TEFL courses in person and tutored those taking distance your lesson plan so that they can talk Learning English as a Foreign Language for Dummies. All and all, this book is your free ticket. to. the world of speaking better and fluent English Spoken Engli Methods for Teaching Learning Strategies in the. 21 xii Teaching English as a Foreign Language For Dummies What kind of person makes an ideal TEFL teacher? 22 Does it matter that I'm not a.
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Teaching English as a Foreign Language FOR Dummies pdf: Pages By: Michelle Maxom / began teaching part-time in after doing. Teaching English as a Foreign Language For Dummies. Michelle Maxom. ISBN: Nov pages. Select type: E-Book. E-Book £ English Parts of the Body - Flashcards, Games and Activities. This pack contains resources to teach 16 English words for parts of the body. It has been designed.
Cheryl Duksta Production Manager: Daniel Mersey Cover Photos: Examining Courses, Qualifications and Jobs Putting Your Lesson Together Starting from the Beginning: Planning the Lesson Standing in the Spotlight: Presenting to the Class Giving Correction and Feedback Being Materialistic!
Using Course Books and Other Materials Managing Your Classroom Teaching Skills Classes Taken as Read: Teaching Reading Lessons Write or Wrong? Teaching Writing Lessons What Accent? Teaching Pronunciation Setting Their Tongues Wagging: Speaking and Discussion In One Ear, Out the Other: Learning To Listen Stop Press! Student to Deliver Sentence Feeling Tense? Sorting Out Verb Tenses Exploring More Important Verb Structures Putting Students to the Test Getting Specific: Getting Youth on Your Side: Coping with Younger Learners Making the Grade: Handling Exam Classes Distinguishing Monolingual and Multi-lingual Classes The Part of Tens Lesson Plan Templates How to Teach Skills Classes Will the job be like that?
Planning the Lesson. Presenting to the Class. Teaching vocabulary in chunks Teaching posh words and slang Giving Correction and Feedback. Using Course Books and Other Materials. Managing Your Classroom. Teaching Reading Lessons.
Pre-reading tasks Teaching Writing Lessons. Teaching Pronunciation. Sound and Spelling Placing emphasis on syllables Speaking and Discussion. Extending Conversations Learning To Listen. Repeating the Text Student to Deliver Sentence. Subjects, Verbs and Objects Sorting Out Verb Tenses. Identifying the Tenses Exploring More Important Verb Structures.
Conditional Structures The zero conditional The first conditional Putting Students to the Test.
Coping with Younger Learners. Using Games to Teach Handling Exam Classes. Distinguishing Monolingual and Multi-lingual Classes. Monolingual Classes Teaching culture Making Use of the Dictionary There could be as many as a billion students learning English around the world at this time and that is reason enough to consider moving into Teaching English as a Foreign Language TEFL.
However, when you combine this with the freedom the job gives you to move around the world and earn your keep, the case for TEFL gets even stronger. While English speakers move out to different lands, stu- dents of English migrate to other parts of the globe in search of a better life and new horizons.
Teaching English is something people do when they are ready to change their lives and this book gives you some of the basic tools you need to make that happen. Most people who speak the language well can teach others to some degree. We do it all the time with children and with foreign friends. We explain words and concepts to each other on a daily basis. TEFL is an extension of what we do naturally and this book helps you zoom in on your language skills and structure them. People often surprise themselves by discovering that even without attending months and years of language study, they can teach.
You are probably no different. About This Book I have been teaching English for many years now and I have found it an entirely rewarding experience. I have met the most fascinating people and had a hand in helping others reach their goals. My goal in this book is to help you enjoy TEFL too by giving you the confidence and know-how to get a job and deliver effective, engaging lessons. You could read the book from cover to cover before deciding whether TEFL is for you.
If you do, you will have a solid overview of the skills involved in teaching English well. On the other hand, you could use it as a resource that you dip into whenever you need some input because your lessons are falling a bit flat or you are short of ideas.
The table of contents will point you to spe- cific areas of concern or maybe even areas you have never thought about but should have. Hopefully it will inspire some great ideas of your own. I should also mention that this is not a photocopiable resource book with ready made lesson plans. The aim is to show the kinds of activities and tech- niques you can use with your classes, adapting them to your own situation.
