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For For 3 litres st stock or or 3 litres 6 pints water, take g. We We shall shall deal deal acid only with with ethyl ethyl alcohol alcohol or or wine wine alcohol, alcohol, also alsocalled called wine wine only spirit. It It is principal product product of is the the principal of the the fermentation fermentation of of sweet sweet spirit.
This the action action of of yeast. This microscopic microscopic vegetable vegetable cell cell reproreprothe duces itself itself by glucose into by splitting splitting glucose into carbonic carbonic acid acid and and duces palatable and alcohol and and a a few few palatable and sweet-smelling sweet-smelling by-products. See mentco-ordination, co-ordination, congestion congestion of of the theface, face,overpowering overpowering ment drowsiness; Third Third degree: Aeute Acuteintoxication intoxication -- Early Earlysymptoms symptoms the 2.
Chronie Chronic alcobolism alcoholism -- Repeated Repeated abuse abuseof of alcoholic alcoholic 3. Microscopic cells cells inducing inducing Microscopie alcoholic fermentation fermentation alcoholic.
Wort starch into into glucose. Wort of of tion beer , potatoes, cereals beer , potatoes, etc. Because of of its its high a caustic caustic liquid, liquid, which boils at at C. It burning taste; taste; it it boils boils at at C. It can be be mixed mixed with with water water in all ail proportions, proportions, with with contraction contraction that that is is to to say, say, the the total volume of the the mixture mixture is is lower lower than that of of the components components volume of and and with with emission emission of of heat.
Alcohol Alcohol possesses possesses antiseptic antiseptic properties; properties; it it is a diffusible diffusible stimulant stimulant which which has has numerous numerous uses uses in in therapeutics. In ln its its chemical chemical composition composition alcohol alcohol approaches sugars sugars l 1 molecule molecule of of glucose glucose is is split, split, by by fermentation, fermentation, into into 2 2 molecules molecules of of alcohol. AIfi -- English English beer, lightly hopped beer, lightly hopped and and slightly stightly bitter.
ALE bitter. It It is is used in in cooking cooking for for making making various various cheese cheese dishes, used dishes, notably notably q. Stout short life.
It used used to to be be a a tradition tradition in in wealthy It wealthy English English families families to to celebrate the birth birth of of aa son son by by filling filling one celebra te the one or or more more barrels barrels of of ale, specially specially brewed brewed for for the the occasion.
The ale, The barrels barrels were were hermetically sealed sealed and and not not opened opened until hermetically until the the son son and and heir heir reached his his majority. On On this this memorable reached memorable day day -- called called the the 'coming of of age' age'friends, tenants tenants and and servants 'coming - friends, servants were invited were invited great repast, to a a great repast, which which concluded concluded with passing round to with the the passing round of of the splendid splendid twenty-one-year-old twenty-one-year-old ale.
Toast and and ale ale An English Toast English beverage which which used used to to be be - An served in in win winter, after the the dinner, dinner, at served ter, after at the the same same time time as as the the cheese.
Bring lf pints, generous quart old Bring 1 I litre li Method. Leave the ale to to stand stand for a a short time before serving. Its red red berries, berries, much Its prized for much prized pleasant acid for their their pleasant acid flavour, are usd used in the manufacture manufacture of refreshing beverages.
An excellent oil is extracted from its seeds and exported.
Inebriety Inebriety - Occurring Occurring when wh en alcohol alcohol reaches reaches a a certain certain degree, degree, variable variable with with individuals, individuals, manifesting manifesting itself itself in in the the following manner: First First degree.. Sensation Sensation of of well-being, well-being, following manner: Mental Mental inincoherence, diminution of of muscular muscular strength, strength, lack lack of of movemovecoherence, diminution 8.
There There are are three three the abuse abuse of. The pass into These vapours' alcoholic heatieleases the ofof a"tioo action the heat relcases alcoholic vapours. These pass into and il;;. The traditional Charente method was heat the obtained' first "ond. The fires. The firs! The nutritive m n"tu. During During the Scotland' in eaten are algae of varietiei or algae are eaten in Scotland.
Q seiweed-based dishes so until thoroughly hours until1hl'. ThiJpulp fying pulp lying pulp s dried and a iltp scraped.
A fragments from fragments made from is made Japanese, is the Japanese, with the popular with u"iu.
Kombu like tea. Arter cultivate artificially. And, in fact, man has long indiet' his in ""tiiTioour algae of varieties certain cluded cluded certain varieties of algae in his diet. The heat' and a fierce over hardened tttinty, tii""O on"" u.. This makes them easier to use' Various chopped. Various kombu' of manufacture the in base a as used iurniiuti" laminaria used asvegetable a base infor the manufacture or mixed with rice soup as a used it thenare ;hi;h which is then used as a vegetable for or mixed wiili rice for example' seasoned with soy sauce.
L;;;;;;laifeeding has to 'Experimental feedng of and energy animaIs proved chlorellae. H is with that cultivation traditional of replacing ; qr;iion replacing Iraditional eultivation with that not a question in the exploitation in useful maylome lattir but the of but the tter may come in zones'' usefuJ in the exploitation or semi-arid inlaarid of so-lar'energy globe energy in arid or semi-arid zones.
ALGR - Aigeria is anwhere essentially cultivation cerealagreultural iell region in the i. Pasture lands extind to the high are landsunsuitable ex tend to the hgh plains, while agriculture for and land irr"-rnou"tuinsPasture mountains and land unsuitable for agriculture are considerable of therefore, a country, is It forest. O resources. In ancient times it was one of Rome's one of Rome's resources.
