Editorial Reviews. From Library Journal. The sequel to James's The Theater Props Handbook, this is the second book in the author's crafts trilogy. Properties . Results 1 - 16 of 26 [KINDLE] The Prop Builder's Molding & Casting Handbook by Thurston James. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can. Meant for prop builders in theater or film, this how-to book is the best overall guide for making molds and castings for any reason. Casting is a.
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Trimming - During cooling, the material from the channels in the mold solidifies attached to the part. This excess material must be trimmed from the casting either manually via cutting or sawing, or using a trimming press.
The time required to trim the excess material can be estimated from the size of the casting's envelope. A larger casting will require a longer trimming time. The scrap material that results from this trimming is either discarded or reused in the sand casting process.
However, the scrap material may need to be reconditioned to the proper chemical composition before it can be combined with non-recycled metal and reused. Equipment Mold In sand casting, the primary piece of equipment is the mold, which contains several components. The mold is divided into two halves - the cope upper half and the drag bottom half , which meet along a parting line. Both mold halves are contained inside a box, called a flask, which itself is divided along this parting line.
The mold cavity is formed by packing sand around the pattern in each half of the flask. The sand can be packed by hand, but machines that use pressure or impact ensure even packing of the sand and require far less time, thus increasing the production rate.
After the sand has been packed and the pattern is removed, a cavity will remain that forms the external shape of the casting. Some internal surfaces of the casting may be formed by cores.
Cores are additional pieces that form the internal holes and passages of the casting. Cores are typically made out of sand so that they can be shaken out of the casting, rather than require the necessary geometry to slide out. As a result, sand cores allow for the fabrication of many complex internal features. Each core is positioned in the mold before the molten metal is poured.
In order to keep each core in place, the pattern has recesses called core prints where the core can be anchored in place. However, the core may still shift due to buoyancy in the molten metal. Further support is provided to the cores by chaplets. These are small metal pieces that are fastened between the core and the cavity surface. Chaplets must be made of a metal with a higher melting temperature than that of the metal being cast in order to maintain their structure.
After solidification, the chaplets will have been cast inside the casting and the excess material of the chaplets that protrudes must be cut off. In addition to the external and internal features of the casting, other features must be incorporated into the mold to accommodate the flow of molten metal. The molten metal is poured into a pouring basin, which is a large depression in the top of the sand mold.
The molten metal funnels out of the bottom of this basin and down the main channel, called the sprue. The sprue then connects to a series of channels, called runners, which carries the molten metal into the cavity. At the end of each runner, the molten metal enters the cavity through a gate which controls the flow rate and minimizes turbulence. Often connected to the runner system are risers. Risers are chambers that fill with molten metal, providing an additional source of metal during solidification.
When the casting cools, the molten metal will shrink and additional material is needed. A similar feature that aids in reducing shrinkage is an open riser. The first material to enter the cavity is allowed to pass completely through and enter the open riser.
This strategy prevents early solidification of the molten metal and provides a source of material to compensate for shrinkage. Lastly, small channels are included that run from the cavity to the exterior of the mold. These channels act as venting holes to allow gases to escape the cavity.
The porosity of the sand also allows air to escape, but additional vents are sometimes needed. The molten metal that flows through all of the channels sprue, runners, and risers will solidify attached to the casting and must be separated from the part after it is removed.
Sand Mold - Opened Sand Mold - Closed Sand The sand that is used to create the molds is typically silica sand SiO2 that is mixed with a type of binder to help maintain the shape of the mold cavity. Using sand as the mold material offers several benefits to the casting process. Sand is very inexpensive and is resistant to high temperatures, allowing many metals to be cast that have high melting temperatures. There are different preparations of the sand for the mold, which characterize the following four unique types of sand molds.
Greensand mold - Greensand molds use a mixture of sand, water, and a clay or binder. Greensand molds are the least expensive and most widely used.
Skin-dried mold - A skin-dried mold begins like a greensand mold, but additional bonding materials are added and the cavity surface is dried by a torch or heating lamp to increase mold strength. Doing so also improves the dimensional accuracy and surface finish, but will lower the collapsibility. This ranges from creating employment to the finished products that we use in our daily lives.
We use these products both for functional and decorative applications. Advantages of zinc die casting Ideally, these are the basic facts that make zinc the best choice for a number of manufacturing processes.
Opting for zinc alloys should be designed for individuals who wish to achieve the following key aspects: Process flexibility This is a critical aspect in the metal alloy processing industry. The zinc alloys can be die cast to any shape of choice. This is actually the main reason why it is used for both high quantity and quality production processes.
Precisions and tolerance This eliminates any additional machining operations that would otherwise increase the production costs. This is due to the fact that zinc alloys can be die cast to closer tolerances that other metal alloys.
