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production has not disappeared entirely in the digital age. In the realm of while the digital fabrication technologies have substantially expanded what could be. Session Modes of Production In this paper, we will focus on the “digital design to digital production” .. publication/ economy is tied to capabilities with digital media production that require series of digital media-based literacy lessons involving the production of blogs, web.

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Digital Production Pdf

Create a one-to-two () minute digital media production based on the combined PDF document to: no later than. The transformative potential of technology in production systems is widely recognized the lines between the physical, digital and biological spheres of global. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www. AutoMAKE: Generative systems, digital .

I am quite surprised that this new possibility has not changed the structure of the big broadcast TV dinosaurs more than it has. HD camcorders will, however, decrease in size and weight in the near future. Silver or Rust? This was followed by a dead silence and I asked myself, what have I said? Then one person started to applaud and another joined in, out of a crowd of some two hundred probably the only two DoPs present! A brutally simple conclusion would be that motion picture and television engineers mostly grey-haired men have no interest in what happens in front of and behind the camera, they are only interested in the camera itself and the engineering beauty in the technical parameters of the recording system connected to it. Silver or rust? I have seen dozens of comparisons between film and video as production media, most of them biased on the silver or rust side. I leave it to you to decide whether it is objective or not. Resolution, relative to HD Resolution limit Colour resolution Dynamic range Subtle shading minimum Light sensitivity Depth of field control Grain Perception of image Shooting speeds Shutter speeds at normal fps TV studio ease of use Controlled location shooting Wildlife locations, jungle etc.

Since the greatest difficulty in zoom design lies in the combination of short focal length, high quality and acceptable size and weight, two lenses were designed. The Fujinon Cine Style prime lenses are available in eight focal lengths from 5 to 54 mm and have a speed of T1. The HD lens range from Canon comprises two zooms, 7.

Their primes have focal lengths of 5, 9, 14, 24 and 35 mm, with a speed of T1. Camera Noise A piece of equipment containing electronic circuits as advanced as an HD camera needs to be effectively cooled with a fan.

The noise emanating from the fan and the video drum in cameras with a built-in VTR has caused a lot of trouble for sound technicians in cramped shooting environments. The common habit of covering the camera with a soft blimp makes the camera even hotter, and the elongation of the metal parts caused by the heat can affect the critical back focus adjustment. A soft blimp will also cover the sides of the camera where several important switches and monitoring devices are located.

The camera makers must find a way to make the cooling more effective without causing disturbing noise. The modified camera of course accepts all relevant Panavision accessories, like matte boxes, follow focus attachments, viewfinder extension etc.

The large American rental company Clairmont has also made a modification of the Sony HDW-F, where great effort has been made to stabilize the optical system by exchanging the support for the beam splitter and CCD sensors with stainless steel material, thus minimizing the risk that temperature changes may affect the back focal distance.

A very radical view of HD camera construction has been taken by Arri in Munich. They have designed a special HD sensor pack for a standard 35 mm film camera Arri to be placed where the film magazine normally is! The image is captured on a single large format CMOS sensor, allowing the use of standard 35 mm lenses. All well-known features are kept on the camera, including the capability to use all standard accessories. Post-production There is a tendency in recent camera models to record as much image data as possible, without compression or any other processing in the camera, either by recording on separate units like hard discs, or having the built-in VTR record raw data to be processed later.

This is similar to the working practice in film production to give the negative a full exposure, and decide later in post-production how the images will look in the release print or telecine. The rapid developments in data recording capacity will make this method of working more common in the future.

The first HD recorded feature film to reach cinemas was shot with this camera.

To obtain highest possible quality, the signal must be recorded on to hard discs or stand-alone recorders. One model is intended for field use, the other for studio use, both with the MPEG-4 compression algorithm. In progressive mode, the camera can record in frame rates of 1—24 fps.

How PDF changed prepress production dramatically in the last 25 years

Fig 2. When the camera is set to a recording mode called F. The gamma can then be varied by external processing in an HD Gamma Corrector for different effects, including adapting the image quality for transfer to film.