In ancient was barley' oats' wheat, cereal: The wines time of the and M6d6a are among the best known' Since the V. Since time of the classified been have they administratio-n ri. They are generally of q. Barly are exported in June. Then there are the specifically such as two are The last fruits and figs' Algerian dates o. The last twoproportion are dried o. A large proportion locally are used tangerines g"t and irut oiitt" of the oranges and tangerines are used locally in the manufacture of liqueurs.
Olives are cultivated in melons up to regions higher aliw in and regions itt. Refineries situated fruity' on the easy-fl9wing, quality-oil, very good produce a feet of the oiL easy-tlowing, fruit y, and crustaceans coasts furnish all ihe'fish The a The coas s.
All three come under the heading of Arab cuisine. Tunisia and Morocco. Ali three come under the heading of Spices abound: Dishes are flavouiJ ,r, el-hanout, a blend mint, sesame, pimentos, etc.
Dishes are flavoured with ras of-twenty-seven different spices inseparably linked of twenty-seven different spices inseparel-hanoul, a blend with the feast oi Atd-et-Kibir.
The easily digestible method dishes. Arabs, of the. The lawgiver advises his faithfur: The in a crouching 'Do not eat in a crouchhisas faithful: The the person makes round of thoseshourd participating in the into meal.
Coffee, a Moslem beverage, is the inseparable companion Coffee, a Moslem beverage, is the inseparable companion 9f tglu: It is beneficial in very a country where summer temperature varies beneficiaJ in a where the summer temperature varies between 25'C.
There is mint tea, absinth and sage teaThe teawith hour is a ri tuaI. Arabs drink no wine; the Koran forbids it. Eat drunk. Another, provided one better, and drink, but with-going going better, and drink, but without Another, excess, for Godone loves not him who commits excess. When out excess, for God loves not him who commits excess. Immediately, the visit is treated as a festive occasion mediately, the avisit as a festive occasionand andthe the guTt is offered cup is oftreated coffee or tea and whatever there is iseat.
When a Moslem family offers ybriro. The pattern ofthe hand seen on the cakes, on the tents. Tbe faithful th's adopted the symbol of the hand of Moses faithful thus adopted the symbol of the hand of Moses as as a a protection from the evil eye. The word Ramadan comes from a verb meaning rain, The word Ramadan cornes from a verb meaning toto rain, because washes away the sins of the flesh and.
Ad'am, banished when he ate the fruit. During the ensuing Ramadan has commenced. During the ensuing thirty tfrirtydays auy,a single cannon shot fired firedeach each evening at " atsunset sunset signaIs single cannon shot signalsthe the "u"iing end offasting for that day. Moslems who cannot cannot celebrate celebrate this this feast feast at dinner. Moslems who at home home gather together in Moorish caf6s.
Flour Flour boiled boiled in in water, water, then then mixed mixed with Assida. Spanish Spanish loaf loaf made made of of egg yolks, flour egg yolks, BascoulOu. Drid beans cooked in water and and oil Bissar.
Dried beans cooked in water oil until until they they form a a sort eaten hot hot or or cold. Sheep's au with oil, ail hatrs; hairs; boiled, boiled, then seasoned witb oil, vinegar, vinegar, salt, pepper pepper and and garlic. Breyes beylicales. Little Little squares of of cooked semolina semolina mixed. Bleyes with pistachio almonds.
Eggs Brik. Eggs in in puffpastry puff pastry fried fried in in oil. A dish Chekchuka. Green Greencorn corn soup. It is isbought boughtready--madi.
Highly Highly seasoned seasoned mixture mixture oirice, lolrya. Boiled Boiledpluck pluckand andtripe tripeseasoned seasonedwith withcumin cuminand and. Little balls of phste friod coated with honey. Mutton cut cut into squares, braised Kabab. Mutton braised io in butter, seasoned with salt and pepper an-d served seasoned with salt and pepper served liberally garnished liberally with sliced onions and parsley.
Chopped and spiced mutton, Kefta. Chopped and spiced mutton, shaped into rissoles shaped into rissoles. Dried Dried mutton Khali'. LianL Lamb stew stew with with chick chick peas, peas, seasoned seasoned with with wild wild Liani.
Lamb parsley. Pastry lozenges lozenges stuffed shlffed with with dates. Pastry Makrouda. Mixture Mixture of of fried fried baby baby marrows marrows zucchini zucchini and and M'darbel.
Strongly Strongly spiced spiced stock stock made made of of mutton'or mutton'or chicken, chicken, Merga. Cake M'habia. Soup with with pasta M'hamsa. Sheep's brain and and tongue, seasoned with garlic, Mokh. Forcemeat made Osbane. Mixture with salt, salt, pepper and and cumin.
These These are are shaped into! Very delicate stew made of mutton or beef, quinces. This is covered Terbia-bel-hebar. Macdoine of vegetables served with a with a Terbia-bel-hebar.
Macidoine little bustard or field duck. Macaroni garnished with chopped chopped meat and baked Macaroni garnished eggs. Coarse cooked in Coarse semolina semolina cooked and boiling honey.
Cake made from honey, olive oil, rose ftour flour and dandelions. Other much-valued palm milk; Other specialities include lagni, lagni, much-valued leben, and kfir k6fir made from cow's, cow's, leben, which is nothing but whey; whey ; and goat's goat's or rahatloucoum, sahleb, sahleb, chreyba, rahatloucoum, or sbeep's sheep's milk; chreyba, rogagues, messelmen, dates, etc.
