The thirteenth edition of Pharmaceutical Calculations represents a thorough update of this text- book, which for more than six decades has met the needs of. This page intentionally left blank. Pharmaceutical Calculations 13th Edition Pharmaceutical Calculations 13th Editi. Scope of Pharmaceutical Calculations. Chemical purity, Physical and biological parameters. Drug stability, rates of drug degradation and shelf life.

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PDF | On Jan 1, , Antoine Al Achi and others published Universal Pharmaceutical Calculations: An Overview. Sample from Introduction to Pharmaceutical Calculations, 4th edition, published by Pharmaceutical Press. 4. Concentrations. Learning. Pharmaceutical Calculations is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or .

The student may wish to see this problem solved by ratio and proportion: Step 1. If an insulin injection contains units of insulin in each milliliter, how many milliliters should be injected to receive 40 units of insulin? How many milligrams of digoxin would be administered with a dose of 0. In a clinical study, a drug produced drowsiness in 30 of the patients studied. How many patients of a certain pharmacy could expect similar effects, based on a patient count of ? A formula for tablets contains 6.

Holzbach and M. Marsh, Mol. Holzbach and C. Corbusier, Biochim. Park W. Danzinger St. Accepted for publication October 21, The seventh edition is in the same format as earlier ones but contains an expanded chapter on dosage calculations and additional chapters on interpreting the prescription and calculations involving parenteral admixtures.

Many new practice problems have been added to appropriate chapters.

The interpretation presented is aimed specifically a t helping the student solve problems presented in the prescription, medication order, or formula and does not duplicate infor- mation given in other chapters, as one might expect.

The subject matter is presented in a direct manner with enough examples to be easily understood. This is a considerable improvement over the 6th edition which contained a table of body weights and surface areas. Unfortunately, the reference to the use of this method Harry Shirkey uses the West nomogram, which gives results different from that of DuBois. Perhaps an expanded discussion could cover this point in the next edition.

The inclusion of calculations involving lean body mass, loading dose, maintenance dose, and the use of creatinine clearance rate is an excellent choice of subject to update the book. The explanations and examples are all clear and precise except for the calculation and use of creatinine Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences I Vol.

The material covers the application of the milliequivalent and millimole concepts to the use of additive solutions in parenteral therapy. The use of various solutions obtained from ampuls or vials and the constituting of total parenteral nutrition or hyperalimentation fluids are included, as are computations of the flow rates of intravenous solutions.

Its clear but concise explanations, numerous examples, and various practice problems have made it so. The new materials are good additions to an already excellent book.

Reviewed by Noel 0. Edited by J. Noyes Data Corp. In the foreword, the editor gives an excellent and precise description of the information contained in the book. The information is based on U S. The editor indicates that the book is a data-based publication, providing information retrieved and made available from the US.

Thus, it serves a double purpose in that it supplies detailed technical information and can he used as a guide to the patent literature in this field. By indicating all the significant information and eliminating legal jargon and juristic phraseology, this book represents an advanced, commercially oriented review of recent developments in the field of sustained-release medications.

The book is composed of 14 chapters; it contains patents covering processes. The first chapter deals with patents describing the preparation of excipients used in the manufacture of these medications. Included are controlled-release tableting media talc, ethylcellulose, methyl stearate mixtures, hydrated hydroxyalkylcelluloseplus aliphatic alcohol, and salts of polymeric carboxylates , polymer gels chelated hydrogels and water-insoluble hydrophilic copolymers , enteric-coating materials cellulose ether compositions, partial esters of acrylate-unsaturated anhydride copolymers, and water-soluble coating resins , and polyesters polymers with oxyacycloalkane units, polymers with alkoxy or oxacycloalkane substituents, bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid polyester condensates, and bioerodable partial esters of polycarboxylic acids.

Patented processes involved in the preparation and coating of microcapsules is covered in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 includes processes for preparing capsules as well as tablet cores and tablet coatings. Patents dealing with films and webs are discussed in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes 10 processes utilized in the design of diffusion devices containing medications soluble to some extent in the polymeric material.

Chapter 6 includes 16 processes involved in the preparation of osmotic devices that use polymeric materials permeable to water and body fluids but not permeable to the drug. The next four chapters describe devices such as implants, ocular inserts, intravaginal and intrauterine inserts, and devices for use in the GI tract. These devices utilize bioerodable polymers selected so that the device and the medication are absorbed by the body.

Chapters deal with various sustained-release medications such as heart and circulatory drugs, antispasmodics, antibiotics, aspirin, and analgesics and GI tract drugs. The final chapter describes veterinary preparations.

