Oral radiology principles and interpretation 7th edition pdf


 

Download ORAL RADIOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND INTERPRETATION, 7th Edition.. Free PDF Download of Dental Book. Best Dental Library for Dentist. Interpretation, 6th Edition, offer the following features: Oral radiology: principles and interpretation / [edited by] Stuart C. White, Michael J. Pharoah.— 6th ed. Oral radiology: principles and interpretation / [edited by] Stuart C. White, Michael Oral Radiology [electronic resource]: Principles and Interpretation. - 6th ed.

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Oral Radiology Principles And Interpretation 7th Edition Pdf

White and Pharoah's Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation and Interpretation, 7th Edition visually demonstrates the basic principles of oral and. The book is broadly categorised into two parts: firstly the 'Principles' of radiology such as how ionising radiation interacts with biological matter. This edition is for sale in the Middle East and Africa only The publisher's Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 7th edition by Stuart C. White and.

Otto Walkhoff in Germany, Dr. Edmund Kells in New Orleans, and Dr. Rollins in Boston. Rollins was also a pioneer within the field of radiation safety, and we follow his simple ideas to nowadays. We dedicate this version to Dr. Harry M.

Digital Imaging 5. Film Imaging 6. Projection Geometry 7. Intraoral Projections8. Intraoral Anatomy9. Extraoral Projections Panoramic Imaging Other Imaging Modalities Quality Assurance and Infection Control Caries Periodontal Diseases In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most current information provided i on procedures featured or ii by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, and to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions.

Principles and Interpretation has been written keeping in mind the above purpose. In this book Elsevier has worked with professional question writers to prepare a collection of MCQs to accompany the subject matter covered in each chapter of the textbook, Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 7th edition by Stuart C.

White and Michael J. Pharaoh ISBN: The style of MCQs is three distractors and one correct answer so the student will need to mark the correct option accordingly. Below each rationale, reference to the page number of the main textbook, Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, is given for the students who want to revise or study the particular topic again.

The aim for the student is to get as many correct as possible and to revise any subject area where the number of correct marks is low. We sincerely hope that students will find the book extremely useful. We welcome comments and suggestions from students and teachers, which will help in improving this book further.

Elsevier Ltd. Juan Martin Palomo for his insightful feedback in review- ing this book. The publisher would also like to thank Nicole G. Day and her team for their efforts in preparing the multiple choice questions. Which statement BEST describes matter? Composed of electrically neutral atoms. May be subdivided by chemical methods. Anything that has mass and occupies space. Contains inner structures that can be divided.

Which nucleus component of the atom determines the identity of the element? The number of quarks.

The number of protons. The number of leptons. The number of neutrons. What determines the atomic mass of an atom? Force carrier particles. Quarks, both up and down. Orbital strength of the electrons. Total number of protons and neutrons. The Quantum Mechanical Model describes contemporary understanding of the a. Atoms have a maximum number of how many known orbitals? Which statement BEST describes the amount of energy required to remove an electron from a given orbital?

Exceeds the electrostatic force of attraction. Magnitude related to greater distance from nucleus. Lost energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Lowest principal quantum number, then lowest angular momentum. The specific balance between the positively charged nucleus and the surrounding negatively charged electrons is called a. The process resulting in the disruption of the electrical neutrality of the atom is called a.

Loosely bound electrons can be displaced by which low energy radiation? Visible light. Which type of particle is used in the treatment of skin cancers? Linear energy transfer LET of particulate radiation refers to a. Radio waves. MR imaging. Beta particles.

Bundles of energy are called a. The amount of energy acquired by one electron accelerating through a potential difference of 1 volt is called the a. Which is a property of electromagnetic waves?

Oral Radiology

Cause ionization. Have mass and weight. Travel at the velocity of light in a vacuum. Do not cause biologic changes in living cells. Which unit is typically used to characterize low-energy photons such as radio waves?

Which are the primary components of an x-ray machine? Cathode and anode. Tube head and filters. Control panel and collimator. X-ray tube and power supply.

Which component of the x-ray machine is necessary in order to generate and accelerate electrons? Focal spot. Power supply. Tube vacuum. Focusing cup.