It It consists consists ofsmall applicable nnnf',r. The The etymological etymological root root is is retained retained in in all aU its its various various forms: The The Celtic root ait means means nourishment. The The word word 'aliment' 'aliment' indicates indicates an an object, object, while while the the word word. A from Alica. It sesterces to to 20, sesterces rent of of 20, a rent said that Augustus paid a It is is said that Augustus the Creta in n to this this clay. Creta Neapolitans for for the the exclusive right to the Neapolitans Latin ans both 'clay' and and 'chalk'.
This of Alicante. Any Any substance substance which upon entering the the body is is capable of supplying supplying it it with materials materials for for growth or or repair repair and and with fuel for its energy energy requirements is an aliment. Simple aliments aliments are are those that the organism consumes consumes and absorbs hc, O in category.
Today we consider that is of carbon, is substances of aliments, ternary substances that substances are always hydrogen hyd rogen and oxygen. These ternary su bstances are the carbomineral elements, elements, namely the associated with with other mineraI also called zirrocalled nitrofats and and quaternary substances also hydrates, fats gmous substances nitrogen combines combines witb with the substances because because nitrogen genous are and oxygen.
Quaternary substances are carbon, hydrogen and carbon, formerly called proteids or proteins formerly To these called albuminoids. To simple, ternary and quaterand quaterthree broad classes of aliments simple, and vitamins. The these are ail glucose which by is absorbed by which is ferments transforms them into glucose fennents glycogen or or liver into into glycogen the liver by the then condensed condensed by the blood, blood, then the the little by little little to to meet the down Ettle is broken down starch.
This This is animal starch. The body's requirements. In and carbonic carbonic acid. UUl,;lS is arrested arrested and cess of of decomposition decomposition is cess quantity of of acids which When the the quantity the blood. When remain in in the which remain form acids fonn a a level level as as a too high a glucose circulating reaches too in the the blood blood reaches circulating in glucose part of it is eliminated of il eliminated transformation, part result of of inadequate inadequate transformation, result is Such is which normally any.
Such not con contain does not normally does in the the urine urine which in tain any. These These carbohydrates into into fats. Alimentary Alimentary fatty bodies are and fatty and ferments kingdoms. The The digestive digestive ferments and vegetable vegetable kingdoms. The fat fat is is th then form organic fats. When When the according to to its its needs.
This This amount amount may be decreased daily. Theyare ture. ALIMENT ALIMENT Theoretically, fats fats decompose decompose into into carbonic carbonic acid acid and and Theoretically, like the water Iike the carbohydrates ; carbohydrates ; but in certain but in certain illnesses illnesses this this water decomposition stops stops at at one one of of several several intermediate intermediate stages stages decomposition and the the resulting resulting excess excss of of fatty fatty acids acids found found in in the the blood blood and constitutes one one of of the the factors factors of of acidosis.
Under Under the the extremely influenoe of digestive elements of digestive elements they they are are subjected subjected to to a a series series influence of modifications modifications which production of which terminate terminate in in the the production of of albumins; these these are are used used in in the constitution constitution of of our our tissues. Minerals,too, are indispensable Minerais, too, are indispensable elements of of our alimenta sea salt tion. Sodium chloride chloride sea mineral used alone tion.
Sodium salt is is the only minerai in state; the occur as of various elements of in its its natural natural state; the others oceur as elements various probably the compounds only form fonn in which they they are compounds probably the only in which assimilable combined with albuminoids, carbohydrates carbohydrates assimilable with the albuminoids, and and fats fats of of our our natural natural foods.
We know the tbe approximate approximate needs needs of of the organism organism as as regards regards We know certain daily in certain chemical chemical substances substances that tbat are are eliminated eliminated daily ponderable The excreLa, excreta, for example, remove ponderable quantities. The for example, from body each day on average average 7 g. Other Other elements elements enter enter into into alimentation alimentation in imponderable say that Imponderable quantity, quantity, which which does does not not mean mean to to say their their r6le rle is is insignificant; insignificant; in in fact fact there is is a probability probability that we we may may find nnd among among these these imponderables mponderables an explanation expia na Lion for for the part vitamins vitamins play play in in the the diet.
For For example, example, recent recent the part research that vitamins vitamins act as as coenzymes coenzymes or or research has has revealed revealed that codiastases codiastases and and are are therefore therefore involved involved in in the the degradation degradation or or resynthesis resynthesis of of the the various various nutriments.
Remineralisation Remineralisation experiments have been been carried carried out with witb animals. That is is to to say, say, the the principal principal minerals minerais have have been been animais. That removed from their their alimentation alimentation and replaced replaced by complex complex removed from mineral minerai mixtures.
These These experiments experiments invariably invariably failed when chemically chemically pure pure salts salts were were used; used; positive positive results results were obob tained tained using using less-well-purified less-well-purified salts, which which shows the the important portant r6le rle impurities impurities i.
Most Most of of the the chemists chemists who who have have analysed analysed the the aliments aliments have have determined detcrmined their their total total mineralisation mineralisation by by reducing reducing them them to to the the form of ash.
This This calls calls for for complicated complicated calculations calcuJations and and form of gives gives far far from from accurate accurate results results when when the the final final figure figure is i5 applied applied to to fresh fresh foods, foods, such such as as those those we we consume consume daily.
This This is explained explained not not only only by diversity of by the the diversity the methods of the methods ememis in the ployed, but but also also in animal by the animal by the the differences differences arising arising ployed, from the the race, race, feeding feeding and and cuts cuts considered; considered; in in the the vegetable. Berg Berg has has calculated calculated the the figures figures for for cabbages cabbages in in the the M. Basic Basic elements predominate in in the exterior, exterior, whereas interior leaves and, in particular, the the buds, are distinctly the interior acid.
