, region by region iv Global warming will not only be felt many .. the report presents examples of extreme. Technical Report: Global Warming Effects on Irrigation Development and Crop Production: An example is the gradual transition from agriculture that is heavily . For example, certain types of air pollution cool the described the possibility of global warming from burning of .. The IPCC's first reports in indicated that.
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David Whitehouse is the Science Editor of the Global Warming Policy but he was the first and for many years the only science journalist to write about this this report shows, as the statistical significance of the standstill increased, the debate . 11 aracer.mobi 2nd-. GREEN LA: An Action Plan to Lead the Nation in Fighting Global Warming. .. 5 aracer.mobi . is working out what the reporting requirements on members should be; for example, . The report examines the effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the earth's The most ominous of the effects of a warmer climate will be the shifting of local.
The blue areas are coldest, where thick clouds prevent heat from escaping. In the yellow areas, there is little cloud cover so the heat escaping is at a maximum.
The red areas represent mostly ocean, where heat loss is midway between these two extremes. What is global warming? Imagine you live in a timber shack in Alaska. It's chilly up there, so you build yourself a huge log fire and pile on all the wood you can find.
To start with, the fire seems a great idea—especially since it's so cold outside. The shack warms up slowly, but predictably, and it's soon pretty cosy.
Since the shack is much warmer than the atmosphere and ground that surround it, it loses heat quite quickly. If the fire supplies heat at the same rate as the shack loses it, the shack stays at roughly the same temperature. But if you make the fire too big, the shack will get hotter Before long, you'll start feeling uncomfortable.
You might wish you'd never made the fire so big in the first place. But once it's burning, there's nothing you can do to stop it.
The shack will keep getting hotter long after you stop piling wood on the fire. Photo: Getting warmer? A NASA map of global sea surface temperatures produced using infrared measurements taken by a satellite in space. Red and yellow areas are hottest, green and blue are coldest.
Global warming is working a bit like this. Thanks to a variety of things that people do, Earth is getting slightly warmer year by year. It's not really warming up noticeably—at least not in the short term. In fact, since , the whole planet has warmed up only by around 0. By the end of the 21st century, however, global warming is likely to cause an increase in Earth's temperature of around 2—5 degrees Celsius.
There is a 75 percent chance of a 2—3 degree warming and a 50 percent chance of a 5 degree warming, and scientists agree that the warming is most likely to be around 3 degrees.
Now even a 5-degree warming might not sound like much to worry about, but 5 degrees is roughly how much difference there is between the world as it is today and as it was during the last Ice Age.
In other words, when we came out of the Ice Age, the planet warmed by 5 degrees over about years.
Modern climate change threatens to produce the same amount of a warming in as little as a century! Once something as big as a planet starts to warm up, it's very hard to slow down the process—and almost impossible to stop it completely. Global warming means Big Trouble. What causes global warming? Global warming is caused by a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect. A greenhouse or glasshouse is good for growing things because it traps heat inside and stays hotter than the atmosphere around it.
The natural greenhouse effect Earth's atmosphere behaves like a gigantic greenhouse, though it traps heat a different way. Gases high in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and methane, behave like a giant piece of curved glass wrapped right round the planet. The Sun's rays mostly visible light and short-wavelength, high-energy ultraviolet radiation pass straight through this greenhouse gas and warm up Earth.
The warming planet gives off heat energy longer wavelength infrared radiation , which radiates out toward space. Some of this outgoing radiation does not pass through the atmosphere, but is reflected back down to Earth, effectively trapping heat and keeping the planet about 33 degrees hotter than it would otherwise be.
This is called the natural greenhouse effect and it's a good thing. Without it, Earth would be much too cold to support the huge diversity of life that it does. Artwork: The Greenhouse Effect: 1 When the Sun's radiation enters our atmosphere, it heats our planet. Some of this radiation passes straight through the atmosphere and disappears off into space. The more greenhouse gases there are, the more heat is trapped and the hotter Earth becomes. The enhanced greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect would be nothing to worry about were it not for one important thing.
Since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries when coal-burning steam engines were first used on a large scale , humans have been using energy in far greater quantities.
Car engines , for example, which were invented in the midth century, work by burning gasoline petrol with oxygen from the air to make heat in a chemical reaction called combustion. As a byproduct, combustion gives off or "emits" invisible carbon dioxide gas the gas our bodies breathe out.
In a similar way, power plants use combustion to make our electricity —by burning fuels like coal, gas, and oil—so they give off carbon dioxide too.
Most of the energy people use is made by burning these so-called fossil fuels—producing huge clouds of carbon dioxide, which are known as carbon dioxide emissions.
The carbon dioxide drifts up into the atmosphere and makes Earth's greenhouse gas just a little thicker. This is called the enhanced greenhouse effect.
