This Digital Download PDF eBook edition and related web site are NOT.. dependable philosophy Think and Grow Rich by Na. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for The Art of Electronics - Horowitz & aracer.mobi - aracer.mobi . This page intentionally left blank THE ART OF ELECTRONICS Third Edition Paul Horowitz HARVARD UNIVERSITY Winﬁeld Hill ROWLAND INSTITUTE AT.
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Paul Horowi tz. UNlvERSITy. W inf ield Hill ROWLAND INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE. CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. CAMBRIDGE. UNIVERSITY PRESS. Paul Horowitz is a Research Professor of Physics and of Electrical Engineering at Harvard Winfield Hill is by inclination an electronics circuit-design guru. THE ART OF ELECTRONICS. Second Edition. Paul Horowitz HARVARD UNIVERSITY. Winfield Hill Row. ROWLAND INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE, CAMBRIDGE.
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You've been outbid by an automatic bid placed earlier by another bidder. You're the highest bidder on this item, but you're close to being outbid. In it we have attempted to convey the excitement and know-how of the subject of electronics. In this chapter we begin the study of the laws rules of thumb and tricks that constitute the art of electronics as we see it.
It is necessary to begin at the beginning — with talk of voltage current power and the components that make up 1 A mid-century computer the IBM cost weighed 2. The reader with some background in elec- tronics may wish to skip over this chapter since it assumes no prior knowledge of electronics. These are usually changing with time otherwise nothing interesting is hap- pening.
Voltage symbol V or sometimes E. A joule J of work is done in mov- ing a coulomb C of charge through a potential differ- ence of 1 V. Current symbol I. Always refer to current through adeviceor connection in a circuit. However we do frequently speak of the voltage at a point in a circuit.
Soon you will too. We generate voltages by doing work on charges in devices such as batteries conversion of electrochemical energy generators conversion of mechanical energy by magnetic forces solar cells photovoltaic conversion of the energy of photons etc.
We get currents by placing volt- ages across things. The single most useful electronic instru- ment is the oscilloscope which allows you to look at volt- ages or occasionally currents in a circuit as a function of time. In real circuits we connect things together with wires metallic conductors each of which has the same voltage on it everywhere with respect to ground say. Here are some simple rules about voltage and current: The sum of the currents into a point in a circuit equals the sum of the currents out conservation of charge.
Engineers like to refer to such a point as a node. Itfol- lows that for a series circuit a bunch of two-terminal things all connected end-to-end the current is the same everywhere. A B Figure 1.
Parallel connection. Things hooked in parallel Figure 1. Another way to say it is that the sum of the voltage drops around any closed circuit is zero. The power energy per unit time consumed by a circuit device is P VI 1. For V in volts and I in amps P comes out in watts. Power goes into heat usually or sometimes mechan- ical work motors radiated energy lamps transmitters or stored energy batteries capacitors inductors. Manag- ing the heat load in a complicated system e.
Art of Electronics Third Edition 1. Relationship between voltage and current: A selection of common resistor types. Top row left to right wirewound ceramic power resistors: Middle row wirewound power resistors: Bottom row: It is the heart of elec- tronics. Crudely speaking the name of the game is to make and use gadgets that have interesting and useful I-versus- V characteristics.
We will gradually get into some of these exotic devices for now we will start with the most mundane and most widely used circuit element the resistor Figure 1. Figure 1. Resistance and resistors It is an interesting fact that the current through a metal- lic conductor or other partially conducting material is proportional to the voltage across it. In the case of wire slide 7: Their etymological derivations are a matter of some controversy and should not be con- sidered historically reliable.
In general units are spelled with lowercase letters even when they are derived from proper names. This is by no means a universal law for all objects. For instance the current through a neon bulb is a highly nonlinear function of the applied voltage it is zero up to a critical voltage at which point it rises dramatically. The same goes for a variety of interesting special devices — diodes transistors lightbulbs etc.
It is characterized by its resistance: See the box on resistors Chapter 1x and Appendix C for further details. To add confusion to this simple scheme the four-digit size code may instead be metric sometimes without saying so in units of 0.
There are almost as many types as there are applications. They are used to set operating currents and signal levels. Resistors are used in power circuits to reduce voltages by dissi- pating power to measure currents and to discharge ca- pacitors after power is removed. They are used in pre- cision circuits to establish currents to provide accurate voltage ratios and to set precise gain values.
In high-voltage circuits they are used to measure voltages and to equalize leakage cur- rents among diodes or capacitors connected in series.
In radiofrequency RF circuits they set the bandwidth of resonant circuits and they are even used as coil forms for inductors. Resistors are available with resistances from 0.
The 1 types have 96 values per decade whereas the 2 and 5 types have 48 and 24 values per decade see Appendix C. Fig- ure 1. The princi- pal defects are variations in resistance with temperature voltage time and humidity.
We treat these in the advanced Chapter 1x. This may sound aw- fully trite but you will soon see what we mean. The resistance of two resistors in series Figure 1. The resistance of two resistors in parallel Figure 1. Thus a 4. Resistors in series.
Resistors in parallel. Exercise 1. You have a 5k resistor and a 10k resistor. What is their combined resistance a in series and b in parallel Exercise 1.
If you place a 1 ohm resistor across a 12 volt car battery how much power will it dissipate Exercise 1. Prove the formulas for series and parallel resistors.
There is an analogous scheme for capacitors and inductors. In so doing they trade off some of the terrifying speed of computer-oriented processors in favor of built-in memory and peripherals. To put it another way Figure