Comm 3 Book (Practical Speech Fundamentals) - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf) or read book online. Communications 3 Module. Department of Speech. View CommBook-Practical-Speech-Fundamentals (2) from ENGLISH 10 at University of the Philippines Diliman. Comm. 3: Practical Speech Fundamentals by Prof. Celia T. Bulan Ph.D & Prof. Ianthe De Leon you can find, download at aracer.mobi website. You will find book.
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It is vital to teaching and learning, as well as forming bonds and building relationships with other people. Misunderstandings can arise because of poor word choice, differing perspectives and faulty communication techniques, and subjective opinions regarding acceptable language may result in verbal dispute. Consider the message you wish to communicate before speaking and communicate with respect for the recipient's point of view.
Pay attention to what you say and how you say it. Speak clearly and enunciate your words and be conscious nonverbal aspects such as eye contact, posture and facial expressions. This ability is the foundation of human communication. As the social psychologist Roger Brown put it, effective communication " As Herbert Clark and Susan Brennan have observed, certain activities by their very nature involve joint or collective action, and it makes little sense to think of participants' actions as individual events.
By developing your skill in oral communication you will gain the following: It is in grave danger if we neglect it through indifference, ineptitude or cowardliness. Although active listening is a skill in itself, covered in depth on our listening pages, it is also vital for effective verbal communication. Krauss, Robert M. White, Eugene E. Practical Speech Fundamentals. Figure Woods Symbolic Interaction Model In addition to the models dynamic feature, there is also the systemic quality of communication.
Several levels of systems are represented within the model. Both communicators live within a vast social system or social world composed of all the social systems that make up a given society.
Each communicator belongs to a few not all of such systems and is represented by dotted lines. This is to indicate the openness of these systems to forces of outside of them.
The dotted lines also mean that there is interrelatedness between systems. Furthermore, the model emphasizes the communicators personal construction of meanings through his individual phenomenal world. This world consists of everything that makes up an individual selfconcept, goals, emotions, thoughts, skills, attitudes, past experiences, beliefs, and values.
This world is the basis for interpreting communication. In the model Communicator B interprets As messages through his phenomenal world, not through As. To the extent that these two worlds overlap, A and B will have a clear, shared understanding of symbols. Their personally constructed meanings when found to be common or similar will lead them to deeper communication. Finally, the model presents a feature not highlighted by the other models: constraints. The series of lines indicates the existence of constraints throughout the communication process.
Constraints may come in the form of conditions beyond our control i. The Speech Communication Transaction Model Gronbeck et al Figure Speech Communication Transaction Model Premised on speechmaking, this model is comprised of essentially the following components: a speaker, the primary communicator, gives a speech, a continuous, purposive oral message, to the listeners, who provide feedback to the speaker. The exchange occurs in various channels in a particular situation and cultural context.
SPEAKER The speaker must evaluate himself on four 4 key areas every time he communicates: a purpose; b knowledge of subject and communication skills; c attitudes toward self, listeners; and subject d degree of credibility. Every speaker has a purpose or goal to achieve. It may simply be to befriend someone or it may be more complex, as in trying to change peoples beliefs and behavior.
A speaker may wish to inform or add knowledge, entertain or amuse, impress, inspire or motivate.
In all cases, a speaker has direction and, thus, acts in a goal-directed manner. Listeners generally await a speaker with high expectations. Does the speaker display deeper-than-surface knowledge of his subject? Does he share new, fresh, relevant, and significant insights? Is there depth and breadth in his message?
Can he be considered an authority on the subject? Does his message make it worth their while?
A baseline source of a healthy attitude towards self and others is ones selfconcept, a term usually grouped together with self-worth, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-image. If you feel good about yourself, you will reflect and radiate such an attitude when you communicate with others.
If you dont feel good towards yourself, you might not want to see, talk or communicate with people. Confidence, pleasantness, amiability, commanding presence and other positive traits tend to be manifested by the speaker with healthy attitudes towards himself, the listeners, and his subject. Shyness, uncertainty, poor self-confidence, phlegmatic presence and other self-defeating traits tend to show when the speaker does not hold a healthy attitude towards himself, the listeners, and his subject.
When listeners judge a speaker to be high in trustworthiness, competence, sincerity, attractiveness, and dynamism, the speakers chance of success will be high. Otherwise, his speech communication transaction will be a failure. The concept of credibility is traced back to the classical Greek concept of ethos, a word that means character.
