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The specific objec- et al. The distribution of partici- test-retest reliability of the derived scores; c to pants in terms of origin was: Therefore, the provide validity evidence in relation to sex and majority of participants were Caucasian, reflect- age. With respect to convergent validity, we ing the ethnicity of the school populations from expected influences of the aesthetic body ideal, which participants were drawn. These schools randomly selected.
Thus, girls hypotheses were based on the notion that expo- and 74 boys and girls and 77 boys sure to mass media, and specially interioriza- adolescents were included at T2 and T3, respec- tion of the body ideal, is related to body tively, who were essentially the same at both dissatisfaction, both in girls and boys Ahern time points participants responded both at et al.
Penelo et al. This item self- sion of the QIC assesses body image in children report questionnaire evaluates the impact that and adolescents. The QIC contains three sec- different social agents advertising, verbal tions. This also by the respondent. Items are un-weighted, since occurs in boys, discriminating significantly scales that equally average evaluations across all between clinical ED patients and non-clinical attributes seem as valid and reliable as measures groups CIMEV-V; Toro et al.
Partici- that take into account the subjective importance pants rate items on a 3-point Likert-type scale of body areas Giovannelli et al. Second, from 0 never to 2 always , and higher scores participants rate the level of their own general reflect a greater influence of the aesthetic physical appearance In general, how do you body ideal.
The wording of some items is score your physical appearance 0 to 10? In the for more, or wish for less. For conformity with height, Fairburn and Beglin, The Spanish adapta- participants choose one of the three following tion of the EDE-Q-4 was used, which has shown options: I would like to be taller, I would like satisfactory psychometric properties in female to be shorter, or Im happy with my height.
This item self-report questionnaire the past 28 days, with higher scores indicating assesses attitudes, feelings and behaviors that more concern.
We applied the Spanish adaptation, which has adequate psychometric properties Castro et al. Informed written consent from body problems evaluated the internal consist- parents and oral consent from adolescents were ency of the resulting scales. Pearsons correla- obtained. After conformity with teachers, the tions for quantitative measures or Cohens questionnaires were voluntarily administered in Kappa for categorical measures were calculated class, as part of a larger assessment conducted to study the one month and seven month test- by two members of our team and with the pres- retest reliability.
Results for girls and boys were ence of the teacher in charge. Students who compared with t-Student tests for quantitative chose not to participate were asked to leave the measures and chi-square tests for categorical class.
Confidentiality was assured, as well as the measures. Finally, depending on the measure- possibility of getting feedback through a mne- ment scale, Pearson or biserial correlation coef- monic code. Data from the first assess- Results ment were collected during the fall of Factor structure and internal Statistical analysis Mean and standard deviation values for the 18 Statistical analyses were conducted with body satisfaction items ranged from 6.
Items on body satisfaction were ana- and from 6. Median in absolute value, components analysis, with direct oblimin- for girls and boys, respectively of skewness oblique rotation.
Listwise deletion was applied. The tors were considered final candidates. Only Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin KMO index of sampling components with an eigenvalue higher than 1 adequacy was also satisfactory.
A minimum of 50 percent of the explained vari- Table 1 shows the rotated factor loadings for ance was required to select a final model, which the pattern matrices. In girls, the 2-factor model should also explain a relevant percentage of explained Factor 1 variance in comparison with the rejected ones.
Therefore, factor 2 consisted of difference with respect to the second highest the remaining 11 items hair, skin, eyes, nose, value in absolute value was above. Next, Cronbachs for quantitative items In boys, the 2-factor model explained Cronbachs Principal components analysis for girls and boys.
Internal consistency Satisfaction with was acceptable for the total score both for girls hair. Total body problem scores skin. Influences of the aes- factors thetic body ideal and shape concern correlated Cronbachs a.
Both statistically significant r between. It seems that, for girls, the factor head and limbs face ele- Girls showed less body satisfaction 6. And the fac- physical appearance 6. In contrast, for problematic 2. No differences were found for con- satisfaction with genitals; and the factor head and formity with height Therefore, in our case, sat- but the magnitudes were low. It seems that a that can be broadly summarized as torso and similar rule underlies the allocation of satisfaction head and limbs.