The elTeet of cooking Blanching prerequisite in in the manufacture of tinned food reduces the mineral minerai content of vegetables and destroys destroys the minerals.
Prolonged boiling has an even more damagbasic mineraIs. The effects are less iog elTect. Some have shown shown how how the the total total loss loss of Sorne experiments have minerals minerais and and potassium salts varies according aceording to 10 different dilTerent cooking cooking procedures.
Artificial Artificial aliments aUments - Natural foods that that have have been been prepared industrially are not not included included under under this heading heading they pared industrially will with later. Here Here we we are referring to aliments aliments will be dealt with that that have have been been chemically treated treated in order to make them more more digestible digestible or or more more easily easily assimilated: Among Among the the nitrogenous rutrogenous substances substances are are purified purified albumins, albumins, legumin, legumin, albumoses albumoses and and peptones.
All AU these these proproducts can can be be prescribed prescribed therapeutically therapeutically but but their their prolonged prolonged use use inevitably inevi ta bly leads leads to to disorders; disorders; they they have have never ne ver succeeded succeeded in supplementing natural natural foods foods in in the the adult diet.
As As far as as in supplementing children those children are are concerned, co ncerned , modified modified artificial artificial foods foods are are those most most frequently frequently used, used, dextrined dextrined and and malted malted flours, flours, etc. ALIMENT Chemical aliments - We We must must not not forget forget that that even even if if albuminoids, albuminoids, carbohydrates carbohydrates and fatty fany bodies are elements elements of our alimentation, alimentation, they they are are not not aliments.
Aliments have have a apart from traditional traditional form form and and are are borrowed borrowed apart from a a few minerals mineraIs from the animal or vegetable kingdoms; the three three are merely constituents of aliments aliments along elements listed listed are elements with a few indigestible with a few indigestible substances such such as as cellulose.
The presence of of cell ulose besides besides providing bulk has been been proved cellulose after after exhaustive research research to ta be be indispensable indispensable in in the the accomplishment complishment of phenomena. An aliment contains, or Complete aliment that that contains, or is Complete aliment aliment - An reputed to contain, alimentary substances in the containn the various alimentary right only practically complete right proportions.
Milk Milk is is the the only food as far as babies are concerned and even it is deficient in Vitamin C. It is arguable whether or not the ingestion of these these substances can increase the energy output stances output ofa diet, but they can, appease, the sensaunder certain conditions, conditions, calm or falsely appease, tion of hunger and and impart a feeling of well-being.
Nuhitive Nutritive value of certain elements - Bearing in in mind the various elements in the the normal importance normal diet importance of the various elements in of the albumins, carbohydrates, fats, etc. The mutual mu tuaI substitution tables tables of various groups of aliments see below give sorne some indication of the relative values of certain aliments of vegetable origin. We Wc have of of animal and vegetable Randoin, MM. Legallic, Causerets and to thank Mme.
Lucie Randoin, Duchne for them. Duchoe G. The clements. The the total diet beverages excluded ranges weight of the total diet rauges from weight g. Generally Generally a feeling of saliety satiety occurs occurs before these these limits are reached.
MEAT net weight wcight can be replaced protein by: MILK can be replaced! Coulommier s, Livarot, Munster, etc. Coulommiers, Gruyire, Dwch Dutch cheese, g. S aint - P aulin, Cantal, etc. Saint-Paulin, g. Gruyre Gruyire cream cream cheese 60 g. We profoundly on see the We can can nevertheless see on certain points. If the is sufficiently alimentation is jng, are the alimentation from their their different varied the can only only benellt benefit from varied the organism can nutritional values.
We must not forget that iogested ingested liquids leave the stomach very rapidly rapidly and only minimally minimally into into calculations calculations very and enter enter only involving the volume of aliments.
Randoin we prefer suggested by nutritonists, the following: Milk and its derivatives with the exception exception of butter. Various meats and and fish, fish, eggs. Fatty substances. Starchy Starchy foods bread, noodles, noodles, rice, 4. Fresh vegeta a eaten cruditis a eaten raw ruur crudits b eaten cooked. BREAD 70 g. As volume As a to reach reach the stomach reduced reduced to to a aliments ought to the stomach sistency, alment5 t3 The The bad bad habit habit of of not not stomach properly, of chewing food food properly, of swallowing swallowing too tachyquickly tachytoo quickly chewiog phagra has has the possible effects.
The The importance importance ofmasticaton, of mastication, insalivation, insalivation, and and valescence. So So one one must must encourage encourage the the culinary culinary habit habit of of the fried crotons, adding some some hard hard substances substances fried cro0tons, for for example example adding presented in pur6ed fonn. Only If food food is is too too hot hot it it can can cause cause burns burns to to the the mou mouth, the If th, the tongue, and and the the sophagus, esophagus, especially especially when when hot Iiquids liquids are longue, gulped down.
The The latter latter can can also also cause cause irritation to the irritation to gulped stomach which may even gastritis. Foods cold induce induce conslriction constriction of of the Foods which which are are too too cold capillary blood of the the stomach, stomach, causing causing subsequent subsequent capillary blood vessels vessels of dilatation.
The side side effects effects are are even even worse dilatation. The worse than than those produced foods which are too too hot. The nature consistency of of the aliments have a strong The nature and and consistency the aliments have a bearing on how can, if bearing on how their their temperature temperature is is withstood; withstood; one can, if need 60"C. The particular particular moment moment at at which wbich these these foods foods are are quickly quickly swalswallowed lowed is is also also significant; significant; an an iced ced substance substance taken taken on on an empty empty stomach storoacb can can be be harmful, harmful, whereas whereas the the effect effect of of an ice cream cream taken taken immediately immediately after after a a meal meal and and received received by by an already already full full stomach stomach would wou!
