The History of Hockey. Pre-reading. Questions: • What do you know about hockey ? • Where do you think the game began? Definitions: • Enthusiasm – a strong. Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a The word hockey itself is of unknown origin. One supposition is that it is a derivative of hoquet, a Middle French word for a shepherd's stave. The curved, or. Where did hockey originate? Who set down the first rules of the modern game? What was the FIH set up to do? Whether you're a history buff or simply want to.
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history of hockey in Canada: international hockey, aboriginal hockey or women's Ko], aboriginal hockey [PDF 1 Ko] or women's hockey [PDF 1 Ko]. This tutorial provides an overview of how to play Hockey. become a hockey player or just want to know the rules of the game and how it .. History of Hockey. The roots of hockey are buried deep in antiquity. Historical records show that a crude form of the game was played in Egypt. 4, years ago and in Ethiopia.
In the sports master of Harrow Public School advised his pupils that, among other things, no more than thirty players per team were allowed on the field at any one time. In those early days, team formation consisted of having more forwards than defenders, a situation that persisted up until the late 's. The game that we know today emerged at Eton College in England in the s when the first rules were written down.
Further rules were written in when the first Hockey Association was formed. The game was played on a field nearly metres in length and all players chased the ball for the whole of the game.
London's Wimbledon Hockey Club organized standardized the game after the many centuries of informal play in England and it thereafter spread to other countries, particularly in Europe and the British empire. In the Teddington Cricket Club effectively lead a movement which resulted in the British Hockey Association being formed which included amongst its rules a striking circle for hitting goals.
Changes in rules and play quickly developed from this beginning and by the pyramid system - five forwards, three halves, two backs and a goalkeeper became the accepted method of playing hockey. In the English, Irish and Welsh hockey associations formed the International Rules Board and umpires were given power to make decisions without waiting for players to appeal for a free hit - something that a large number of players have yet to learn.
The men of the United States also started playing field hockey in , with the Field Hockey Association of America, which regulates men's play, being formed in However, the sport has little appeal to American males and they only medalled once bronze in in Olympic competition, which India, Great Britain, and Pakistan have dominated. Rules for men and women there are essentially the same as in Great Britain - see M.
Barnes and R. Kentwall, Field Hockey 2d ed. Hockey, or "Field Hockey" as it is also known, is now played in every continent with many nations competing in the three major competitions - The Olympic Games, The World Cup and The Champion's Trophy.
Hockey was a strictly amateur affair until , when the first professional league was created - oddly enough in the United States. Shortly after that came the Pacific Coast League PCL and in , a transcontinental championship series was arranged between the two, with the winner getting the coveted cup of Lord Stanley. However, the men running the NHA decided to suspend operations when World War I threw the entire hockey establishment into disarray.
The first Olympic Hockey Competition was held in London in with men's teams competing and with England, Ireland and Scotland competing separately. Women's hockey was not included in the Olympics until Hockey was played at the Commonwealth Games for the first time in After having made its first appearance in the Games, hockey was subsequently dropped from the Stockholm Games, and reappeared in in Antwerp before being omitted again in Paris in The Paris organisers refused to include hockey on the basis that the sport had no International Federation.
It is played professionally in Russia and Sweden and is considered a national sport in Russia. Bandy has its roots in England in the 19th century, was originally called "hockey on the ice",  and spread from England to other European countries around ; a similar Russian sport can also be seen as a predecessor and in Russia, bandy is sometimes called "Russian hockey".
There are national club championships in many countries and the top clubs in the world play in the Bandy World Cup every year.
The game is popular among both males and females in many parts of the world, particularly in Europe , Asia , Australia , New Zealand , South Africa , and Argentina.
In most countries, the game is played between single-sex sides, although they can be mixed-sex. Men's field hockey has been played at each Summer Olympic Games since except for and , while women's field hockey has been played at the Summer Olympic Games since Modern field hockey sticks are constructed of a composite of wood, glass fibre or carbon fibre sometimes both and are J-shaped, with a curved hook at the playing end, a flat surface on the playing side and a curved surface on the rear side.
All sticks are right-handed — left-handed sticks are not permitted. While field hockey in its current form appeared in midth century England , primarily in schools, it was not until the first half of the 19th century that it became firmly established. The first club was created in at Blackheath in south-east London. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan. Ice hockey is played between two teams of skaters on a large flat area of ice, using a three-inch-diameter This puck is often frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice.
The game is played all over North America, Europe and to varying extents in many other countries around the world. Ice hockey is the national sport of Latvia  and the national winter sport of Canada. Men's ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since , and was in the Summer Olympics. Women's ice hockey was added to the Winter Olympics in North America 's National Hockey League NHL is the strongest professional ice hockey league, drawing top ice hockey players from around the globe.
The NHL rules are slightly different from those used in Olympic ice hockey over many categories. International ice hockey rules were adopted from Canadian rules in the early s. The contemporary sport developed in Canada from European and native influences.
These included various stick and ball games similar to field hockey, bandy and other games where two teams push a ball or object back and forth with sticks. These were played outdoors on ice under the name "hockey" in England throughout the 19th century, and even earlier under various other names.
The first organized and recorded game of ice hockey was played indoors in Montreal, Quebec , Canada, on March 3, , and featured several McGill University students. Ice hockey sticks are long L-shaped sticks made of wood, graphite , or composites with a blade at the bottom that can lie flat on the playing surface when the stick is held upright and can legally curve either way, for left - or right-handed players.