As a result, more of the Sun's heat gets trapped inside the atmosphere and the planet warms up. To summarize: burning fossil fuels give off carbon dioxide, which increases the greenhouse effect and heats the planet—the process we call global warming. This is often described as an anthropogenic process, which simply means "humans caused it. Is global warming getting worse? Photo: Warming Island: These photos taken from the USGS Landsat satellite in , , and show how a new island has appeared in Greenland following the melting of an arctic glacier.
Melting glaciers are one indication that the world is warming up. Thanks to all the fossil fuels we burn, there is now more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than at any time in the last , years. However, the actual amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is still relatively small. Before industrial times, it was about parts per million ppm. Today, it's around ppm. That means if you had a chunk of atmosphere about as big as your bedroom, all the carbon dioxide in it would take up millionths of the space—or roughly half the volume of a shoebox.
Doesn't sound much to worry about, does it? But the important thing is that the amount of carbon dioxide is rising: in the last years or so, humans have increased the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by around a third—and that's a very big change for something as finely balanced as our planet. Most people have no idea how much carbon dioxide they generate each day. The Carbon for kids web page gives you some idea what your personal carbon dioxide emissions look like.
The United States produces roughly 20 tonnes of carbon dioxide for each one of its citizens each year. Or to put it another way, that's enough carbon dioxide to cover the entire land surface of the United States 30 cm 1 ft deep. Most of this gas winds up in the atmosphere and contributes to global warming. The problem is getting worse all the time. Currently, 80 percent of our energy comes from fossil fuels. And the amount of energy people use is increasing too, not least because developing countries such as China and India are becoming more affluent.
According to the US Energy Information Administration's forecast, world energy consumption will increase by 28 percent between and and over 75 percent of that energy will still be coming from fossil fuels.
In summary, if things continue as they are, we'll soon be using nearly twice as much energy and still getting almost as much of it from fossil fuels. Without drastic action, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will continue to increase—and Earth will continue to heat up.
In other words, global warming will get worse. Chart: Who emits most carbon dioxide? This chart shows the per capita per person carbon dioxide emissions for a dozen representative countries. The yellow bars show emissions for ; the orange bars show the picture just over a decade later in You can see a clear trend: developed countries are slowly reducing their emissions; developing countries show emissions that are steadily rising but still much lower per capita overall.
At the time this page was last updated February , these remain the latest available figures from the United Nations Statistics Division: Millennium Development Goals Indicators website.
What is climate change? Climate is the pattern of weather in a particular place: how much sunlight and rainfall it gets, how windy it is, and so on. The world's weather is entirely powered by the Sun. Since Earth rotates on a tilted axis, different parts of our planet are heated by different amounts at different times of year, making some regions hotter than others and causing the seasons.
The temperature variations between one part of the world and another cause differences in air pressure, producing winds, storms, and even hurricanes. The Sun's heat also warms the seas unevenly, driving ocean currents—which, in some ways, are like underwater winds—from one place to another.
Scientists believe that greater amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and hotter temperatures on Earth, will significantly change the climate across the whole planet. This climate change is already beginning to happen in parts of the world.
Non-smokers who breathe in this smoke risk getting lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis and asthma. Just a single breath of tobacco smoke is enough to start damaging the lungs.
Inhaling tobacco smoke paralyses the structures in the airways that clear mucus and dirt, allowing toxins in the smoke to enter the lungs more easily.
But it is never too late to quit smoking. Lung function improves within just two weeks of quitting tobacco use. Japan recently tightened up its indoor smoking regulations. Several municipalities such as Tokyo, Chiba City, Shizuoka Prefecture and Hokkaido are implementing tougher smoke-free measures to protect their citizens.
Increasingly, businesses are choosing to promote health and not tobacco by banning smoking in their workplaces and helping workers to quit smoking. These are important steps towards protecting people from harmful second-hand smoke — but they do not go far enough. This means that customers, families and workers will still be exposed to tobacco smoke. Designated smoking rooms, which are ineffective in protecting people from second-hand smoke, will still be allowed in public spaces such as workplaces, hotels and trains.
Japan is one of the fastest growing markets for e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products HTPs. WHO recommends that HTPs should be regulated in the same manner as other tobacco products, and that bystanders be protected from exposure to second-hand emissions from HTPs and e-cigarettes.
Japan will soon be showcasing its culture and hospitality at the Rugby World Cup. Many of the nations playing have introduced indoor smoke-free laws which have been good for health and good for business.
Research has found that indoor smoking bans have either a positive or no effect on business in bars and restaurants. This 4. The problem of the greenhouse effect might be remedied by a reduction in the use of fossil fuel.
This is called the natural greenhouse effect. This research was a by-product of research of whether carbon dioxide would explain the causes of the great Ice Ages.