Only two noticeable differences with genitals. In fact, genital perception varies as a Penelo et al. As a result, the item on satisfaction satisfaction with torso factor 1 and conformity with genitals loaded higher on the most important with weight.
These results are aligned with the factor for body image torso only in boys. In addition, the low or null cor- loadings in girls. Both refer to the two most relations involving satisfaction with head and extreme elements of limbs or extremities, and limbs factor 2 and the other questionnaires both contributed further to the internal consist- also provide evidence of divergent validity.
Girls ones appearance. Thus, items loading on factor 1 were also less conformable with their current would mainly refer to body parts that are disguised weight than boys, as in Lawler and Nixon , or concealed with clothing in Western cultures, but there were no differences regarding conform- while modifiable with dieting, compared to the ity with height between both sexes.
Although body part items loading on factor 2 that are not. Total body height. In relation to age, correlations with QIC satisfaction and body problems were moderately measures were almost small or null, as reported and inversely correlated, supporting the exist- by Lawler and Nixon Using a Cash, ; Cash et al.
General physi- community sample does not ensure the inclusion cal appearance was more related to body satis- of only non-clinical participants. Another limita- faction than to body problems, thus the general tion could be the absence of an item on muscu- evaluation of oneself seems to be closer to the larity, which is especially relevant for boys affective dimension than the cognitive one.
As expected, one month test-retest Shomaker and Furman, ; Yanover and coefficients were slightly higher than seven Thompson, Finally, we were not able to month ones. Internal consistency was also good, include EDI-2 body dissatisfaction assessment, above. The highest correlation coefficients in abso- To conclude, the QIC appears to be an easily lute value between QIC measures and the administrated and brief self-report questionnaire other questionnaires administered corresponded with satisfactory psychometric properties in our to influences of the aesthetic body ideal and community sample.
The the same as body dissatisfaction: Evidence from QIC makes it possible to assess satisfaction and a prospective study of pre-adolescent boys and girls. Body Image 5: Eating body dissatisfaction to aspects involving body Behaviors 5 1 : Washington, DC.
Journal of Social Thus, the availability of a valid and reliable and Clinical Psychology 27 3 : Bearman SK, Presnell K, Martnez E and Stice E Spanish version of this new questionnaire may The skinny on body dissatisfaction: A lon- benefit not only research conducted in Spain, gitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys. Jour- but also in other Spanish-speaking countries. The assessment of body image will contribute to Cafri G, Yamamiya Y, Brannick M and Thompson the diagnosis, prevention and intervention in JK The influence of sociocultural factors body image disorders in adolescent girls and on body image: A meta-analysis.
Clinical Psy- boys, who are the population at risk of ED. An image problems can help to identify high-risk 8-step Program for Learning to Like your Looks. In Cash TF Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image.
Another goal is had rhinoplasty operation five years previously; the patients to underline the importance of keeping the psycho- were divided into two groups: one group consisted of patients pathological dimension in consideration while choosing who had traumatic injuries before the operation and the other patients and reducing long-term problems to a minimum, in group had rhinoplasty for cosmetic purposes. Between the order to achieve patient satisfaction and operation success. In the An extensive search was performed to achieve the goals same study, the patients who did not have a previous history through PubMed, Ambase and PsychInfo by using related of nose injury were discovered to be extremely preoccupied Belli et al with how they look and most patients reported satisfaction themselves socially and can even resort to committing with their current state.
In their research where they evalu- suicide when they lose hope that they can change the look of ated a group of patients, Ercolani et al 22 studied patients their body 31, These patients frequently search for three months prior to, and three months, six months and five cosmetic operations.
In general, BDD diagnosis has been years after their operations. The constant preoccupation with surgery. Among these patients, seven of them decided not to their nose structure is frequently seen in individuals with have the operation, five of them were rejected because they BDD 31, 33, In their study, which included seven male had severe dismorphobia and held unrealistic expectations. When the patients were evaluated six months and five them.