Which is the source of electrons within the x-ray tube? Control panel. The number of electrons emitted is determined by the a. The focusing cup is made of a.

Which is the purpose of the target in an x-ray tube? Remove generated heat. Stop production of electrons. Convert electrons into x-ray photons. Aim the electrons toward the area to be imaged.

High melting point. High vapor pressure. High atomic number. High thermal conductivity. Copper and which other component of the x-ray machine tube head dissipates heat? Insulating oil. Metal housing. Glass envelope. Electronic focusing cup. Which is the purpose of a rotating anode? Increase production of x-rays. Decrease number of electrons. Eliminate need for angled target. Dissipate heat from small focal spot. Which type of x-ray machine utilizes a stationary anode?

Medical computed tomography. The flow of electrons from the cathode filament, across the tube to the anode, and then back to the filament is called the a. Which x-ray machine control regulates the filament temperature? Exposure time. Milliamperage mA. Kilovolt peak kVp. Which x-ray machine control converts the primary voltage from the input source into the desired secondary voltage?

Which is an advantage of a constant-potential x-ray machine over a self-rectifying x-ray machine, given a voltage and radiographic density setting? Lower patient radiation dose. Increased radiation production. More efficient use of electricity. Effective use of inverse voltage. Which x-ray machine control limits the duration of x-ray production? How many impulses of radiation equivalent occur in a one-fourth 1 4 second exposure? Which is the approximate heat storage capacity for anodes in dental x-ray tubes?

Which factor determines the interval between successive x-ray exposures? Heat dissipation. Number of electrons. Which is the primary form of radiation produced from an intraoral x-ray tube? When an electron from the filament directly hits the nucleus of a target atom, which entity is produced? New atom. Single x-ray photon.

Decelerated electron. Characteristic radiation. Which statement does NOT explain the continuous spectrum of x-ray photons? Accelerated electrons form characteristic radiation. Deflected electrons give up varying amounts of energy. Electrons striking the target have varying levels of kinetic energy. Electrons participate in many bremsstrahlung interactions before losing all their kinetic energy. Which occurs when an electron is ejected from its orbital by an incident electron?

Particulate radiation. Secondary radiation. Bremsstrahlung radiation. Doubling the exposure time will result in which occurrence? Doubling the range of photon energies. Doubling the number of photons generated. Decreasing by half the x-ray emission spectrum.

Decreasing by half the number of electrons produced.

Tube current mA. Tube voltage kVp. Inherent filtration used to decrease beam intensity by one half. Increased beam intensity to compensate for one half reduction due to distance. Thickness of absorber necessary to reduce the number of x-ray photons by one half. Total filtration necessary to compensate for increased number of electrons produced. Which is the purpose of dental x-ray machine filtration? Decrease beam intensity. Reduce the size of the x-ray beam.

Regulate the shape of the x-ray beam. Eliminate low-energy photons. According to government regulations, the total filtration for a dental x-ray machine set at 69 kVp should be a. Which is the purpose of collimation of the x-ray beam? Direct photons. Intensify beam. Reduce exposure area. Adjust for source-to-point distance. If the source-to-point distance is increased, then which adjustment should be made to ensure consistent image density?

Increase kVp. Decrease mA. Increase exposure time. Decrease added filtration. If a dose of 2 Gy is measured at a distance of 4 m, then which is the dose found at 2 m?

Cease to exist. Ionize absorber atoms. Produce a homogenous beam. Convert energy into ejected electron energy.

During patient exposure, which type of beam attenuation occurs MOST frequently? Coherent scattering. Compton scattering. Photoelectric absorption. Soft tissue. Tooth pulp. The probability of a Compton interaction is directly proportional to which entity?

Source-to-point distance. Electron density of the absorber. Third power of the atomic number of the absorber. Interaction of a low-energy incident photon with an outer electron. Energy of beam. Density of absorber. Thickness of absorber.