Basically, this implies that the final product will be exact component that is desired. Strength and ductility A number of plumbing or machinery component are die cast. Zinc alloys can withstand very extreme pressure — as high as 60, psi. Due to its ductility, the end products are suitable for riveting, bending and crimping operations.
Again, it is also worth noting that the zinc alloy is tougher than most metal alloys. Excellent thermal properties These die cast parts possess desirable electrical conductivity. This is the main reason why they are used for electrical components such as heat sinks or any other application that requires an electromagnetic shielding.
Apart from the properties listed above, it is worth mentioning that other properties of die cast zinc parts also possess the following key features: excellent rigidity, anti-sparking, good bearing properties, easy finishing, thin wall castability, long tool life, recyclable and ease to machine.
Applications of zinc die casting As mentioned above, the die casting process produces structures with a number of superior chemical and physical properties. This is actually one of the main reasons why the process is popular across very many industries. Generally, the zinc cast parts are mainly used in the following key applications: 1. To manufacture complex metal parts This is due to the fact that it is easier to manufacture items that are accurate with very tight tolerances. Moreover, this is also attributed to the fact that the zinc can be manipulated to a wide range of shapes.
These alloys are also used to manufacture parts that should be wear resistance with the ability to maintain high structural integrity. This is essential in the electrical and automotive industry. The fact that zinc alloys can be used to manufacture very thin parts makes it a perfect choice for a number of consumer products, especially the consumer electronics.
In summary, as we wind up this section, there are a few things you need to note and these include: You should be able to choose the right zinc alloy for any die casting process Understand the basic properties that make zinc alloy a perfect choice for a given application. Aluminum Die Casting Since aluminum was discovered over years ago, it has remained to be one of the most abundant metal. It is used for a wide range of engineering applications and it can be manipulated to any shape depending on the requirements at hand.
Apparently, die casting aluminum has proved to be environmentally and sustainable. This reduces the amount of waste in the environment. In fact, it is a non-ferrous metal that is commonly die cast in the world today. Again, die casting aluminum is generally cost effective. This is basically due to the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of aluminum.
This is the main reason why it has been adopted globally. To decide whether to use aluminum alloys for a particular application, you need to understand the basic physical and chemical properties. This forms and integral part when it comes to decision making. Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys This is a versatile metal with a wide range of desirable physical and chemical properties.
This is actually the reason why the aluminum die cast parts are used in a number of domestic and industrial applications.
Some of these properties include: Superior corrosion resistance This explains the reason why these die cast parts are used in chemical and petroleum industries.
This metal cannot be attacked by most organic and inorganic compounds. This is due to the fact that it reacts with atmospheric air to form a thin oxide layer that is inert. In some instances, the die cast parts can be processed using the electrolytic oxidation process. Lightweight It has an average density of 2.
The aluminum alloys are some of the lightest alloys available. This implies that the die cast components can be used in applications where the overall weight of the product should be reduced as much as possible.
They are commonly used in the aerospace industry. Superior thermal and electrical properties This is due to its position in the periodic table. Aluminum has an oxidation no.
It as free electrons that can conduct electricity and thermal energy. This is actually the main reason why they form a perfect alternative for copper. High operating temperature This is the main reason why the die cast aluminum parts can be used in a number of electrical applications.
These include heat sinks, electrical connectors, thermometer covers, etc. This is also the main reason why the die cast parts are used as utensils. Strength and hardness Generally, the aluminum alloys are stiff with superior strength to weight ratio. This explains the reason why they can be used as rails.
Environmentally friendly These metals are fully recyclable thus, reducing the scrap metal in the environment. RFI and EMI shielding properties This is the main reason why they are used in electrical components where these radiations may reduce or interfere with the systems performance. In addition to these, the aluminum alloys also possess superior surface finish.
Blending all the above properties together, the designers are always sure of a die cast aluminum part with superior performance. This is the main reason why these die cast parts are used in the following industries: Applications of Aluminum Alloys Since we have highlighted a number of applications when discussing the characteristics of these metals, we shall list the various industries and specific components that are manufactured from these alloys.
However, you should note that this list may not be exhaustive. These industries include: They are used in the automotive and aerospace industry.
This is because their lightweight contribute significantly in fuel efficiency. They are used in electrical, thermal and electronics industries.
This is due to superior electrical and thermal properties and good shielding properties. The die cast aluminum can be used as electrical connectors in the high temperature applications.
The die cast parts are used in networking in both computers and communication industries. This is because they can dissipate heat and act as the radio frequency filter. In short, it is virtually impossible to live without the die cast aluminum parts.
Again, we need to note that there are different types of alloys optimized for different applications. This makes it crucial to discuss the aluminum alloys as essential die casting materials. It will also help when it comes to deciding on the kind of materials one should opt for.