At that time it was thought than human influences were insignificant compared to natural forces. It was also believed that the oceans were such great carbon sinks that they would automatically cancel out our pollution. He and Thomas Chamberlin calculated that human activities could warm the earth by adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. This was not actually verified until Arrhenius suggested a doubling of the CO2 concentration would lead to a 5oC temperature rise.
After the discoveries of Arrhenius and Chamberlin the topic was forgotten for a very long time.
He proposed a relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature. He found that the average surface temperature of the earth is about 15oC because of the infrared absorption capacity of water vapor and carbon dioxide.
History Of The Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming Svante Arrhenius was a Swedish scientist that was the first to claim in that fossil fuel combustion may eventually result in enhanced global warming. Water 6. These curves have become one of the major icons of global warming. The argument that the oceans would absorb most carbon dioxide was still intact. Research showed that the ocean could never be the complete sink for all atmospheric CO2.
Gilbert Plass summarized these results in The curves showed a downward trend of 7. Perhaps the carbon dioxide holding capacity of oceans was limited. At that time it was proven that increasing the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide resulted in more absorption of infrared radiation. It was also discovered that water vapor absorbed totally different types of radiation than carbon dioxide. In the 's there were developments in infrared spectroscopy for measuring long-wave radiation.
He concluded that adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere would intercept infrared radiation that is otherwise lost to space. In the late 's and early 's Charles Keeling used the most modern technologies available to produce concentration curves for atmospheric CO2 in Antarctica and Mauna Loa. It is thought that only nearly a third of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed by oceans. It soon became a hot news topic that was repeated on a global scale.
In it was finally acknowledged that climate was warmer than any period since In the 's. Stephen Schneider had first predicted global warming in A complete media circus evolved that convinced many people we are on the edge of a significant climate change that has many negative impacts on our world today. At the same time ocean sediment research showed that there had been no less than 32 coldwarm cycles in the last 2. People began to question the theory of an upcoming new ice age.
Environmental NGO's Non-Governmental Organizations started to advocate global environmental protection to prevent further global warming. Pictures of smoke stags were put next to pictures of melting ice caps and flood events.
The press also gained an interest in global warming. The media and many scientists ignored scientific data of the 's and 's in favor of global cooling. This made him one of the world's leading global warming experts.
In the late 's the curve began to increase so steeply that the global warming theory began to win terrain fast. The 10 warmest years on record have all occurred since The IPCC released climate change reports in and They protested the basis of the theory. The Panel consists of more than scientific and technical experts from more than 60 countries all over the world.
The idea began to grow that global warming models had overestimated the warming trend of the past years. We now know that was globally the warmest year on record. The IPCC is referred to as the largest peer-reviewed scientific cooperation project in history. This caused the IPCC to review their initial data on global warming. This organization tries to predict the impact of the greenhouse effect according to existing climate models and literature information.
The scientists are from widely divergent research fields including climatology. The climate records of the IPCC are still contested by many other scientists. They believed that the measurements were not carried out correctly and that data from oceans was missing.
In the 's scientists started to question the greenhouse effect theory. Cooling trends were not explained by the global warming data and satellites showed completely different temperature records from the initial ones. The Kyoto Protocol was eventually signed in Bonn in by countries.
Therefore in the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in Kyoto. It requires participating countries to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions CO2. Models are also updated and adjusted to new discoveries and new theory.
Oxford University Press. But climate change is also a global problem that is hard to solve by single countries. The greenhouse effect as a term was used fewer and fewer and people started to refer to the theory as either global warming or climate change..
Several countries such as the United States and Australia have retreated. Global Warming. From onwards the terminology on the greenhouse effect started to change as a result of media influences. This global warming discussion is still continuing today and data is constantly checked and renewed. Oxford So far not many measures have been taken to do something about climate change.
This is largely caused by the major uncertainties still surrounding the theory. The evidence for rapid climate change is compelling: Global temperature rise All three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since Ice cores drawn from Greenland. They also show that in the past.
Averaged over all land and ocean surfaces. The 10 warmest years in the year record all have occurred since The current warming trend is of particular significance because most of it is very likely human-induced and proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented in the past 1. Most of this warming has occurred since the s.
The time series below shows the five-year average variation of global surface temperatures from to The rate in the last decade. Sea level rise Sea level rise is caused primarily by two factors related to global warming: Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters 6.
The first chart tracks the change in sea level since as observed by satellites which for itself speaks that the issue of global warming is alarming. Shrinking ice sheets Evidence is mounting that Greenland. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. The figure below shows the depletion of Ice at Antarctica from to The rate of ice loss is increasing so rapidly that just ten years ago it was extrapolated that total ice sheet dissipation would happen in Way up north.
One way the ocean affects the climate in places like Europe is by carrying heat to the north in the Atlantic Ocean.