Half-value layer of beam. Determining the quantity of radiation exposure is called a. K-edge absorption. A measure of the capacity of radiation to ionize air is called a. Which unit is used to compare the high linear energy transfer LET of particulate radiations to a lower-LET radiation such as x-rays? Exposure dose. Absorbed dose. Equivalent dose. Effective dose. Which unit is used to compare the risk of radiation exposure of one part of the body to another part?

The traditional unit called radiation absorbed dose rad is expressed in the SI system as a. Feedback 1. Matter is composed of electrically neutral atoms as well as electrically positive and negative atoms. Atoms cannot be subdivided by chemical methods. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.

Book review: Oral radiology: principles and interpretation, 7th edition

Fundamental matter particles have no inner structure and cannot be divided. Neutrons and protons are composed of quarks.

The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom determines the atomic number or the nuclear charge, which identifies the element. The stable leptons are electrons and neutrinos which exist as solitary particles. Neutrons possess a neutral electrical charge and are composed of one up quark and two down quarks. Force carrier particles mediate interactions between matter particles, but do not deter- mine the atomic mass of matter. Protons and neutral neutrons are comprised of up quarks and down quarks, but do not determine the atomic mass of matter.

The orbital strength of the electrons is related to the location of the electrons in space, but does not determine the atomic mass of matter. The atomic mass of matter is determined by the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. The Standard Model describes the fundamental nucleus structure, comprised of matter particles and corresponding antiparticles. The Standard Model describes the force carrier particles or the means by which matter interacts without touching.

The Quantum Mechanical Model describes understanding of the arrangement of electrons in an atom. Atoms have a maximum number of 7 known orbitals, not 5. Atoms have a maximum number of 7 known orbitals. Atoms have a maximum number of 7 known orbitals, not The amount of energy required to remove an electron from a given orbital must exceed the electrostatic force of attraction.

The electrons in the orbital closest to the nucleus require the greatest amount of energy to be displaced. Energy is lost in the form of electromagnetic radiation during the process of moving an electron from an outer orbital to one closer to the nucleus. The lowest principal quantum number, then lowest angular momentum, describes the orbital order of occupation of electrons. The means by which matter interacts without touching is determined by force carrier particles.

The specific balance between the positively charged nucleus and the surround- ing negatively charged electrons is called electron binding energy. Electromagnetic radiation is a spectrum of radiation consisting of bundles of energy called photons.

The process resulting in the disruption of the electrical neutrality of the atom is called ionization. Particulate radiation is one of two types of radiation resulting from the transmission of energy through space and matter.

Electromagnetic radiation is one of two types of radiation resulting from the transmission of energy through space and matter. Infrared is a form of nonionizing radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove bound electrons. Loosely bound electrons can be displaced by ultraviolet radiation.

Dental Library-Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 7th Edition - Dental Library-

Visible light is a form of nonionizing radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove bound electrons. Microwave radiation is a form of nonionizing radiation that does not have sufficient energy to remove bound electrons. Linear energy transfer LET of particulate radiation refers to rate of loss of energy, not conversion state.

Linear energy transfer LET of particulate radiation refers to rate of loss of energy. The process of forming an ion pair, or ionization, occurs any time an atom loses an electron.

The penetration ability of atoms depends upon the type of particle released. Visible light is an example of electromagnetic radiation. Radio waves are an example of electromagnetic radiation. MR imaging is an example of electromagnetic radiation. Bundles of energy are called photons. Radioactive refers to the particles or rays produced by larger, unstable atoms.

The wave theory maintains that radiation is propagated in the form of waves. Electron volt is the unit of measurement of photon energy. The amount of energy acquired by one electron accelerating through a potential difference of 1 volt is called the electron volt eV.

The wave theory maintains that radiation is propagated in the form of waves, with photons with shorter wavelengths having higher energy. Whether or not electromagnetic waves cause ionization depends upon the wavelength, photon energy and physical properties.

Electromagnetic waves do not have mass or weight. Particulate radiations are tiny parti- cles of matter that possess mass. Electromagnetic waves travel at the velocity of light in a vacuum. Some forms of electromagnetic waves can cause biologic changes in living cells. High-energy, not low-energy, photons are typically characterized by their energy eV.