Too Too swift swift a a transition transition from from hot hot to to cold, cold, for for example, example, a a hot hot food food followed followed immediately immediately by by an an iced iced drink, drnk, is is extremely extreme1y harmful harrnful to to the the enamel enamel of of the the teeth. Soups in the the plate, plate, so so they they are are usually usually Soups rapidly rapidly become become cold cold in served served very very hot; hot; it it is is hardly hardly possible possible to to drink drink a a clear clear soup soup "F.
Thick porridges, vegetable vegetable pur6es purees must must not not be be Thick soups, soups, porridges, drunk d runk above above 38" 38 to to 42"C. Roast Roast meat meat is is usually usually served served between between 40o 40 and and 45"C. I13 e F. Its Its temperature temperature must must not not fall fall below below 40"C.
This This is is why why plates plates are are heated heated particu particutrue of larly larly meat meat plates. Hot Hot bread bread of of 38"C. It Il is is a a widespread widespread belief, belief, however, however, that that slow slow digestion digestion of of cold cold foods foods is 1S beneficial. Ninon Ninon de de Lenclos Lenclos attributes attributes his his sprightly cold food. Could Pork makes makes one one pessimistic.
Tomatoes, oranges oranges and and lemons lemons considerably considerably improve improve -- Tomatoes, quality of the quality the voiee voice Rye panake make one. Il It must must provide Alimentation small excess excess the in the the wherewithal wherewithal for growth in young for growth the young small repair and and upkeep of ofthe tissues and and organs, organs, person , for the repai!
To determine the the energy energy value value of an an aliment aliment or or diet, diet, wc we To employ as a a measure the calorie q.
One One way is is by by calculating calculating the the average of from global alimentation of the global population. Anotber of a a population. Another from the method aliments and is by by analysing the the ingesta ingesta aliments and oxygen method is consumed , and the excreta excreta excretions, secretions, secretions, carbonic carbonic cODsumed , quantity of exhaled and and the quantity ofheat discharged.
Previously Previously a was considered consid ered necessary. We usually allow that: I 4'44 calories 1 g. The figures of of the the physiologist physiologist M.
Atwater Atwater are are slightly lower lower because because he incorporated incorporated losses losses and waste products products in them. His His table reads as follows: Albuminoids 3'68 Albuminoids calories per g. Carbohydrates 3'00 Carbohydrates calories per g. Fats 8'65 calories per g. He He also distinguished distingulshed between between substances substances of of animal animal origin best best utilised utilised and substances of of vegetable vegetable origin.
To obtain obtaill calories one one must consume, consume, according according to to him: Animal Vegetable 28'19 Vegetable proteins proteins g. Amyloide Animal ll. Vegetable ll'97 Vegetable fats fats s. We We must must not not lose lose sight of of the the fact fact that that these these figures figures are merely merely averages, averages, and and while while of of great great interest interest in in alimentary alimentary studies studies of of collectivities collectivites they they lose lose their their precision precision when when reduced of individuals.
Those Those of of the the aged aged are are less less because of the reduced reduced expenditure expenditure ofenergy. Food Food requirerequirebccause ofthe ments ments increase increase with with the the lowering lowering of of exterior exterior temperatures temperatures and and with with the the work work done.
The The daily daily diet diet must must be be balanced. It balanced. It must must contain contain a a miniminimum mum amount amount of of albuminoids albuminoids and and fats, fats, and and enough enough carbocarbo-. The normal normal diet must must comprise: The The impossibility of of measurmeasurthe imponderables imponderables of of alimentation alimentation very minute minute mineral mineraI ing the substances "UiU: It It is is probable probable that the disorders disorders arising from from following too of uniform a diet are caused by the the absence or deficiency of uniform these imponderables.
The daily diet diel must be be pleasant. Although it is possible possible to as feed like like animals animaIs simply sim ply upon upon what what nature nature provides pro vides as feed tried to to indo man certain sects sects do man has has always tried members of certain of his food by adding palatable condicrease the savouriness savouriness of crease art, which which is The culinary culinary art, ments and and by by applying heat.
The applying heat. Its Its fumes can be asphyxiating. It is used used in in concarmines. The stimulants in in coffee, coffee, absorbed absorbed in in minute quantities. The tea and and chocolate are are alkaloids. Its leaf and and cloyes. The is dark. French origin. Add 'Pour half the velout velouti into half the 'Pour good chicken has been quantity of to which which has consomm6, to of good chicken consomm, stalks and peel , and much salt salt and as as much and peel , mushrooms stalks added a a few mushrooms added point of knife.
Draw Draw it to the the boil. Skim simmer for for about leave to to simmer flame, coyer, cover, and and leave Skim the stirring with with the flame, stirring high flame, a high and replace replace on on a off the fat fat and off the prevent it the bottom bottom of of the it sticking sticking to to the to prevent wooden spoon spoon to wooden the perfectly cooked, sauce should should coat coat the cooked, the pan.
When the sauce When perfectly pan. Pass Pass this this through through a cream. Pour of an the the size size of the with the carefully with velouti, stirring carefuJly little by little, into the the velout, little by! When When weil point.
Randoin defined the problem perfectly when she business upon WTote: It and bad, bad, depends. These These procedures are. Milk and blood are are the only alkalescents of animal origin. Milk and On are origin are most foods of vegetable origin the other other hand, hand, most On the products alkalescents cereal products of cereals, cereal the exception exception of alkalescents with with the and consume the the which we we consume vegetables of of which a number number of of vegetables and a flowers asparagus, Brussels Brussels sprouts.
