Eric Bogatin. Signal and Power Integrity—Simplified, Second Edition. Douglas Brooks. Signal Integrity Issues and Printed Circuit Board Design. Ken Coffman. Eric Bogatin ([email protected]) is with Bogatin Enterprises,. W. th ..  E. Bogatin, Signal and Power Integrity—Simplified. Signal and Power Integrity – Simplified · (Second Edition) · Eric Bogatin - April 19, From the Preface: “Everything should be made as simple as possible.
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You can have too much drive, and also not enough. Buffer insertion. In this approach, instead of upsizing the victim driver, a buffer is inserted at an appropriate point in the victim net. Aggressor downsizing.
This works by increasing the transition time of the attacking net by reducing the strength of its driver. Add shielding.
Add shielding of critical nets or clock nets using GND and VDD shields to reduce the effect of crosstalk this technique may lead to routing overhead. Routing changes. Routing changes can be very effective in fixing noise problems, mainly by reducing the most troublesome coupling effects via separation. Each of these fixes may possibly cause other problems. This type of issue must be addressed as part of design flows and design closure. Re-analysis after design changes is a prudent measure.
On-die termination[ edit ] On-die termination ODT or Digitally Controlled Impedance DCI  is the technology where the termination resistor for impedance matching in transmission lines is located within a semiconductor chip, instead of a separate, discrete device mounted on a circuit board. The closeness of the termination from the receiver shorten the stub between the two, thus improving the overall signal integrity. Chip-to-chip signal integrity[ edit ] Reflections occurring as a consequence of termination mismatch.
See Time-domain reflectometry. For wired connections, it is important to compare the interconnect flight time to the bit period to decide whether an impedance matched or unmatched connection is needed. The channel flight time delay of the interconnect is roughly 1 ns per 15 cm 6 in of FR-4 stripline the propagation velocity depends on the dielectric and the geometry . Reflections of previous pulses at impedance mismatches die down after a few bounces up and down the line i.
At low bit rates, the echoes die down on their own, and by midpulse, they are not a concern. Impedance matching is neither necessary nor desirable.
There are many circuit board types other than FR-4, but usually they are more costly to manufacture.
The gentle trend to higher bit rates accelerated dramatically in , with the introduction by Intel of the PCI-Express standard. Examples of mitigation techniques for these impairments are a redesign of the via geometry to ensure an impedance match, use of differential signaling , and preemphasis filtering, respectively.
In communication engineering this is called intersymbol interference ISI. In signal integrity engineering it is usually called eye closure a reference to the clutter in the center of a type of oscilloscope trace called an eye diagram.
When the bit period is shorter than the flight time, elimination of reflections using classic microwave techniques like matching the electrical impedance of the transmitter to the interconnect, the sections of interconnect to each other, and the interconnect to the receiver, is crucial.
Termination with a source or load is a synonym for matching at the two ends. Together, these properties determine the trace's characteristic impedance.
As a consequence of the low impedance required by matching, PCB signal traces carry much more current than their on-chip counterparts. This larger current induces crosstalk primarily in a magnetic or inductive mode as opposed to a capacitive mode.
To combat this crosstalk, digital PCB designers must remain acutely aware of not only the intended signal path for every signal, but also the path of returning signal current for every signal. The signal itself and its returning signal current path are equally capable of generating inductive crosstalk. Differential trace pairs help to reduce these effects. Thus, PCB traces have a small series resistance typically 0.
Larry usually won the debates, but we both saw how much we learned from the process.
Each chapter went through multiple re-writes, sometimes whole sections thrown out or changed based on our new perspectives. We sent out the first five chapters to industry experts for review and bit our finger nails for their input to come back. Some of the very insightful comments were rather devastating, while others gave us relief that maybe we did understand at least some of these important design principles.
After hours of conference calls, 5,00o hours of writing and editing and simulating, for each of us, three house and two job moves between us, a dozen in person day-long review and debate sessions, and three editors at Pearson Publishing House, the mother company of Prentice Hall, we had the first copies of the hardback book in our hands.
And now you can to. When you get a chance, ask Susan or Marty about it.
But be warned, you will get an earful. He was as excited as we were and signed us up with a book contract on the spot. Both Larry and I thought this was very realistic.
Boy, were we way off! Over the next seven years, Larry and I meet by goto meeting every Thursday morning for up to 2 hours going over outlines, drafts and simulations. Some weeks, we would spend the whole two hours on the phone arguing over one little detail that we each had different, equally strong opinions about and could not reconcile. What a pleasure it is working with a professional who puts science and engineering first and ego way in the back. Every debate ended in a resolution based on the evidence and good solid engineering or physics.
One of us always ended up convincing the other he was right. Larry usually won the debates, but we both saw how much we learned from the process. Each chapter went through multiple re-writes, sometimes whole sections thrown out or changed based on our new perspectives. We sent out the first five chapters to industry experts for review and bit our finger nails for their input to come back.
Some of the very insightful comments were rather devastating, while others gave us relief that maybe we did understand at least some of these important design principles.