Direction is not used to characterize photons. Low-energy photons such as radio waves are typically characterized by their frequency kHz and MHz. Wavelengths, measured in nanometers, are used to characterize medium-energy photons such as visible light and ultraviolet waves. The x-ray tube is composed of a cathode and an anode. The x-ray tube is one of the primary components of an x-ray machine.

The x-ray tube and filters are positioned within the tube head. The tube head and filters are not primary components of the x-ray machine.

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The control panel allows for adjustment of the produced x-ray beam. The collimator is used to reduce the size of the x-ray beam. Neither is considered a primary component of the x-ray machine. The primary components of an x-ray machine are the x-ray tube and its power supply. The focal spot is a small rectangular area on the anode.

It receives the projected electrons. The x-ray machine power supply is necessary to generate the production of electrons from the filament and to accelerate the electrons toward the anode.

The x-ray machine tube is vacuumed to prevent gas molecules from disrupting the fast- moving electrons, and it prevents burnout of the filament. The anode, consisting of a tungsten target embedded in a copper stem, receives the electrons directed from the cathode. The filament, located at the cathode of an x-ray tube, is the source of electrons within the x-ray tube. The x-ray machine control panel allows the operator to determine the number and energy of electrons produced.

The focusing cup of the cathode organizes and directs the electrons toward the anode. The high-voltage source determines the speed of electrons moving from cathode to anode. The number of electrons emitted from the filament is determined by the tem- perature of the filament.

The filament is composed of tungsten wire, which has a high melting point. The copper stem of the anode surrounds the tungsten target. Granite is not used within an x-ray machine. The filament of the cathode and the target of the anode are composed of tungsten. The focusing cup is made of molybdenum.

The copper stem surrounding the tungsten target absorbs generated heat. Electrons are produced at the filament, with the number being determined by the heat of the filament.

The purpose of the target in an x-ray tube is to convert electrons into x-ray photons. The electrons must be converted to x-rays before being used to produce an image. The high melting point of the target is needed because heat is generated at the anode. An ideal target material should possess low, not high, vapor pressure at the working temperatures of an x-ray tube in order to maintain the tube vacuum.

A target made of a high atomic number material is most efficient in converting electron kinetic energy into x-ray photons. Tungsten has a high thermal conductivity which readily dissipates heat into the copper stem.

The insulating oil between the glass envelope and the housing of the tube head carries heat away from the copper stem. The metal housing of the x-ray machine tube head does not conduct or disperse heat.

The glass envelope surrounding the x-ray tube creates a vacuum compartment. The electronic focusing cup houses the filament and corrals the produced electrons. A rotating anode does not increase the production of x-rays. A rotating anode does not contribute to a decrease in the number of electrons. The number of electrons produced is determined by the heat of the filament. The angled position of the target allows for a small focal spot while distributing the electrons over a larger target area.

A rotating anode, typically found in extraoral x-ray machines, is another method used to dissipate generated heat. An intraoral x-ray machine utilizes a stationary anode. A dental tomographic x-ray machine utilizes a rotating anode. A dental cephalometric x-ray machine utilizes a rotating anode.

A medical computed tomography x-ray machine utilizes a rotating anode. Voltage is a unit of measurement of the force of electrical current. The flow of electrons from the cathode filament, across the tube to the anode, and then back to the filament is called the tube current. X-ray production occurs when electrons strike the tungsten target. The filament transformer reduces the voltage of the incoming alternating current.

The exposure time switch does not regulate the filament temperature. The milliamperage mA control regulates the temperature of the filament and thus the number of emitted electrons. The kilovolt peak kVp switch does not regulate the filament temperature.

The exposure time switch does not convert the primary voltage from the input source into the desired secondary voltage. The kilovolt peak kVp selector adjusts the autotransformer and converts the primary voltage from the input source into the desired secondary voltage. Given a voltage and radiographic density setting, an advantage of a constant- potential x-ray machine over a self-rectifying x-ray machine is that the patient receives a lower dose of radiation.