It 15 t5. Not only is alligator are are occasionally occasionally it, but but slices slices of of alligator natives natives who who capture capture it, served in London London and and Paris. Little cakes made of of puff puff pastry and and filled or garnished garnished with with various various mixtures mixtures are also called ca lIed allumettes. Allumettes a strip of puff Allumettes hot hot hors-d'auvre hors-d'uvre - Roll out a pastry pastry to a a thickness thickness of of ] t cm.
Cut into rectangles, rectangles, place place on a baking baking tray, tray, and bake bake in in the the oven oyen at 'C. Bake Bake in in the oven. Allumettes Allumettes i la la reine reine - Coat Coat the the puff puff pastry pastry with with a a very very fine fine mixture mixture of of minced minced breast breast of of chicken and truffies, truffles, blended blended with with thick thick Veloutd Velout sauce sauce se, see SAUCE.
Bake Bake in in the the oven. Allumettes Allumettes I la la toscane toscane - Sprinkle Sprinkle the the sheet of of puff puff pastry pastry with with grated grated Parmesan. Cut Cut into into strips strips and and bake bake in in the the oven.
Ox Ox palate palate allumettes. Cut lemon or vinegar vinegar seasoned seasoned with a a little little salt, salt, sprigs of lemon juice juice or parsley, parsley, and and whole whole spring spring onions. When When they they are are thoroughly thoroughly macerated macerated drain drain them, them, and and dip dip them them in in a batter batter made made as as follows: Dilute Dilute this this gradugraduand a a little little finely finely ground ally ally with with beer beer until until the the batter batter reaches reaches the the consistency consistency of thick thick cream.
Dip Dip the the palate palate strips strips into into it it and and fry fry until until golden brown. Serve Serve as as hot hot as as possible. There are and bitter almond. There are two varieties of this; one is is used used principally in perfumery, perfumery, the other in pharmaceutics, in the manufacture manufacture of soothing emulsions. Aboukir almonds almonds confectionery. Aboukirs Aboukirs are coated coated with gum, or with a a blanched blanched almond.
Almond butter. Almond 5 5 oz. Pound Pound in in g. Pass Pass through through a a very very fine fine sieve. I1 cup This butter butter is is used used for for flavouring flavouring certain certain sauces sauces and and cream cream This soups; it it is is also also used used in in the the preparation preparation of of cold cold hors d'euvre.
Sieve Sieve the the flour flour onto onto the the table. Make Make a a well weil in in the the Method. Break Break the the eggs eggs into into these these ingredients ingredients and and pour pour in in the the butter. To To prevent prevent burning, burning, mix mix the the paste paste without without kneading kneading it it rum.
Cut Cut them them into into small small pieces pieces and and roll roll these these into into balls. Coat Coat each each Space the the balls balls out Space bail twioe twiee with with beaten beaten egg egg and and score score with with the the blade blade of of a a wet wet ball knife. Bake Bake for for 20 20 minutes minutes in in a a slow slow oven. Almond cookies cookies Qemon-flavoured. Allumettes cakes cakes - These These sweet sweet pastry pastry cakes cakes are are said said to to Allumettes have century ago ago by by a a Swiss Swiss pastry-cook pastry-cook who who have been been created created a a century.
Lacam, Lacam, who who wrote wrote a a history history of ofpastry-making, pastry-making, describes describes the the invention invention as as follows: This This he he cut cutinto into little little sticks sticks spread and baked baked in in the the oven,' oven. Roll Roll out out some sorne puff puff pastry pastry to to the the thickness thickness of of Method. Make Make a well weil in the centre centre and place place the pounded mixture mixture in it. Add g. Knead well weil together.
Divide Sprinkle the Divide the the paste paste into into walnut-sized pieces. Sprinkle table table lightly with with flour flour and and form form these these into into little little cigars, cigars, pointed pointed at each end.
Place them on a buttered baking baking sheet, brush with beaten egg and score in the centre. Bake Bake in a hot oven for 8 to to l0 JO minutes. Almond Almond cream. This uime This cream cream is is used used for for filling filling sweet sweet dishes. S - The The codex codex gives gives the Almood milk. Place the almonds, sugar sugar and water in a marble mortar and pound to a very smooth smooth paste. Press Press through a fine sieve. Alnond Almood nougat. Place Place them them in a copper bowl bowl in which which g.
Stir Stif this mixture with a spatula. While Whle the the mixture mixture is is still still hot, hot, pour pour it it into into variously variously shaped greased moulds. Alternatively, the the nougat nougat may may be spread thinly thinly on an oiled oled marble slab and cut eut into different different shapes.
Nougat prepared in this way may be he shaped shapcd into bowls, baskets, clogs c10gs and other other objects. Almond Almood paste I. Cook g. SUGA R. Almond g. Almood paste paste II. Pound Pound the almonds almonds with the the lemon lemon juioe juice and pass pass through through a fine fine strainer. Put into a copper pan pan with the icing icing sugar and egg egg white. Dry this this mixture mixture gently over over heat, heat, stirring all ail the the time.
Add the the gum arabic dissolved dissolved in in a little water. To To be he perfect this this paste paste must must not be be sticky. It Il is used used as an abaisse abaisse q. Almond Almood praline. Cook it until until it reaches reaches the the degree of of light caramel, 'C. Add to lb. Tip all ail this this mixture mixture onto an an oiled marble marbre slab.
Allow to cool. Pound the the mixture in in a mortar. Pass Pass it through through a fine sieve. Keep Keep this this dry almond almond powder powder in tins with well-fitting well-fitting lids.
