Making Faces Table of Contents. Background. Goals for Carving in the simplest terms. Improving 8-Head Proportion of Human Figure. • Top of head. Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. t h a n the human face and the meaning behind the expressions that pass across it. THE A-B-C's OF FACE CARVING. The human face is two thirds wide and three thirds tall using the Rule of Three of Facial proportions. The key is to think of the.
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CARVING THE HUMAN FACE, 2nd EDITION, by Jeff Phares, lets woodworkers bring their carvings to life. Chronicling the stages in creating a realistic human. Carving the Human Face book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Chronicling the stages in creating a realistic human face from wood. Learn how to carve the wood spirit face, step by step, DIY free project online book by Lora Irish for cane the outer covering to reveal the inside ball, you have the sphere inside a sphere shape of the human eye. PDF E-Book – $ Value.
As a general rule and as you can see above, eyes sit directly in the center of the head, measured from the top of your head to the bottom of your chin. Because hair usually covers the top part of your head, we assume that eyes are actually much higher on the head.
This is one of the main reasons faces end up looking a little wonky. In this study by Leonardo da Vinci, you can see that the eyes are in the center of the head. Leonardo da Vinci wrote in his notebooks that the face can be divided into thirds—one-third from the bottom of the chin to the nostrils, one-third from the nostrils to the eyebrows, and one-third from the eyebrows to the hairline not the top of the head.
You can download the book as a PDF from here if you want, using the Download Options box on the lower right to download it to your computer. In the book, Loomis explains that the head is three and one-half units high, nearly three units wide, and three and one-half units deep side view from the tip of the nose to the back of the head. The three units divide the face into forehead, nose, and jaw, the same way Leonardo da Vinci divided his faces. The last one-half unit at the top of the head encompasses the hairline up to the top of the cranium skull.
The Vertical Lines Of The Male Head Looking above at this model, if you draw a vertical red line down the center of the face, you divide the face into two equal portions. The Horizontal Lines Of The Male Head Looking now at the horizontal lines of the head, the center dividing line red marks where the eyes sit on the overall size of the head, from chin to the top of the cranium.
The one-half at the top establishes the hairline and the top of the cranium. Look at the lower third on this face—the bottom two green lines at the bottom of the nose and the end of the chin. AsmallerburrwilI be necessary in the tight curve around the nostrils.
The burr can also be used to make the initial Fig. The lips and chin can now be roughly shaped. Having measures the length of the nose from the tip to the backs ofthe nostrils. This will bemadedeeper than occurs naturally to compensate for the shadow created by lashes. Check the symmetry and correctness of the shapes by looking up and down the face.
Once this geometric shape i s achieved it i s relatively simple to r7t the eyelids around it. Notice that the eyeball i s tilted forward. After the eyelids are roughed in with the burr. Also the top Iii i s undercut. The Basic Face shapingofthe uppereyelid.
The Basic Face The lips are now shaped. At the corner there i s a slight depression and all the surfaces roll into the corner. Very subtle shaping beneath the eyes. The joint ofthe lips must be deeply cut. Check this against the cross section Fig. First measure carefully from the bottom lid of each eye to the corresponding corner of the mouth.
The corners of the mouth will usually have to be brought back round the face because the mouth area will not be curved enough. This means that you must judge the distance'C-G' Fig. The area above the top lip i s slightly hollowed so that the lips curl outward. The face must now be sanded. Do not start with afiner gritor you will end up with tool rnarksshowing on the finished surface. The iris can be taken up under the top lid.
There are many finishes that can be used. I find that wax polish can easily clog up details on small scale work. The face i s intended to express hope and exhilaration. It can be seen in Fig. For example. A trace of worry is shown by slight creases between the eyebrows.
This draws the muscle around the mouth tightly around the teeth. It i s all the more important to understandthe basic mechanics of the face in order that the main. Most carvers will be working on figures up to 60cm 24" high which means that the face will only be 5 or 7.
This is cheap and easy to do. Make a clay model. Some thickening and wrinkling i s created under the eyes. The head is cawed in walnut and is4. The mouth is open. I can not stress enough that you must start with real reference material. In the drawings and photographs. The best approach to carving a head like this is to find a person prepared to pose holding the expression while you take photographs.
Take pictures from all angles. In this study. Study your model and your photos.