Through this process the exposure range can be extended to nine steps. The signals from the camera can be fed to any recording system depending on the intended use of the material. For studio applications, the signals can be recorded directly on to hard discs, without any signal compression.

The CCD sensors, each containing 9. Through a combination of sub-pixels, a The signals from the three CCDs are led to 12 bit analogue-to-digital converters, and are through logarithmic calculations converted to 10 bit RGB data. This means that each colour is defined in steps, instead of the steps obtained with 8 bit processing. Since the complete information from the image sensors is recorded, a very high data flow must be handled: gigabytes per second, sent through double HDSDI cables.

If 30 minutes of material is shot in one day corresponding to three ft rolls of 35 mm film , gigabytes of data must be recorded! There are already hard discs on the market that can record several terabytes of data, and if even larger amounts of data must be stored, there is always the possibility to make tape back-ups.

Recent Camera Models 23 The company specializes in large image sensors for stills photography, satellites etc. The size of the sensor is larger than a 35 mm frame, and it can be masked down to required image proportions: The data flow is very high, and requires separate processing to obtain maximum quality.

Arri After several years of experimentation and evaluating many comparisons between film and HD technology, Arri has shown a prototype of a new camera called D It looks like an Arri film camera with the magazine substituted for an HD image capturing device. All well-known features of a film camera are retained—the lenses, the matte box and follow focus and the reflex viewfinder.

The single image sensor, a CMOS with 6. The separation to the primary colours is done by a Bayer Mask, which gives each third pixel an RGB colour. After the necessary interpolation, the horizontal resolution is pixels. The camera has a high speed capability which results in very high bit rates. The data flow from the image sensor is not internally processed or Fig 2. However, it must be externally processed before it can form an image, which is somewhat similar to film processing!

It can record both progressively and interlaced. The recording is done on Mini-DV cassettes. The camera is also capable of recording in standard definition DV and Conclusion Most of the disadvantages that affected the quality of HD compared to film are about to disappear by the most recent developments in HD camera design. The use of large format CCD and CMOS image sensors, with a frame size of 35 mm film, allow for the use of well-known reliable lenses and gives an acceptable depth of field that it is possible to control.

The cinematographers can also see their images in a mirror reflex viewfinder, as they are used to. This stage of development can be compared with the transition in the early s from three-strip Technicolor with its beam-splitter camera, to the multi-layered colour films.

Adjusting Back-focus with a Siemens Star 25 New types of hard discs, blue laser recorders or RAM memories with high capacity may allow recording of a high data flow which eliminates the necessity to compress the signals. Presumably the colour depth will be higher, which gives a more natural colour palette and makes life easier for the film graders when they make the release prints. Full flexibility in the choice of frame rate, for special effects or creating subtle mood impressions, will become available.

One factor that is difficult to predict is the cost of HD cameras. It is possible that their price will fall off rapidly, owing to the very fast technical developments, and yet because of these ongoing developments, the cameras will be made in limited quantities, which will account for a high price per item.

Devote at least a full working day to this; make the technical tests described below and shoot a few scenes on locations and in lighting conditions similar to scenes that appear in the script. Choice of Lenses Some DoPs prefer prime lenses, others prefer zoom lenses. Start by testing the lenses and adjusting back-focus. Turn the camera on and let it get warm, which takes about 10 minutes.

White- and black-balance the camera. Place a Siemens star at 2—3 m distance and light it so that correct exposure is achieved at full stop.

You can also use the setting Gain —3 dB to reduce sensitivity. In order to get best possible image of the Siemens star you should use a large monitor and turn off colour Chrominance. When using zoom lenses you should start by zooming in all the way and then set focus with front focus the focusing scale on the lens. Then zoom out to the shortest focal length and set the focus with the back-focus adjustment.

