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BENGALI POETRY. Issue Date: Appears in Collections: Mahabharata মহাভারত Title, আখ্যাপত্র, kB, Adobe PDF, View/Open. Mahabharat () by Kaliprasanna Singha. Subject: First translation of Mahabharata in modern Bengali. First translation of Mahabharata in. Mahabharat Rajshekhar Basu. byMahabharatRajshekharBasu. Publication date LanguageBengali. MahabharatRajshekharBasu. Identifier.

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Pradip Bhattacharya Towards the end of the 13th century we notice a common literary feature emerging in eastern India that becomes very prominent by the 16th century A. The reasons for this remarkable synchronicity deserve further study. For the present, let us look at the picture in Bengal. After examining the evidence, Major General S. Hussain Shah was a distant ruler while Nusrat, the crown prince, was a powerful patron at hand in Chittagong as is evident from the verses of Srikara. While his version is almost unaffected by the devotional movement, it contains several unusual Shakta-influenced episodes. The key elements are given below: Sanjay provides a novel start to the epic. Janamejaya J charges Vyasa with failure to prevent his ancestors from the fratricidal battle of Kurukshetra. Vyasa laughs and says that people do not listen to prohibitions.

There is a difference of opinion concerning the time of the composition of the Mahabharata.

Originally, the epic was believed to have been composed prior to 3, BC. Scholars today, however, date it between BC and AD. At the beginning the Mahabharata was known as Jaya and had 8,, shlokas or stanzas. However, with subsequent accretion, the slokas have increased ten-fold.

The Mahabharata currently in circulation contains , slokas. The Mahabharata is divided into 18 books, or parva. The initial book Adi contains the genealogies of the characters, the enmity between the Kurus and Pandavas, the winning of Draupadi and her marriage to the five Pandavas; the second book Sabha, or assembly describes the gambling match in which Yudhisthira lost everything and the Pandavas were forced into exile for default of pawn; the third book Vana, or forest describes the life of the Pandavas in the forest; the fourth book Virata describes the adventures of the Pandavas living in disguise at the court of the king of Virata.

The next eleven books describe the great battle between the Kurus and the Pandavas, interspersed with lamentations at losses, the revelation of the mystery of Karna's birth, discourses on peace and governance, the duties of a ruler and the ways of dealing with emergencies. The twelfth and thirteenth books Shanti, or peace, and Anushasana, or precepts contain the advice given by the wounded Bhisma as he lies on his bed of arrows and end with his death. The terrible battle between the Kurus and the Pandavas ends with victory for the Pandavas.

The fourteenth book Ashvamedha describes the horse sacrifice performed by the victorious Yudhisthira. The remaining books describe the last, sad days of Dhrtarastra and his wives, their deaths, and the final journey of the Pandavas as they ascend with Draupadi to heaven where they meet Krishna.

The Mahabharata represents a unique synthesis of beliefs and ways.

Mahabharat ( 1886) Kaliprasanna Singha

Thus, it attempts to synthesise the philosophies of shiva , Durga and vishnu. Apart from its poetic qualities, it is a comprehensive representation of ancient India. Includes the Bhagavad Gita in chapters 25— This is the major book of the war. Most of the great warriors on both sides are dead by the end of this book. Also told in detail, is the pilgrimage of Balarama to the fords of the river Saraswati and the mace fight between Bhima and Duryodhana which ends the war, since Bhima kills Duryodhana by smashing him on the thighs with a mace.

Only 7 warriors remain on the Pandava side and 3 on the Kaurava side.


This is the longest book of the Mahabharata. Kisari Mohan Ganguli considers this Parva as a later interpolation. The world conquest by Arjuna. The Anugita is told by Krishna to Arjuna. Vidura predeceases them and Sanjaya on Dhritarashtra's bidding goes to live in the higher Himalayas. The evidence of the Puranas is of two kinds.

Some sources mark this as the disappearance of Krishna from earth. The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava and the Pandava. Although the Kaurava is the senior branch of the family, Duryodhana , the eldest Kaurava, is younger than Yudhishthira , the eldest Pandava.

Both Duryodhana and Yudhishthira claim to be first in line to inherit the throne.

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The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra , in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. The battle produces complex conflicts of kinship and friendship, instances of family loyalty and duty taking precedence over what is right, as well as the converse.

It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali Yuga , the fourth and final age of humankind, in which great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and people are heading towards the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue. The older generations Shantanu woos Satyavati, the fisherwoman. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma. King Janamejaya's ancestor Shantanu , the king of Hastinapura , has a short-lived marriage with the goddess Ganga and has a son, Devavrata later to be called Bhishma , a great warrior , who becomes the heir apparent.

Many years later, when King Shantanu goes hunting, he sees Satyavati , the daughter of the chief of fisherman, and asks her father for her hand.

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Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death. To resolve his father's dilemma, Devavrata agrees to relinquish his right to the throne. Shiva berates Ganga and forces her to wed Shantanu. Chitrangada dies of TB.

Dhritarashtra plots with Duryodhana to build the lacquer house. In the va conflagration the survivors are sage Lomasha, Surabhi, Danavendra and Vishvakarma. During the conquests, on his return from Lanka Arjuna encounters Hanuman and it is an interesting folk-tale account.

Karna refuses to fight them. Duryodhana is routed. Sanjay adds Yadava and Pandava women fighting the enemy when the Pandavas are defeated. He has Surya give Vrishaketu a chariot during the battle with Anushalva. Viravarma becomes Virabrahma and his daughter Malini becomes Ratnavati.

Uddalaka is renamed Udyana in the story of Chandi and the curse is dispelled when both the horse and Arjuna touch the stone. The remarkable story of the many-faced Brahmas is absent. He ignores the Kusha-Lava story entirely. The route is along the Ganga. Meghanada Daitya tries to abduct Draupadi and is slain by Bhima. Little is taken from Vyasa, except a few references. Jaimini was a leader among the revivalists of Hinduism Shankara came later.