Ice sledge hockey or para ice hockey is a form of ice hockey designed for players with physical disabilities affecting their lower bodies. Players sit on double-bladed sledges and use two sticks; each stick has a blade at one end and small picks at the other. Players use the sticks to pass, stickhandle and shoot the puck, and to propel their sledges. The rules are very similar to IIHF ice hockey rules. Canada is a recognized international leader in the development of sledge hockey, and much of the equipment for the sport was first developed there, such as sledge hockey sticks laminated with fiberglass , as well as aluminum shafts with hand-carved insert blades and special aluminum sledges with regulation skate blades.
Based on ice sledge hockey, inline sledge hockey is played to the same rules as inline puck hockey essentially ice hockey played off-ice using inline skates.
There is no classification point system dictating who can play inline sledge hockey, unlike the situation with other team sports such as wheelchair basketball and wheelchair rugby. Inline sledge hockey is being developed to allow everyone, regardless of whether they have a disability or not, to complete up to world championship level based solely on talent and ability.
Matt Lloyd is credited with inventing inline sledge hockey, and Great Britain is seen as the international leader in the game's development. A group of colleges, universities, and military and athletic clubs formed the Ontario Hockey Association in Governor General Lord Stanley donated a trophy in for the national championship, and the first Stanley Cup game was played 22 March , with Montreal AAA victorious before a crowd of Early hockey was played in rudimentary conditions, mostly outdoors on patches of natural ice, with snowbanks for boards and wooden posts for goals.
There were nine players per side on the ice, and the puck could not be passed forward. The onside rule and primitive face-off "bully" were adapted from rugby.
With speed and rough play the game had immediate attraction, and strong local rivalries developed. The sport spread to American universities, beginning with Yale in Hockey was first played in Europe in Vienna in The Winnipeg Falcons won the first Olympic gold medal in hockey and the first international world championship at the Olympic Games in Antwerp, Belgium, in Moritz, Switzerland.
Growth of Professionalism The development of hockey in Canada was profoundly changed by the growth and final ascendancy of professionalism. In the prevailing climate of the late 19th century playing for money was considered immoral, but many players accepted money secretly.
The first overtly professional league, the International Professional Hockey League, was formed in with teams from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Most of the best players were Canadian; they commanded extravagant salaries, lived nomadically from one season to the next, and played for the highest bidder. The Ontario Professional League, organized for the season, was the first openly professional league in Canada, and lasted until The rival National Hockey Association, which originally comprised seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was formed in and reorganized in as the National Hockey League.
The Vancouver Millionaires won the Stanley Cup in Starting in , teams from the Western Canada Hockey League also had a chance to win the Stanley Cup, with the Edmonton Eskimos advancing to the final in and the Calgary Tigers advancing to the final in The WCHL meanwhile dissolved in Professional hockey soon required indoor stadiums, artificial ice, and large payrolls.
Pats and, briefly, Quebec Bulldogs and Hamilton Tigers. However, almost every one of the players came from Canada. The NHL dominated hockey, monopolized players, and controlled salaries and player movement.
After the controversial C-Form gave NHL teams exclusive control over the future careers of boys from age The sole purpose of amateur junior hockey became the development of players for the NHL — not to win titles or to represent a community, but to identify individual prospects. Key innovations were three minute periods , six players , and a gradual relaxation of the rule against the forward pass: allowed between blue lines , within any of the three zones —30 , and across blue lines — The red line was added in — The result was a faster game and more team play.
The s and s Although competition remained keen in smaller centres for the amateur trophies, the Allan Cup and Memorial Cup , the focus remained on the NHL. The Ottawa Senators dominated the s, with six league titles and four Stanley Cup victories, but the team folded in Howie Morenz was the flashiest player, and Eddie Shore the premier defenceman. The NHL in the s and s The schedule continued to increase, from 24 games in —20 to 48 games in —32 and 70 games in — The number of teams dwindled to six, however, with only the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Montreal Canadiens in Canada in But Maurice "Rocket" Richard of the Canadiens was clearly the outstanding offensive player, scoring 50 goals in 50 games in —45, including five goals and three assists in one game.
The Canadiens won the Stanley Cup six times, including a record five straight. Toronto won the Stanley Cup four more times before the league expanded in , and Montreal began another string with five Stanley Cups in the s. Louis, Minnesota, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia.
The Vancouver Canucks were added in —71, along with Buffalo. Scoring Greats The sport increasingly emphasized scoring and offensive play.
Scoring increased in the diluted league, and Phil Esposito of the Boston Bruins set new records for goals 76 and points in a season, while defenceman Bobby Orr revolutionized his position, becoming the first defenceman to win the scoring championship. The offensive emphasis of the sport was typified in the s by the incredible scoring feats of Wayne Gretzky , which are perhaps unmatched in any sport, and of Mario Lemieux.
The WHA began with 12 teams and grew to 14 before rising expenses and dwindling crowds reduced it to 7 in — The competition for players had substantially raised salaries and finally brought NHL teams to more Canadian cities. In a team was moved from Atlanta, Georgia, to become the Calgary Flames. Further expansion in the s resulted in Ottawa re-establishing the Senators.
In —84 Edmonton became the first of the ex-WHA teams to win the Stanley Cup, ending a four-year reign by the New York Islanders; the high-scoring Oilers captured the cup four of the next six seasons before being dismantled by the team's owner. In the early s, Lemieux's Pittsburgh Penguins became the dominant team.
Change and Challenge in the s However, skyrocketing salaries led to financial difficulties for several franchises. In the Winnipeg Jets were also sold, to a group in Phoenix. The sport faced another significant event at the close of the decade when Wayne Gretzky , widely regarded as the game's greatest player, retired in April Yet Canadian teams were increasingly pressured to compete financially with American markets, and Toronto was the only Canadian team to consistently play to sell-out crowds.