Then zoom in again and set the focus with the focusing scale on the lens. Zoom out again and adjust the focus with back-focus. Repeat this process until full resolution is achieved within the entire range of the zoom lens. Then lock the back-focus ring carefully. Check that the focusing scale on the lens is accurate by measuring the distance to the Siemens star with a tape measure; 2 m should be a suitable working distance.

For shorter fixed focal lenses prime lenses the Siemens star should be placed 1 m from the focal plane and the distance scale set on 1 m. Then adjust back-focus for best resolution. Test charts with Siemens star can be ordered through www. Adjusting Back-focus with a Collimator The collimator is an optical instrument which makes the adjustment of back-focus both easier and more accurate.

The collimator has a back-lit Siemens star which is projected via a lens system through the camera lens. Front focus should be set on infinity and iris at full stop or stopped down one stop. The light level in the collimator is then adjusted until correct exposure is achieved. Then back-focus is set for maximum resolution. For zoom lenses focus should be checked for both the longest and the shortest focal lengths. Adjusting back-focus with a collimator gives maximal precision and is in many ways superior to the test-chart method described above, especially if you are on the set and in the middle of shooting.

Place a focusing chart at a reasonable distance and set the film lens focusing scale Fig 2. Turn the converter ON. Open the adjustable ND filter to position 0, turn the iris down to around T4 and adjust the light to correct exposure. Unscrew the lever on the back-focus ring and turn the ring to adjust for best sharpness. Tighten the lever at the back-focus ring. In the field, if a reliable test chart is not available, adjust the back-focus the following way. Use a white chart at a reasonable distance to fill the image.

Close the iris of the film lens far enough to allow the video camera to show the grain pattern of the ground glass. Unscrew the lever on the back-focus ring and turn the ring to adjust sharpness. When the grain pattern is sharp, the image converter is accurately adjusted to the camera.

Lens Sharpness Tests In order to evaluate the resolution power of a specific lens a special test chart with linear or circular patterns should be filmed. The chart should be filmed at a specified distance depending on the focal length of the lens. If the end result of the production will be 35 mm release prints you have to make a print from the negative and project it on a cinema screen in order to make a good judgement of the sharpness of the lenses.

It is also recommended to shoot a few scenes in realistic lighting in settings described in the script. This way you will see how the lenses react in strong back-light and how sensitive they are to flare.

Exposure Correct exposure is of vital importance on HD productions. Overexposed images give burned-out highlights which cannot be dealt with in post-production. As a guidance for correct exposure the viewfinder has two so-called Zebra patterns. These patterns indicate a certain level of the video signal and can be pre-set in the menu. You can use one of them or both. If a waveform monitor is available you will get more exact measurements of the video signal plus a graphic depiction of the camera picture which gives you better exposure control.

Today there are compact LCD monitors for HD which can both show the camera image and function as a waveform monitor. With the monitor connected to the camera, the camera operator has constant control of both camera image and video signal. Exposure assessment during camera tests should be done with test charts with double grey scales, so-called ship charts. The grey scale test chart is Exposure 29 Putora Sharpness Chart used in conjunction with a waveform monitor to adjust the light response characteristics video levels of gamma of the camera and to ensure that these characteristics are matched in all three colour channels.

It is also used to adjust shading and flare compensation. The step Grey Scale Chart is an extended range test chart intended for use with high-performance video cameras. The arrays are arranged so that one increases in reflectance from right to left and the other from left to right. A black-white-black test object in the centre of the chart provides a black 0. If ENG lenses are used, check that the automatic exposure control gives correct exposure. Adjustments of the automatic exposure control can be done in the menus.

The one common element is that HD offers the promise of higher quality than standard definition. There are many HD recording and transmission formats with different resolutions and frame rates. There are no standards for HD lenses, or standards for compression. For instance, a low resolution standard definition image can be upconverted to an HD signal and then forever more be correctly termed a HD picture. So sometimes HD is less than it should be. Film can be transferred to HD for editing.