Almond Almond tartlets. The The recipe recipe itself itself is tS attributed to to Ragueneau, Ragueneau, the the famous famous seventeenth-century pastrypastrycook. Here it is in verse: Comment on fail Comment on fait les tartelettes amandines amandines Battez, Battez, pour pour qu'ils soient mousseux,. Quelques eufs; ufs: Quelques Incorporez d leur mousse mousse jut de cCdrat Un Un jus cdrat choisi; choisi: Versez-y Un bon lait d'amande d'amanck douce; douce; Mettez de dflan ck la la pdte pte flan Dans le flanc flanc Dalll Ie De moules d tartelette; tartelette: D'tm D'un doigt doigt preste preste abricotez abricotez Les Les cdtds; cts; Versez Versez goutte d gouttelette Votre en ces puits, puis puis Votre mousse mousse m Que ces puits puits Que Passent anfour, au four, et, blondines, blondines, Sortant en gais troupelets, troupelets, Ce sont SOn!
Tar Tartelettes amandines. Beat Beat your eggs, the yolk and white. Very light; their creamy creamy fluff Mingle with their Drops of of lime lime juice, juice, cool and green; greeo; Then Theo pour in Milk of of almonds, almonds. Dainty Dainty patty pans, pans, embraced embraced In puff-paste Have these these ready within reach; With With your thumb thumb and and finger, pinch pinch Half Half an inch inch the edge of of each Up around the Into Into these, these, a score or more, Slowly Slowly pour pour All Ail your store store of of custard; custard; so so Take them, them, bake them golden-brown golden-brown Now sit down!
Almond Almond tartlets! They should therefore therefore be used in moderation. These almonds almonds are employed in pdtisserie ptisserie for flavouring fiavouring icings and and fillings; and and in confectionery.
They They are are not not used used as icings dessert fruit. The oil obtained obUlned from from them is is poisonous. Bhnctd Blanched almonds. Proceed in in the from following following manner. Put Put the almonds almonds into into a sieve; sieve; plunge plunge into into a a saucepan saucepan of of boiling boiling water water and immediately lmmediately draw the saucepan to to the the side of of the stove. Drain Drain the the almonds, a few few at at a time, lime, and aod skin skin thern them as soon as you see see that the the skin comes cornes off when when pressed with the If Drop them them into into cold water, water, drain and pat pat dry.
If fingers. Drop t hey are to 10 be kept, kept, scatter sca tter on a sieve or fine grill and dry they a tin or jar jar with a thorougbly in a slow slow oven. Store Store in a thoroughly well-fitting well-fitting lid. Keep Keep in a dry place. Chopped Chopped elmonds. Variously Coloured almonds. Indian almond ahrod lndian almond tree. EN ofs Dicd aImonds.
They are or small dice as almonds cut into large or and in pdtisserie. Provengal almonds are the the most sought The hard-shelled Provenal after for pdtisserie. But medium-sized almonds grown in the plains are also in great demand. These often contain quite a high proportion and are are the ones prehigh proportion of bitter bitter almonds and the ones for ma making ferred for king almond paste.
Roasted almolld Roasled Sprinkle tuming pepper and golden brown. Drain on a cloth ginger then fry in butter butter until golden ginger of and cool. Finally, coat the almonds with a clear solution of gum arabic and sprinkle sprinkle with fine salt.
These are used a great deal Shredded and deal in pdtisserie confectionery. Shredded grcat ptisserie and in confectionery. There are several very efficient implements for shredding equally operation can be performed although the operation almonds, although perforrncd equally lengthwise and each The almonds should be cut lengthwise well by hand. Thealmondsshould weil becut This shou should shredded into twelve to one shredded Id be one to fifteen fifteen pieces.
This and before after blanching done immediately irnroediately arter blancrung and berore the the almonds laid on on a a metal they should be are dried. After are Aner shredding they be laid slow oven or orin avery sheetand sheet and dried dried in a very slow in awarmingcupboard.
During the drying drying process they should be turned three three times a Store in hermetically hermetically sealed tins. Store onic. Sugared almonds not, exactly as we coated with know know thern them today, today, but but nevertheless nevertheless coated with sugar or It is said that around around the year a long history. Il honey have a Roman family, a patrician Roman t.
So custorn of presenting at the of a a birth almonds at celebration of sugared almonds presenttng sugared the celebration goes goes back a very long way. It is is difficult to make make sugared almonds almonds at home, home, and hardly necssary, necessary, considering the excellent excellent sugared almonds manuare made Some are factured commercially. Some factured commercially. Verdun filbert paste, etc. Verdun sugared almonds are particularly esteemed.
DoucEs almonds. They are less oily and and that reason easier to digest digest than dryalmonds. These almond-shaped atnond-shaped tubers outside, very are brown These tubers are brown outside, white inside inside and extremely starchy.
They can either be eaten like hazelnuts or cooked like chestnuts. A kind raw flour is made from them. The The most arc fifteen known most important these, a native of Ceylon, has spread throughout of the ofCeylon, throughout most of as a Indian subcontinent. There its il, voluminous voluminous roots serve as prolonged period of cooking. From of this a purgative From the the leaves of this plant Liliaceae.
Certain species found in Vietnam Vietnam produce an edible starch. Sorne are found in ail all French coastal coastal waters; others are peculiar peculiar to the Mediterranean. Sorne are confined to the seas Some varieties are of Asia, Australia and America. All Ail methods of preparation given for lobster lobstcr are applicable to it. Alsace and excellent Alsace has a long tradition tradition of surprising that 50 not surprising that its its gastronomic gastronomie repertoire repertoire is is a so it is is not lengthy one, full of succulent succulent dishes.