Types of Aluminum Alloys For Die Casting Applications In this eBook, we shall focus on 7 different types of aluminum alloys that are die cast in most industrial setup. These alloys include the following: The K-alloy; this aluminum allow is known to possess the following key properties: resistance to corrosion, improved cooling and zero post die casting operations.
Alloy ; superior die casting properties and it possess good fluidity and guarantee better pressure tightness. Alloy ; it possesses the following key properties: dimension stability, ease of casting and good mechanical properties.
It has superior corrosion resistance too. Alloy B; it is known for its superior wear resistance and high hardness. They are mainly used to die cast the internal combustion engine pistons. The A; it is mainly used to cast aluminum parts where pressure tightness and fluidity is a priority. It maintains corrosion resistance and strength even at elevated temperature.
Alloy A; its properties are similar to that of the alloy A This alloy is mainly used to die cast hydraulic cylinder components. Alloy A; it has good thermal and mechanical properties.
Its performance properties is similar to most alloys listed above. In summary, by the end of this section, you need to understand the basic properties of all the possible aluminum die casting alloys. This is important when you need a specific aluminum alloy for a given application.
Brass Die Casting Brass , is an alloy of mainly copper and zinc. By varying the amount of copper and zinc in the final product brass , we are able to obtain different types of brass alloys. Choosing a given type of alloy will depend on the primary objectives one intends to realize.
Normally, these metals may not provide the desired performance properties of brass, thus, other metal elements can be added. This basically aims at incorporating the desired features. This implies that, without lead, then it will be difficult to die cast brass.
In this section, we shall focus on the main properties that we need to consider when we want to choose brass alloy for any given applications. With this information, we should be make the right decision as far as choosing the right metal is concerned. Metals that are cumbersome to die cast will result in high production cost. It is important to note that brass is not inherently easy to machine. Lead is a perfect choice for this application since it has a low melting point than both copper and zinc.
In some instances, silicon can be used instead of lead. However, brass alloys with silicon must not be mixed with the ones having lead.
Corrosion resistance Brass alloys can be modified to offer high level of corrosion resistance. A good example is the dezincification resistant DZR brass. It will remain effective and reliable even in harsh environmental conditions. They can resist aggressive environmental conditions. This is the main reason why the die cast brass parts are used in plumbing systems with high temperature or high concentration of chloride. Die casting these parts require careful manufacturing process.
This is crucial when it comes to balancing the desired metal elements. Low melting temperature This makes die casting brass a cost effective process. This implies that less energy will be required to melt and subsequently process it to obtain the desired shapes.
Bright or gold like appearance This makes it a perfect choice for most decorative applications. The brass parts that have been die cast are used to make door knobs, window locks, flowers vases, bearings, etc. The brass cast parts are extensively used in a number of electrical, musical instruments and plumbing applications. Its color, which tend to resemble that of gold makes the brass die cast components resistant to tarnishing.
Low co-efficient of friction Brass is generally soft thus, it can be used to make die cast parts that do not require friction. These include bearings and fittings. The die cast brass parts with a thin layer of transparent aluminum are self-healing. Tin also serves the same purpose.
A reason why it is a perfect choice for the brass parts used in water applications such as the naval brasses. This makes it a sustainable metal as it reduces the amount of scrap metal. In summary, from these properties, you can easily examine the situation at hand and decide whether to adopt brass die cast parts of not.
So, what are the main applications of brass die cast components? Applications of brass die cast parts Based on the above properties, we can summarize the key applications of brass die casting as: Parts that should be resistant to corrosion e. In short, brass is a versatile alloy that can be used for nearly all applications. It is upon the end user to examine the requirements of the application at hand.
Another demanding process is to determine the right brass alloy. That is, one that meets the required application of a given die cast part. This is based on the basic constituents of the alloy alongside the primary elements copper and zinc.
The variation in their constituents make the alloys suitable for different applications. This basically calls for critical analysis and evaluation of every aspect before deciding on a specific alloy to go for. Some of the most common brass alloys include: Admiralty brass; it is mainly used in applications where dezincification is a problem. It is made of zinc, copper and tin.
This is due to its high corrosion resistance. The main constituents include copper, zinc, tin and iron Alpha brass; they are mainly used in pressing applications. They contain aluminum. Arsenical brass; the die cast parts from this brass alloy are mainly used in boiler fireboxes. Beta brass; they can be die cast easily. DZR brass; contain arsenic and very resistant to most weather conditions. Rich low brass; it is mainly used to cast jewelry.
As you can see, there are very many alloys of brass that you can die cast. This actually makes it difficult to choose the right alloy for a specific application. This is why you need to get an expert in the die casting materials. It is quite evident that all these variations are as a result of varying the main constituents of these metal elements. Owen E. Multimedia Performance. Dr Rosemary Klich. Glass Beads. Louise Mehaffey. How to Produce a West End Show.
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