The term HD is also being loosely used to describe the upcoming range of 2k and 4k digital motion picture cameras. In controlled situations you will use the same number of lights as with film. In uncontrolled, low light situations it is possible to utilize available light more effectively than on 35 mm film. This is because there is much greater depth of field with HD format than 35 mm film. This is solely to do with the small size of the HD sensor, not any shortcoming in the sensitivity of film.

For modest production budgets on HD an acceptable depth of field can be utilized using ambient street light with the addition of a few key and back lights on the subject.

But if shooting outdoors the amount of light needed to balance sunlight is the same, if not more on HD as film. So although it is possible to pick up a HD camera, switch it on and record a picture, without careful lighting the result can be nothing more than HD home movies. If you need an image for a large screen presentation that is steady and sharp you must use a 35 mm style crew retrained to use a digital camera.

The same goes for TV drama work. It is possible to work with less crew but you will be limited in your range of shots. For instance an operator with an assistant and director can shoot general views, but pulling focus by relying on the viewfinder is difficult.

A metal detector is thousands of times less powerful than what is required to damage a HD tape. Even a hand-held metal detector, passing directly over a tape, will not damage it. It seems that if a camera is going to have a problem, it has it on its first or second flight. If it survives its first few flights the CCD seems not to be affected by subsequent flights. However an early model HD camera in the space shuttle has lost many pixels perhaps due to its prolonged exposure to gamma rays.

One must be vigilant if the camera is new. Better than DAT. Four channels can be available with an adapter on a camcorder.

However the continuity person should make a note of timecode regardless of whether the clapper is used or not. The director and editor are far more likely to refer to timecode than 32 The Toolbox clapper.

A producer should consider that introducing HD, like any new technology challenging an established profession, is more to do with people and jobs than pixels and compression. Negative fill is achieved by blocking out ambient light from the subject. As CCDs respond well in the shadows it is not uncommon on location to use negative fill to darken one side of the subject to create modelling.

It is possible to exploit this with subtle lighting. On the other hand, highlights burn out more readily than film so the DoP must be careful to control highlights, through makeup, filtration, post-production techniques and careful control of lighting. Some lighting effects do not work at all in HD. High key is particularly difficult. A combination of lighting and post effects should be explored to create your look.

An inexperienced DoP or operator will need a good monitor. Makeup, props director and gaffer love the big monitor in a studio as it allows them to do their job more efficiently and effectively, especially on limited budgets.

If the 24 inch monitor is impractical a 14 inch CRT monitor will give a reliable idea of focus, gamma, highlight and shadow detail. A 9 inch monitor is a good representation of colour and gamma. However it is pointless using the monitor for critical evaluation unless the DoP is under a black cloth or the monitor is in a dark room. They are unlikely to be suitable to aid fine control of lighting or adjusting the colorimetry or gamma of the camera.

Using a large flat screen and a mid-size say, 14 inch CRT is a good compromise for location work. Panavision cameras have a different IR infrared filter than is installed at the factory by Sony.

This means more infrared light hits the CCDs. This has led to some confusion that there is a problem with non-Panavized cameras. For the same reason we prefer to use 35 mm film rather than 16 mm for TV.

The improved quality of the 35 mm format can be seen even on an SD transmission. The same applies to HD. There is greater degree of manipulation in post-production, i. The benefits of a high resolution, low noise image are also apparent when encoding to DVD.

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If operated in progressive mode HD cameras capture motion in a way that is similar to the film look. HD quality distribution to large screen or HD flat screen is becoming increasingly common across a wide range of industries beyond broadcasting.

Ikegami have demonstrated a true fps p camera that uses a hard disc to record the images. There is a range of digital super slo mo cameras using single chip imagers of up to 2k resolution, that are capable of up to frames per second. The images, usually totalling two or three thousand frames are stored in RAM, then downloaded. As the size of the image plane is much smaller than 35 mm all the resolving power has to be fine-tuned into a small image plane, so both mechanically and optically they are technically superior to 35 mm lenses.

Second and third generation HD lenses are now available that virtually eliminate breathing and are adequate for TV and feature work. More expensive zooms and primes should be considered if budget permits. In respect of prime lenses, Zeiss and Fuji have superb glass and Canon have a new set of primes. Panavision have adapted their lenses to B4 mount.