Pork is particularly Meat in this of good quality. Pork particularly trus region is of 'the noble pig' holds a place of high tasty. Seigneur cochon 'the honour in Alsace. The The Benedictine monks were the first to recognise the advantages advantages of ofpig recognise pig breeding. In ln fact, firm-textured, delicately the the region region produces produces firmtextured, delicately flavoured, flavoured, admirable admirable pork. The Strasbourg pork butchers, butchers, masters masters of their art, transform it into a number of preparations preparations which which are not only enjoyed of Alsace cnjoyed by the gourmets of Alsace but in all ail the best Paris restaurants.
It Alsatian Alsatian geese geese are famous for the delicacy of their flesh. It geese that is from from these these specially fattened geese that the magnificent magnmcent Alsace transmattres de cuisine in Alsace liver liver is obtained which the matres and terrines.
And good and and taste good. The vegetables of Alsace look good produce delectable fruit of delectable fruit of which of Alsace produce the the orchards orchards of plums, some, such as quetsches Alsace plums and mirabelle plums, sorne, fresh but are also used used to make are not only delicious to eat fresh see SPIRITS.
The noted Id not and the the raspthe cherries cherries and complete without without mentioning the complete make well-known liqueurs. Who does The freshwater fish trout, salmon, the river trou of the Rhine salmon, the succulence of t, the crayand the eels, eels, tench tench and the Vosges; Vosges; the fish from from the the streams streams of of the fish vin d'Alsace d'Alsace are are au vin matelotes au from which which delicious matelotes bream from prepared prepared?
In fact the Alsace Alsace cannot help but cook weil. J f;[:! Brlrcrry nt.! KCf fy ;;. Il"';ffi xl. Alsatian charcuterie charcuterie pork butchery produce: Schinkenwurst ; knackwurst ;2. Saveloys; 4. Metwurst; 6. Ham Ham sausage pudding with l. Thann Thann sausage; Metwurstl 5. Black sausage;4. Schwartenroagen; Bierwurst; 9. Veal roll; roll; Schwartwurst; I l. Strasbourg Mulhouse Lyon Lyon type type sausageroade sausage made in Schwartenmagen; 8.
Bierwurst; 9. Veal Schwartwurst; Il. Strasbourg sausage; sausage; Mulhouse sausage; sausage; J3. Leberwurst; Leberwurst; Tongue Tongue roll roli with with truffies; Veal Veal roll roll with with foie foie gras Strasbourg; Jewish flan ; kaffeekrantz, Winos To accompany good things, accompany ail all these these good things, Alsace Alsace WiDes - To produceq in in addition addition to to a a delicious delicious beer, some rare rare and and beer, sorne produces, exceptional wines, which which are are mostly white.
The decree decree of of 3 3 October created October created the the appellation appellation The 'Alsace' or or 'vin 'vin d'Alsace'. This This appellation appellation can include the can include 'Alsace' the grape. In variety of grape. In fact, fact, Alsace Alsace wine wine does does not not usually usually bear bear variety the na name of the the locality locality from from which which it it cornes, comes, but but of of the the me of the grape used production.
A fresh, fruit fruity wine, best drunk Cpages y wine, best drunk young. Excellent accompaniment for for sauerkraut sauerkraut and and charcharyoung. A A wine wine with with a a distinct aromatic aromatic Bavour flavour tbat that is is Muscat. Quite a full-bodied full-bodied wine wine Pinot gris Quite a with a a delicate bouquet.
Pinot blanc blanc or A fresh, freslr" rather rather sharp Clevner: A Pinot sharp wine, often used used for blending.
Gewiirztraminer and Traminer. The The wine from from tbis grape this grape Gewrztrarniner is very fruit fruity, a distinctive distinctive flavour, flavour, and and is is often drunk y, with a well weil matured.
Perfect Riesling. A dry, for fish, goes well seafood. It It also also goes well with with sauerfish, shellfish and seafood. Cpages Cdpages courants. Chasselas and Kniperl. Carafe Chasselas and Carafe wines. The The wine resulting from from the the blending of of cpages cipages nobles nobles and and cpages cipages courants is is called called Zwicker.
Zwicket Edelzwicker Edelzwicker is is the name the name given to a a b1end blend of cpages cipages nobles. Red wines wines and and Ross. The The red red wines wines are made from from the are made the black Pinot grape, grape, ros ros6 from the grey Pinot grape.
Producthe grey Pinot grape. Production is poor compared to that of of white wine. The The name of of the the locality locality often grape. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author: Librairie Larousse Pages: Clarkson Potter Language: English ISBN Description this book Larousse Gastronomique has been the foremost resource of culinary knowledge since its initial publication in Long revered for its encyclopedic entries on everything from cooking techniques, ingredients, and recipes to equipment, food histories, and culinary biographies, it is the one book every professional chef and avid home cook must have on his or her kitchen shelf.
In fact, Julia Child once wrote, "If I were allowed only one reference book in my library, Larousse Gastronomique would be it, without question. Larousse Gastronomique has now been updated to add the latest advancements that have forever changed the way we cook, including modern technological methods, such as sous-vide cooking and molecular gastronomy.
All-new color ingredient-identification photographs give this edition a fresh, elegant look. Dozens of new biographies of people who have made significant contributions 4. With entries arranged in encyclopedic fashion, Larousse Gastronomique is not only incredibly user-friendly, but it is also a fantastic read for anyone who loves food. An index at the end of the book of all 3, recipes for cuisines from around the world makes it easy to find a myriad of preparations for any ingredient eggs or chicken, for example or type of dish such as cakes or sauces.
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