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Author: B.D. Graver. downloads Views 8MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Practice Makes Perfect Advanced English Grammar for ESL Learners. Advanced English Practice - Graver- Writing Related Pages. PDF Drive: + Million Free E-books. Education Practical English Grammar and Tenses. Advanced English Practice: With Key by B.D. Graver, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
State verbs are either only used in simple form, or have a different meaning when used in continuous form. Fresh fruit contains a range of vitamins. Some people don 't realize how dangerous cars can be. Do you understand this point? We're understanding more and more about the universe. Do you have a car? I imagine you feel the same. What do you think? I'm having a great time here. I'm thinking of changing jobs.
We're hoping to continue the tatks next week. I'm Joving every minute of my new job! Tom is appearing in Hamlet at the Grand Theatre. This book Jooks interesting.
In descriptions of appearance, Jook can be used in both simple and continuous. Jim Jooks iiI. Helen is looking well. Jane is seeing Harry. In order to check the validity of the hypothesis made above, a test has been carried out on fourth year students of translation in the Department of Translation, University of Basra. The students' translations are analyzed to identify the most problematic structures.
Finally, the study ends with a number of conclusions. Introduction When we write in any language it is important to create logical relationships between ideas presented.
There are a number of relationships that we can create like addition, contrast, among others, and there are many words and expressions that we can use to express these important relationships. Condition is one of these relationships. Linguists doing descriptive studies have assumed that every human language has a method of forming conditional sentences and have found that conditionals do exist in many languages Traugott et al. There are different ways of expressing a condition in English.
These ways are different from those in Arabic.
To translate an English text into Arabic, translators have to know that this particular structure indicates a condition and then translate it into its equivalent structure. The following section clarifies these ways.
If, normally means provided that, is sometimes followed by then. If then is not stated, it is implied: If X happens then Y follows Alexander, A conditional clause is a type of adverbial clauses.
It conveys a direct condition Graver, Grammar books agree that there are three or four main types of conditional clauses. Quirk et al distinguish four main types. These are: 1.
The Zero Cause and Effect Conditional: This form is used to describe universal statements like facts, rules, and certainties. In this conditional, both the condition and the subsequent clauses are in the simple present. For example: If we make a promise, we keep it. The First Open Conditional: This type is also called potential or indicative conditional. It is used to express a hypothetical situation that is probably true, but the truth of which is unverified. For instance: If Ali studies hard, he will pass the exams.
The Second Unreal Conditional: It is usually used to describe less probable situations and to state preferences and imaginary events.
For example: If they had time, they would help you. The Third Conditional: It is used to describe impossible contrary- to- fact past events. For instance: If Ahmad had won a million dinars, he would have started a simple business of his own. In the structures above, conditionals are stated, i. Sometimes conditionals are implied, i. Conditional if clauses have been widely dealt with in grammar books, but there has been little descriptive work on the topic of implied condition.
There are different ways of expressing implied condition in English. Dancygier and Sweetser and Schueler agree that these ways involve the following: 1.
Noun Phrases: Adverbial clause of condition can be replaced by a noun phrase as in: A man of principles would not do this i. If he was a man of principles, he would not do this.
Prepositional Phrases: A conditional relationship may be expressed by using a prepositional phrase within a sentence. If medicine is under the government control, it would be cheaper.
Time and Place Clauses: The meaning of several subordinators that primarily express time, place, or condition may express implied condition. For instance: Whenever Once possible, visit the orphans i.
If it is possible, visit the orphans. Coordinating Conjunctions: There are a number of coordinators which can be used with an implied conditional relationship between elements. These coordinators are: A.
And: It is used to express a declarative condition. For example: Do as required, and you will be respected i. If you do as required , you will be respected. Or : Unlike and , it is used to express a negative condition as in : Visit us , or we shall be hard to satisfy i. If you do not visit us , we shall be hard to satisfy. But: It is used to mean except or however.
For instance: The hunter would have shot the prey, but the lion had come very fast i. If the lion had not come, the hunter would have shot the prey. Only: It introduces the reason why something is not possible. For example: Sameer would have painted the car, only he had not enough money i. If he had enough money, he would have painted the car.
Otherwise : It indicates a negative condition as in : download this house; otherwise you will be homeless i. If you do not download this house, you will be homeless. Restrictive Modifiers: Modification is divided into two types: restrictive and non- restrictive. Only restrictive modification may express an implied condition.
It is either an adjective or a relative clause. Restrictive Adjective: A tough manager is difficult to convince i. If a manager is tough, 'he' is hard to be convinced. Restrictive Relative Clause: A student who cheats will be punished i. If a student cheats, 'he' will be punished. Aphoristic Sentence: This type of sentence may be used as equivalent of an if-clause.
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