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On tight budgets a post-production supervisor can schedule the offline or online independently of any sound work. On tight budgets it is possible to do a rough cut with sync and including basic track laying in the offline. Once the pictures are locked all audio channels can be lifted from the online for the sound dub. Expect more audio track laying to take place in the offline as onlines are becoming more audio feature rich. There are two options. The Angenieux adapter is mm in length and is T1.

The other options utilize a fast spinning ground glass where the image from the 35 mm lens is focused. The image from the ground glass is re-photographed to fit the smaller HD sensor. The result is a soft look with texture. These systems typically reduce effective aperture by one and a half stops.

It captures motion in a very similar way. Some people get disturbed watching the monitor when the camera is being set up and often panned around very quickly.

This is not something you see watching film dailies of course. Also if watching a pan on a monitor from a distance the edges of frame can take your attention rather than the subject. Next time you are at the cinema watch the edges of frame not the subject during a pan and you will see strobing. A camera operator who is new to video will need time to acclimatize to an HD viewfinder.

An alternative to expecting a DoP who has never shot video simply to adapt and cope is to have a video operator or a DoP who has worked on HD as part of the crew. At the moment there are not enough experienced HD hands—so get whoever you can to help. He will be able to troubleshoot any problems and not make silly mistakes.

However, he may not have experience in framing for a big screen or working with a focus puller. In the United States there has been very little drama shot on video whereas in other parts of the world electronic cinematography has existed using Digibeta for many years.

However, even some simple adjustments in camera will start to manipulate the image in a creative and powerful way. You can communicate this look to the rest of the team via the monitor so the collaborative process is efficient and focused. This research was undertaken by maker and researcher, Justin Marshall. His background is in using digital design and production technologies to create physical works, however he has had no previous experience in creating software.

As a programmer and CAD expert Ertu Unver has worked in collaboration with Marshall and has provided expertise, support and training for the development of the software within this project.

Paul Atkinson, has managed and overseen the project 1. An additional aim is to investigate the use of a range of rapid prototyping technologies, along with CNC equipment, as a means of physically manifesting these newly generated forms. The specific objectives of this project were to: 1. Design a piece of software, involving a generative element, which allows users to easily control the generation of unique and complex forms. Build upon and extend pre-existing systems for the outputting of forms in a format appropriate for digital production.

Investigate a range of digital production technologies for their appropriateness to creating physical objects from the data generated by the new software. This work has been conceptualised and developed very much from the perspective of an industrial designer trained in the process of product design and development within a mass production manufacturing context. The project explored the possibilities of and developed a system which essentially allows the mass individualisation of products — the direct digital manufacture of visually closely-related but unique forms of various product types.

While this project has been successful in producing a system for production and work displayed in exhibitions, the most interesting aspect from the overarching view of PIMS has been the philosophical and theoretical debates raised by this work. Issues of authorship of design and the status or value of the products created are two aspects which have been discussed elsewhere [1] as has the debate raised by the nature of the products created.

In so far as the products and the envelope within which they mutate are specified by the designer parametric modelling , they are designed objects not withstanding that a particular iteration of a design produced by the software and selected by a customer may never actually be seen by the designer. As none of the products are exactly the same, they could legitimately be described as one-off pieces of art — a performance conducted by computer.

Yet the variations of similar forms, the limited production runs involved, and the involvement of the customer in the process of selection mean that the relationship between the object and its consumer are elements more associated with the craft production of artefacts.

This affinity with craft is in spite of the fact that no item is made, or even touched, by hand in the process of creation. These factors are the ones which are of interest to PIMS — the impact and potential of new and emerging technologies to further blur the already contested distinctions between art, craft and design. The research question for this project, then from the point of view PIMS was to explore the differences in approach taken and the potential of the system to perform differently if the system was made available to be adapted and developed by a craft practitioner as opposed to an industrial designer.