The book is a must for individuals interested in sustained-release technology. It is well written and would be a great timesaver and a source of many excellent ideas. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. Academic, Fifth Ave. Progress in Drug Metabolism, Vol. Wiley, Third Ave. Bioenergetics and Thermodynamics: Model Systems. Reidel Publishing Co. Masson, 14 E. Handbook for Prescribing Medications During Pregnancy.

Little, Brown, 34 Beacon St. Solids Handling. AbrPg6 de Pharmacie GalBnique, 3rd ed. LE HIR. The Safety of Medicines: Evaluation and Prediction. Abr6g6 de Pharmacologie: Ggnerale et Moleculaire, 2nd ed. Progress in Pharmacology, Vol. Presynaptic Mechanisms1 Vasodilator Drugs.

Edited by P. The accuracy varies with the number of significant figures, which are all absolute in value except the last, and this is properly called uncertain. Any of the digits in a valid denominate number must be regarded as significant.

Whether zero is significant, however, depends on its position or on known facts about a given number. A zero between digits is significant. Final zeros after a decimal point are significant.

Zeros used only to show the location of the decimal point are not significant. Any zero between digits is significant. Initial zeros to the left of the first digit are never significant; they are included merely to show the location of the decimal point and thus give place value to the digits that follow. One or more final zeros to the right of the decimal point may be taken to be significant.

Examples: Assuming that the following numbers are all denominate: 1. In The digit 5 tells us how many tenths we have. The nonsignificant 0 simply calls attention to the decimal point. The first 0 calls attention to the decimal point, the second 0 shows the number of places to the right of the decimal point occupied by the remaining figures, and the third 0 significantly contributes to the value of the number.

One of the factors determining the degree of approximation to perfect measurement is the precision of the instrument used. It would be incorrect to claim that 7. We must clearly distinguish significant figures from decimal places.

When recording a measurement, the number of decimal places we include indicates the degree of precision with which the measurement has been made, whereas the number of significant figures retained indicates the degree of accuracy that is sufficient for a given purpose. Rules for Rounding 1. When rounding a measurement, retain as many figures as will give only one uncertain figure.

For example, in using a ruler calibrated only in full centimeter units, it would be correct to record a measurement of When eliminating superfluous figures following a calculation, add 1 to the last figure retained in a calculation if it is 5 or more. For example, 2. When adding or subtracting approximate numbers, include only as many decimal places as are in the number with the fewest decimal places. For example, when adding However, when an instrument has the capability to weigh precisely all the quantities in such a calculation, rounding may be deemed inappropriate.

In this regard, there is an assumption made in pharmaceutical calculations that all measurements in the filling of a prescription or in compounding a formula are performed with equal precision by the pharmacist. Thus, for example, if the quantities 5. When multiplying or dividing two approximate numbers, retain no more significant figures than the number having the fewest significant figures. For example, if multiplying 1. When multiplying or dividing an approximate number by an absolute number, the result should be rounded to the same number of significant figures as in the approximate number.

Thus, if 1. State the number of significant figures in each of the italicized quantities: a One fluidounce equals Round each of the following to three significant figures: a If a mixture of seven ingredients contains the following approximate weights, what can you validly record as the approximate total combined weight of the ingredients? Perform the following computations, and retain only significant figures in the results: a 6. Round each of the following to three decimal places: a 0. If we arrive at a wrong answer by using a wrong method, a mechanical repetition of the calculation may not reveal the error.

But an absurd result, such as occurs when the decimal point is put in the wrong place, will not likely slip past if we check it against a preliminary estimation of what the result should be.

Because it is imperative that pharmacists ensure the accuracy of their calculations by every possible means, pharmacy students are urged to adopt estimation as one of those means.

Proficiency in estimating comes only from constant practice. Therefore, pharmacy students are urged to acquire the habit of estimating the answer to every problem encountered before attempting to solve it. Estimation serves as a means for judging the reasonableness of the final result.

The estimating process is basically simple. Then, the required computations are performed, as far as possible mentally, and the result, although known to be somewhat greater or smaller than the exact answer, is close enough to serve as an estimate.

In addition, we can obtain a reasonable estimate of the total by first adding the figures in the leftmost column. The neglected remaining figures of each number are equally likely to express more or less than one-half the value of a unit of the order we have just added, and hence to the sum of the leftmost column we add half for every number in the column. Example: Add the following numbers: , , , , , and In multiplication, the product of the two leftmost digits plus a sufficient number of zeros to give the right place value serves as a fair estimate.

The number of zeros supplied must equal the total number of all discarded figures to the left of the decimal point. Approximation to the correct answer is closer if the discarded figures are used to round the value of those retained. Example: Multiply by In division, the given numbers may be rounded off to convenient approximations, but again, care is needed to preserve the correct place values. Example: Divide by 5.