This stage can be seen from the side in Fig. The naso-labial furrows have been roughed in forming the curve of the mouth. On the right side these features have been carved creating the hollowing of the eye sockets with a slight bulge forthe eyeball. The cheekbone starts to show as a result of cutting in the infraorbital furrow and slightly hollowing the cheek. Virtually all of this work has been carried out using rotary burrs rather than gouges. The eyes are now cut in with small gouges in the usual way.
Notice that the mouth has been turned up atthe corner creating more of a smile. On this scale any imbalances in the basic shape will be hard to correct. The lips arevery thin and tightly stretched around the teeth. The teeth are cut in and separatedfrom the lips. The nostrils are drilled out with a burr and the opening of the mouth deepened. Atthis point you should find it bestto roughly sand 6 e face and check that all is symmetrical before siarting on detail.
The eyeballs should be sanded before cornpletingthe lids orthey may be damaged. The Lrrows at the sides of the mouth have been deepaed. Moving down the face. Viewingthe head - from below. The furrows in the cheeks are sharply defined to create more tension in the jaw. The finished carving is shown in Fig. The corners of the mouth have been raised and deepened slightly to make moreof a smile.
I Fig. In comparing the finished head with the original drawings. The wrinkles under the eyes are made with a small 'u' shaped gouge. In the finished head. The desired expression is now beginning to appear. Forthe same reason. The Expressive Face Fig. These small ng your personal touch into it. A model can not be expected to show real theeyes a little wider by cutting backthe lids.
In this unaccustomed situation. What I feel you must aim for i s the archetypal expression in order to convey to the observer the point you are making. What he is actually doing is trying to sew a hole in a sock. More subtle expressions are obviously desirable attimes. Harlequin i s frustrated by his own incompetence at this simple task. If Harlequin looked as if he sewed his socks every day. The expression may seem extreme.
The Exaggerated Expression Figs 48 and 49 showthe early stages ofthecarving. From Fig. The main point is that you must decide on the expression you wantand doeverythingtoenhance it. The lines cefocus our attention on theeyes. What makes the stare so nse is the contradictory nature of the expression. Once you understand the face. The Exaggerated Expression the deep folding of the cheek by this action in contrastwith the more tightly heek.
The face would then become a simple-minded Stan Laurel type of character. Only major features are carved. The wide open stare s therefore unusual. Although e natural I feel the half closed eyes would suggest fidence whilstthe staring eyes to suggest a frustration bordering on madness.
Howeverthat may be. Notice also that the face is not actually very detailed. The forehead i s deeply towards the centre. Imagine for a moment that Harlequin's eyebrows were raised high instead of being lowered. There are no small wrinkles and folds to confuse the situation the face is in fact simplified and stylised like a mask. The bone at the bridge of the nose is not apparent on the girl. From the side the frontal eminencies and brow ridges can be clearly seen.
Although the infra-orbital furrow can beseen on the female Figs 56 and On the man's face these true. Notice Fig. The carved head shown here Fig. Range of Expressions iurrow particularly. It is this that makes dder faces so much easier to carve. The face has k e n made thin to indicate his. This clearly demonstrates the folding of the skin created at right angles to the direction of the muscle contraction.
This can be seen in an extreme form in Fig. There is also some contraction of the circular muscle round the eye. Figs Fig. One could conceivably use it for the creases on the man's forehead but the edges would have to be rounded. Nowhere is there a 'V'. The muscles radiating from the mouth are contracting and pullingthe lips upwards and backwards. It should be clear from these pictures that the common practice of cutting lines in the face with a 'V' tool i s totally inadequate and inappropriate.
Another furrow appears on both. These folds are either soft and smooth or deep with sharply rounded edges. These studies show a grinning face carved in walnut. Taken out of context they can be misinterpreted.
Neither of these faces seem to express genuine pleasure but rather one of evil delight or sadistic pleasure. It follows. What this seems to tell us about facial expressions is that they are an interpretation of Fig. This is because the faces are frowning at the same time as smiling.
Like the exaggerated photographs of the model he displays stereotyped symptoms of suspicion. If you coverthe top half ofthe face Fig. The heavy frown. The photograph of the model Fig. As mentioned before. Compare this with the young girl in Fig. Notice the perfect symmetry of her lineless face exuding innocent joie de vivre. In the satyr's face Fig. The chin boss has moved upward pushing against the bottom lips creating a deep fold between them. The whole becomes almost comical as you study it.
Deep linesandfoldsareformed atthe bottom of the cheek. Figs 75 and O n both subjects the eyes are so hooded they seem to have sunk in to the skull as if to hide from the awful truth. The foreheads are distorted. Range of Expressions In the carving. You must create the expression so that it i s obvious to all.