The Project A broadly pragmatic and exploratory approach was taken in undertaking this research. Many makers and craft practitioners approach the use of technologies, not with a rigid predefined aim to achieve a particular result, but to explore the possibilities the technology affords. The attitude taken by the principal researcher falls within this approach and the project was initiated with no fixed aim to produce work of a particular type, or solve a particular problem.

Previous work by Marshall has involved the use of 2D periodic and aperiodic tessellation systems to develop infinitely complex non-repeating patterns and structures ii. This broad area of interest provided a starting point for the software development.

Virtools iii game authoring software was employed throughout this project to create the systems described in this section. The software described in the section has all been designed with user interaction in mind. However, to date it has been exclusively used by Marshall in the creation of new works and test pieces.

Some of the work shown below is the result of a direct translation of the designs generated by the software into physical form, while other works involve a more complex process which involved the employment of other CAD and image manipulation software. In order to provide worldwide access to the software and therefore have the potential to capture a broad constituency of individuals to try the systems developed, a project website has been created iv.

An alternative method for creating unique forms is to use a modular system where the required complexity is created through rules being applied to the repetition of simple units rather than the mutation of a pre-existing object.

Both Future Factories and AutoMAKE provide opportunities for the consumer to interact with a system to create a unique object, but at different levels.

Future Factories allows no interaction other than for the consumer to select the exact moment that the product mutation ceases. In contrast AutoMAKE provides a range of mechanisms for users to interact with the process of creating forms.. These opportunities were provided with the aim of engaging the user and so creating some sense of ownership of the forms created.

In order to provide a simple basic structure to the matrixes a rectilinear format was selected and a small series of units designed in such a way that they always joined together when placed next to each other. Original units modelled in 3Dmax and used in first matrix build software The first software developed gave the user the opportunity to select any, or all, of the units.

The generative system was then set in motion. This involved one randomly selected unit, from those chosen by the user , being placed in one of the free spaces next to the initial unit, the system then checked all the spaces around the units and randomly selected one of the free spaces to place another randomly selected unit. This process continued until the system was stopped and a file saved. The random placement of four basic units to create an abstract form This process succeeded in creating random matrix structures, however as the structures grew in size the number of spaces which required checking grew significantly, therefore the system became slower and slower, eventually crashing.

In addition the file saving process was based on writing a 3D file in the. As there was no optimization or file compression within our system, the exported files were extremely large even when the matrixes were made up of a small number of units. It had always been intended that the matrixes could be made up of many hundreds, or even thousands, of units. Therefore a new approach to placing new units and to exporting files had to be considered. These issues were solved by adapting the space checking procedure so that only the spaces around the previously placed unit were checked.

This resulted in a system that did not significantly slow down because the number of spaces checked stays constant as the matrix grows. To solve the file size issue a script was created that allowed a dataset of unit codes and coordinates to be exported from the software.

These text files are extremely small, and are therefore easily sent via email. This system has proved very successful, however it did require the creation of a script to be run in 3D Max that recreates the forms generated in the build software. To create a greater level of user control and put some restriction on the generation of potentially infinitely large matrixes, a series of constraining meshes were introduced.

These meshes function by acting as an obstacle to the growth of the matrixes. On one hand this can be frustrating and lead to a build being abandoned, on the other hand it produces forms that exhibit visual characteristics that are a balance between the random nature of the underlying generative system and the control the user has attempted to impose, which can have a unique appeal.

In conjunction with these constructional developments the screen interface went through a series of iterations in order to make it as self-explanatory and user friendly as possible. There are still issues with the constraining of developing forms and the memory intensive nature of this software which limits build sizes on a standard desktop machine to a few hundred units. However it is believed that this software has reached a stage in its development where enough flexibility and functionality has been created to allow a level of play and experimentation which can engage users and it is ready for testing.

This software has also been adapted to generate 2D patterns and has been employed by Marshall to produce the digital print and CNC cut work described in section. The use of physics engine capabilities within Virtools allows each unit to be given a different set of characteristics e.

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