Increased radiation production is not an advantage of a constant-potential x-ray machine. More efficient use of electricity is not an advantage of a constant-potential x-ray machine. Effective use of inverse voltage is not an advantage of a constant-potential x-ray machine. The control for the length of the exposure time limits the duration of x-ray production. The x-ray machine milliamperage mA switch does not control the duration of x-ray production.

The x-ray machine kilovolt peak kVp switch does not control the duration of x-ray production. A setting of 15 impulses, not 9, of radiation equivalent occurs in a one-fourth 1 4 second exposure.

A setting of 15 impulses of radiation equivalent occurs in a one-fourth 1 4 second exposure. A setting of 15 impulses, not 20, of radiation equivalent occurs in a one-fourth 1 4 second exposure. A setting of 15 impulses, not 30, of radiation equivalent occurs in a one-fourth 1 4 second exposure. The approximate heat storage capacity for anodes in dental x-ray tubes is 20 kHU, not 5 kHU. The approximate heat storage capacity for anodes in dental x-ray tubes is 20 kHU, not 15 kHU.

The approximate heat storage capacity for anodes in dental x-ray tubes is 20 kHU. The approximate heat storage capacity for anodes in dental x-ray tubes is 20 kHU, not 30 kHU. The dissipation of heat produced at the target, not the kVp setting, relates to the duty cycle or the frequency with which successive exposures can be made. The dissipation of heat produced at the target, not the exposure time setting, relates to the duty cycle or the frequency with which successive exposures can be made.

The dissipation of heat produced at the target relates to the duty cycle or the frequency with which successive exposures can be made. The dissipation of heat produced at the target, not the number of electrons produced, relates to the duty cycle or the frequency with which successive exposures can be made. Secondary radiation is created when the primary radiation beam interacts with matter.

Characteristic radiation, comprising only a small fraction of the photons in an x-ray beam, occurs when an incident electron ejects an inner electron from the atom orbital.

Bremsstrahlung radiation, the primary form of radiation, occurs when electrons are suddenly stopped or slowed down. When an electron from the filament directly hits the nucleus of a target atom, a new atom is not produced, but a single x-ray photon is produced.

When an electron from the filament directly hits the nucleus of a target atom, a single x-ray photon is produced—bremsstrahlung radiation. When an electron from the filament directly hits the nucleus of a target atom, a deceler- ated electron is not produced, but a single x-ray photon is produced. When an electron from the filament directly hits the nucleus of a target atom, charac- teristic radiation is not produced, but a single x-ray photon is produced.

All electrons are accelerated from the tungsten filament toward the tungsten target. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation are produced during the continu- ous spectrum of x-ray production. During the continuous spectrum of x-ray production, deflected electrons give up varying amounts of energy.

During the continuous spectrum of x-ray production, electrons striking the target have varying levels of kinetic energy. During the continuous spectrum of x-ray production, electrons participate in many bremsstrahlung interactions before losing all their kinetic energy. Characteristic radiation occurs when an incident electron ejects an inner elec- tron from the atom orbital. Bremsstrahlung radiation, the primary form of radiation, occurs when electrons are sud- denly stopped or slowed down.

Doubling the exposure time will not result in doubling the range of photon energies; rather, the range of photon energies is unchanged. Doubling the exposure time will result in doubling the number of photons generated. Doubling the exposure time will not result in decreasing the x-ray emission spectrum; rather, the x-ray emission spectrum remains unchanged with a greater number of photons generated at all levels.

Doubling the exposure time will not result in a decreased number of electrons produced at the filament. Collimation does not affect the beam intensity, but it does affect the shape of the beam. The beam intensity is affected by exposure time. The beam intensity is affected by tube current mA. The beam intensity is affected by tube voltage kVp.

The half value layer HVL refers to the thickness of absorber necessary to reduce the number of x-ray photons by one half; it includes inherent and added external filtration. The half value layer HVL refers to the thickness of absorber necessary to reduce the number of x-ray photons by one half.

The kVp, mA, and exposure time controls determine the beam intensity. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Dental radiology. White, M. Rights and permissions To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink. About this article Publication history Published 25 July Authors Search for T. Hughes in: British Dental Journal menu.

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