Your model must pose with the required expression. The eyes. If you wish to add details such as masks. If the top half of the model's face is covered. The important point for this carving is that the mouth i s the more expressive part of the face. Great care must be taken carving a face like this or it will look ridiculous. The teeth are bared ready for fighting and the face contorted to frighten h e enemy. The whole structure of the face is changed and the meaning is quite unequivocal.
Figs 1. Range of Expressions Fig. They all exhibit the same characteristics. In such cases one must try to emphasise the significance of the facial expression by the use of body language.
These emotions are complex and related. This would range for instance from the realisation that there was smoke in your bedroom through the horror of seeing the flames. Although one might interpret Fig. In some cases people would clench their teeth and screw up their eyes to shut out some awful things. Taken alone it could be someone singing or calling out. The three heads are in fact looking down at some rather unseemly goings on below them and showing their different reaction to it.
The carving. Figs 91 and Figs 89 and In different scenarios the faces would be different. The following pages show a variety of faces and expressions. To record the second by second changes in one person's face would need a motion picture and all we have i s a few photographs of individuals trying to express emotions they do not even feel at the time. I suggest that you use every opportunity to photograph faces and collect them from magazines.
It i s usually portrayed by aslightly raised head. Overall the impression i s of a totally immobile face. When one looks at some of the Greek statues of Apollo. Where does that leave US then? What we can do i s to learn the simple mechanics of the face and the psychology that relates to it. Range of Expressions 47 In Fig. It i s interesting that the face of the Zamburu woman. The model in Figs 98 and 99 gives an indication of the slightly raised head mentioned earlier.
The Alchemist. Study of antique Greek. Roman and Renaissance art would be well repaid in the search for nobility. Figs and Pickthe most expressivefeatures you think necessary to give your carving the feel that it needs to succeed. This shows the valueof having several different studies to work from.
If you coverthe face from the lips down. In truth I do not think people puff out their cheeks to blow flutes or bubbles but I felt it was a more expressive face than the real thing. In my carving I have exaggerated the eyebrows and bony ridges above the eyes. The cheeks are more defined than on the boy and the features are generally coarser and more pronounced as one would. These may be rarely required. This is a useful expression which could be adapted for a variety of figures such as a cherub.
And Figs and are equally odd faces and continue the sniffing or smelling theme. The folds can be very deep and acute.
Two cuts at an acute angle should release the sliver of wood and the corners can then be carefully rounded. Look at a lot o i the type of character you require and analyse what are the features that make them so and concentrate on those in your carving. The oriental lady looks as i i she would be a bit of a joker. Yet for all we know he could be a monster.
The clown at the bottom i s able to pull grotesque faces but the expressions have no meaningfor us. Ultimately one must accept the limitations of the medium.
I think there i s something about the eyes.
Whether this i s simply a stereotype is hard to say. We all know when we see aface with 'character' but to determine what actually creates character in a face i s not so easy. I think. It also depends on the scale of the head. If we need to carve a face with 'character'wearefaced with reproducing minute variations of iacial characteristics which can vanish as quickly as a mood changes.
The downward smile i s curious. The problem is that ultimately one ends up with a face that has many folds. If you clench your fist and study the fold around your forefinger you will see the effect I mean. Using a fine punch may be worth trying. The actual carving of heavily lined faces such as these requires considerable technical expertise.
A good source of the right faces I think would be actors and actresses whose faces are their fortune. As the creases becomesmaller. But the old boy at top left has. If it i s simply an attribute o i ageing.
On occasion. This creates a rather bland. With such a complex character. The faceon Touchstone. Notice also the slightly smug smile on the face of Merlin. I 15 jester The traces of concern on the Masai warrior's face. What i s he thinking?
The lines on the forehead are somewhat stylised.
If a igs The muscles are still working but as yet have not developed sufficiently to pull the face into creases. This feature obviously strikes a chord in us. Figs and show some of the subtle yet powerful expressions created by slightfacial changes. The young face at the top i s the almost indifferent but the slight droopiness round the mouth suggests a certain despondency. The eyebrows are major players in the expression of moods. They are very mobile and are capable of minute variations which can usually be interpreted as an indication ofthe person's stateof mind.
The sculptor Bernini accentuated the hollowing under the eyes on his marble to simulate the slight blue colouring often seen there which makes the face appear sunken eyed.