Authors Gronbeck, Ehninger, McKerrow, and Monroe attest to the fact that where a speaker can heighten his credibility, there he will also produce a heightened impact of his message upon the audience.
In public communication, there are three vital aspects of the message: content, structure, and style. Mere facts or descriptions do not a content make. Something more substantial is needed. A speechs content is the substantive and valuative materials that form the speakers view of a topic, and of the world. Content can be likened to an umbrella in whose shade certain select ideas and information come under.
Content is conceptualized by the speaker according to his purposes for a particular audience. Presenting ideas, facts, and information any which way is structure of some sort.
But a speakers structure needs to be one in which his ideas, facts and information can be properly and effectively understood through patterns or coherent arrangements or sequencing of ideas. Such arrangement gradually guides and leads listeners to grasp or comprehend the speakers message.
At the end there must be unity of thought. Personal and impersonal, intimate or distant, poetic or plain, reportorial or impressive, you communicate your speaking style when you select certain words and arrange them in some way.
Style often refers to those aspects of language that convey impressions of your personality, your view of the world, and your individuality or uniqueness as a person. He receives and thinks about what is said in light of his a purpose; b knowledge of and interest in the topic; c level of listening skills; and d attitudes toward self, the speaker, and ideas presented.
Often listeners come to listen with single or multiple expectations. Some want to hear the latest on a raging controversy, others simply want to see what a person looks and sounds like, and still others come to be entertained or humored.
Speakers must match their listeners expectations in order to succeed. It is important to know that listeners want their needs satisfied. Do the listeners know little or much about the topic?
Would they care to hear or be attracted to listen to the topic at hand? Is there something in it for them? Is the group a highly motivated audience? A thoughtful speaker would not initiate a message without first studying his audience on these two critical areas, areas of high impact. Listeners vary in listening skills. Some are naturally receptive while others cant wait to hear the speakers final thank you or good day! Others persevere through long chains of reasoning while the rest are struggling to see the point.
Children cannot listen to lectures or long discourses whereas adults can sit through these. The degree of appreciation in a listener is a function of his listening skills. Training in the discipline of listening is vital to any form of human communication.
Since attitudes of persons are generally shaped by the values they hold, it would be unwise for a speaker to antagonize his audience with contrary opinions. Listeners tend to seek out speakers whose beliefs and views they already agree with, and retain longer those ideas they strongly approve of. A speaker who wishes to alter listeners views must start from familiar and common ground, then slowly build up to his alternative or contrasting ideas.
Listeners yawn or frown, nod or shake, smile or laugh. The speaker instantly interprets these as signals of comprehension or confusion and boredom or satisfaction. The speaker adapts, adjusts, alters, and modifies his speaking behavior in order to respond to such signals. It takes skill and sensitivity to spot cues in audience behavior. The verbal channel carries words; the visual channel transmits gestures, facial expression, bodily movement, and posture of speakers and listeners; the aural channel or paralinguistic channel carries the tone of voice, variations in pitch and volume or loudness, as well as cues on the emotional state of the speaker and tenor of the speech.
At times a pictorial channel aids the communication process by use of visual aids such as diagrams, charts, graphs, and objects.
Simultaneous messages are being communicated through these channels.
A church congregation awaiting services will behave differently from a crowd at a political rally. A function room decorated in heavy dark drapes and lighted dimly may dampen audience response; a wide, brightly lighted space with comfortable chairs may enhance listening behavior or response; a subordinate taking orders from a superior seated behind a massive desk may connote the authoritative and powerful stance of the boss; a roommate talking to another who is chummy would be comfortable and at ease communicating, and so on and so forth.
A social context is a particular combination of people, purposes, places, rules and conventions that interact communicatively.
For example, younger people generally defer to their elders and elders generally speak authoritatively to the young. Certain purposes or goals are more or less properly communicated in varying social contexts. For instance, a miting de avance is a context for attacking or criticizing the program of the incumbent government but not for eulogizing the deceased. Some places are more conducive to certain exchanges than others.
You would hesitate delivering a sermon on board a public bus but speak with fervor in the pulpit on a Sunday. Societies observe certain customs, norms, and traditions that form the framework for social interactions. These give rise to communication rules or norms that often specify what can or cannot be said, how to say what to whom in what circumstances.
Adherence to these rules facilitates and enhances communication. Non-deference entails the risk of non-acceptability. Each culture has its own set of rules for interpreting communication signals. While it may be perfectly alright to address parents by their first names in the U.