amotherboard looks like in more detail, but our primary emphasis is just what it does parts. While I don't recommend this with a laptop or hand-held device, the . Computer Hardware – Hardware Components & Internal PC Connections: cache, 32nm process technology; 4 gigabytes of RAM, ATX motherboard, Windows 7 /public/us/en/documents/product-briefs/zzexpress-chipset- The motherboard includes components crucial to the functioning of a computer. Among them, the Central Processing Unit and Random Access.

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Motherboard Components Pdf

1 Motherboard & Its Components. Contents: CPU – Concept like address lines, data lines, internal registers. Modes of operation of CPU – Real mode. components are positioned on a motherboard is called the form factor. XT Mother - boards. “extended technology.” Designed around the. Intel processor. interconnects the motherboard components. Sockets, internal and external connectors, and various ports are also placed on the motherboard. The form factor of.

History[ edit ] Prior to the invention of the microprocessor , the digital computer consisted of multiple printed circuit boards in a card-cage case with components connected by a backplane , a set of interconnected sockets. In very old designs, copper wires were the discrete connections between card connector pins, but printed circuit boards soon became the standard practice. The Central Processing Unit CPU , memory, and peripherals were housed on individual printed circuit boards, which were plugged into the backplane. The ubiquitous S bus of the s is an example of this type of backplane system. The most popular computers of the s such as the Apple II and IBM PC had published schematic diagrams and other documentation which permitted rapid reverse-engineering and third-party replacement motherboards. Usually intended for building new computers compatible with the exemplars, many motherboards offered additional performance or other features and were used to upgrade the manufacturer's original equipment. During the late s and early s, it became economical to move an increasing number of peripheral functions onto the motherboard. By the late s, many personal computer motherboards included consumer-grade embedded audio, video, storage, and networking functions without the need for any expansion cards at all; higher-end systems for 3D gaming and computer graphics typically retained only the graphics card as a separate component. Business PCs, workstations, and servers were more likely to need expansion cards, either for more robust functions, or for higher speeds; those systems often had fewer embedded components.

Expansion Bus PCI slots.

Expansion boards cards plug into the bus. PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms. Buses carry signals such as data, memory addresses, power, and control signals from component to component. Expansion buses enhance the PCs capabilities by allowing users to add missing features in their computers by slotting adapter cards into expansion slots.

Parts of a Motherboard and Their Function

Chipsets The Computer Chip-sets A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC's key components. These key components include the CPU itself, the main memory, the secondary cache, and any devices situated on the buses. A chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks and other devices connected to the IDE channels.

A computer has got two main chipsets: The NorthBridge also called the memory controller is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM, which is why it is located physically near the processor. The term "bridge" is generally used to designate a component which connects two buses. Using a quartz crystal, the CPU clock breathes life into the microprocessor by feeding it a constant flow of pulses.

Similarly, in any communications device, a clock may be used to synchronize the data pulses between sender and receiver. A "real-time clock," also called the "system clock," keeps track of the time of day and makes this data available to the software.

Switches and Jumpers The Switches and Jumpers DIP Dual In-line Package switches are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on or off just like a normal switch. They are very small and so are usually flipped with a pointed object, such as the tip of a screwdriver, a bent paper clip, or a pen top. Take care when cleaning near DIP switches, as some solvents may destroy them.

This chipset determines, to an extent, the features and capabilities of the motherboard. Modern motherboards include: Sockets or slots in which one or more microprocessors may be installed. As of [update] , some graphics cards e.

GeForce 8 and Radeon R require more power than the motherboard can provide, and thus dedicated connectors have been introduced to attach them directly to the power supply. Disk drives also connect to the power supply.

Additionally, nearly all motherboards include logic and connectors to support commonly used input devices, such as USB for mouse devices and keyboards. Additional peripherals such as disk controllers and serial ports were provided as expansion cards. Given the high thermal design power of high-speed computer CPUs and components, modern motherboards nearly always include heat sinks and mounting points for fans to dissipate excess heat.

Parts of a Motherboard and Their Function | TurboFuture

Main article: Comparison of computer form factors Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and shape called computer form factor , some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers. However, the motherboards used in IBM-compatible systems are designed to fit various case sizes. As of [update] , most desktop computer motherboards use the ATX standard form factor — even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers, which have not been built from commodity components.

A case's motherboard and power supply unit PSU form factor must all match, though some smaller form factor motherboards of the same family will fit larger cases. Laptop computers generally use highly integrated, miniaturized and customized motherboards.

This is one of the reasons that laptop computers are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair. Often the failure of one laptop component requires the replacement of the entire motherboard, which is usually more expensive than a desktop motherboard due to a large number of integrated components and their custom shape and size.

The motherboard layout for laptops depends on the laptop case.

What is a Motherboard? - Definition, Function & Diagram

It is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts. A CPU socket provides many functions, including a physical structure to support the CPU, support for a heat sink, facilitating replacement as well as reducing cost , and most importantly, forming an electrical interface both with the CPU and the PCB. CPU sockets on the motherboard can most often be found in most desktop and server computers laptops typically use surface mount CPUs , particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture.

Integrated peripherals[ edit ] Block diagram of a modern motherboard, which supports many on-board peripheral functions as well as several expansion slots With the steadily declining costs and size of integrated circuits , it is now possible to include support for many peripherals on the motherboard.

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