In this study, psychometric scales measuring sym- years after the operation, significant improvements were ptomatic complaints were also used. A definite disorder determined in neuroticism and anxiety symptoms. In this diagnosis was not made.
However, a high possibility of BDD case, the importance of the exclusion of patients with serious was reported. In their study including 58 patients with BDD psychiatric symptoms from operations in order to obtain diagnosis requesting cosmetic rhinoplasty operation, Philips healthy long-term results is highlighted.
Those patients re- et al 37 reported that In these individuals, cosmetic operations brought high levels of personal satisfaction. In some cases, dissatisfaction from the In the study by Edgerton et al 5 which included 35 surgical outcome may result in anger and aggression towards female and 11 male patients, personality disorder diagnosis the health personnel 38, All the patients had rhinoplasty depression at some point during their treatment of BDD BDD is improved by surgery in only 3.
In contrast, of patients that request cosmetic rhinoplasty is quite limited. Preoperative evaluation of patients requesting MMPI test, with obsessiveness as the most frequently noted cosmetic rhinoplasty is very important.
However, rhinoplasty attempts clinical, occupational and social impairments Body with cosmetic purposes may not give the same result for each dysmorphic disorder or, in its extreme form, dysmorphobia, patient. Even after many years, a group of patients continue is a recognized psychiatric condition in the Statistical Manual to live with intense dissatisfaction These patients obsessive- sonality disorders and BDD would not go through the opera- ly develop ideas of their self-perception for hours throughout tion, thus reducing possible stressful situations.
Those diag- the day. In addition to seeing themselves as having an ugly nosed with BDD may not be satisfied with surgical attempts, body image, their beliefs can reach delusional levels In requesting recurrent surgical interventions as a result They try to hide the body part that may be determined.
It might be quite difficult for a surgeon they feel is imperfect in various ways Pruzinsky T, Edgerton MT. Body image change in cosmetic plastic to help the surgeon screen for BDD 40, 45 are as follows: surgery.
Body images: development, deviance and change. New York: Guilford; Psycholic aspects of revision rhinoplasty. Meerloo JA. Psychiatr Q ; 31— Andretto Amodeo C. The central role of the nose in the face and the on your life? A severe BDD or dysmorphobia is likely if the psyche: review of the nose and the psyche Aesthetic Plast Surg ; answer to these three questions is yes and one positive — It is still a matter of debate when Plastic surgery and psy- surgery should not be offered, as many individuals with a chotherapy in the treatment of psychologically disturbed patients.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; — Haraldson P. Psychological impact of cosmetic rhinoplasty. Aesthetic only one out of 10 patients report improvement in symptoms Plast Surg ; —2. Macgregor FC. Social, psychological and cultural dimensions of BDD 29, 30, Information gathered from family, and cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 1—8. In such cases, help Conolly FH, Gibson M.
Dysmorphobia -a long-term study. Br J from a mental health specialist may be requested. If such Psychiatry ; — Short-term successful long-term results. The danger cannot be com- outcome of rhinoplasty for medical or cosmetic indication. J Psychosom Res — Changes in psychometric test results following logical symptoms.
However, it can provide a warning for cosmetic nasal operations. Br J Psychiatry ; 89— Reshaping the situations such as BDD. Br J Psychiatry ; — The psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty can Slator R, Harris DL. Are rhinoplasty patients potentially mad? Br J have a profound impact on the postoperative course.
Recog- Plast Surg ; — Five-year follow-up important. The decision whether to operate should be made cosmetic rhinoplasty. J Psychosom Res ; —6. A psychological study of patients undergoing in a systematic way that factors in the physical, psychological cosmetic surgery. Arch Otolaryygl ; — All consultations should be Do made by plastic and reconstructive surgery, otorhinolaryn- mental health and self-concept associate with rhinoplasty requests?
J gology and psychiatry clinics. The limited number of studies Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; —3.
Nasal deformity and interpersonal in this area necessitates new and more comprehensive studies problems. Otolaryngol Allied Sci ; —4. Studies in this area should be done jointly High by mentioned clinics. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 83—7. Disorders of body image. Psychological