This book is not strictly applicable to teaching in language schools which have their own trademark methodology and materials. In such cases the schools will expect you to teach in very defined ways with little room for other techniques.
Conventions Used in This Book Throughout this book I use a few conventions which you need to know about up front: There are so many countries where English is an offi- cial language that I have chosen to keep it simple in this way. Fun and help- ful, but not essential reading: Foolish Assumptions I wrote this book with the intention of helping people who want to teach English for the first time, or who are inexperienced at the job and need some tips to improve their teaching.
I assume these things about you: Please note that this book is not for you if you just want to improve your own English. The focus is on how to explain language points to students not simply to you, the reader.
The parts cover the TEFL industry, putting together lessons and their content, and then to the courses as a whole. Part I: I help you to decide whether to only teach for a couple of summers or as a career, by explaining what the job entails. I tell you what the students expect from you too. You find out about the qualifications and training you need, if any, as there are different kinds of courses you can enrol on.
As well as this, I include the points you need to keep in mind if you are moving abroad to teach. This is an introduction to the industry as a whole. Part II: Putting Your Lesson Together For most people who are new to teaching or have never done it before, the task of finding a point to teach and then working out how to package the information into an effective lesson is rather overwhelming.
In these chapters I break the lesson down into different stages, known as Presentation, Practice and Production so that there is a clear structure for learning. There is also advice on how long the stages should last and who should be doing the talking. I include lots of examples and suggestions for classroom activities, whether you use a course book or design your own materials. How to Teach Skills Classes In language courses there are four main skills which need to be included to make students truly proficient.
These are listening, speaking, reading and writing. In this part of the book I take a look at each skill in isolation, showing you how to put a lesson together which is dedicated to one skill. These lessons have a slightly dif- ferent structure from grammar and vocabulary ones. There is also a chapter on pronunciation which is so vital to good communication that there are phonetic symbols and particular techniques for assisting students to speak clearly.
Part IV: It is the area which so many native speakers dread teaching, not having done much of this at school themselves. Although this book is not an exhaustive reference on the English grammar, here I cover most of the questions you need answered in order to hold your own in the classroom. You can you use this part of TEFL for Dummies along with your dictionary and reference works if you want to go deeper.
So, you review the way sentences are put together with subjects, verbs and objects. I present each tense explaining what it does and what it looks like. Finally there is a chapter covering modal verbs, phrasal verbs and conditional structures.
There are lots of suggestions on practising grammar too. Part V: First in this section I provide advice on using tests to get students in the right class and how to use testing progressively during the course. Following this there are sections on different kinds of courses and advice on handling them. You learn about one to ones classes, business English, teaching young people from small children to adolescents and exam classes.
Finally, I compare two kinds of classroom situations. The first is the class with students who all speak the same language and the second is the class with students from all around the world. I take a look at one nationalities of students in detail. As a TEFL teacher you need to be ready for anything! Part VI: The first offers suggestions on making your lessons more lively and the second one looks at resources you can use to improve your teaching skills.
Introduction 5 There are two appendixes offering you extra information. Appendix A gives you templates which help you plan, observe and assess lessons. Appendix B takes a brief look at popular locations around the world for TEFL teachers and gives you an idea of what to expect from the country and the job.
This icon draws attention to points you should try to lodge in your memory. This icon highlights helpful ideas for making your lessons run more smoothly. If you want practical suggestions for how to go about teaching a particular point, look out for this icon.
This icon alerts you to common mistakes among newer teachers and suggests pointers to help you avoid problems. Where to Go from Here If you have never taught English before but are considering it as a source of income, the best place to start is probably Part I.
For example Chapter 3 tells you about who is eligible to teach. If you are living abroad and have already examined the local demand for English lessons you probably know who your prospective students will be. In that case, take a look at Part VI as you can start finding out about specific teaching situations.
You could browse Chapter 19 on business English, for example. Perhaps your boss has just given you a new kind of course which is making you nervous and you want to know the best approach: Try Part VI. Be confident as you proceed. There are many things in your favour: You have probably been learning it since infancy.
They just enjoy travelling and like people but they manage to pull off great courses. You can too. T his part covers the TEFL basics. This part tells you what to expect in the TEFL environment and what the students expect from you, too. You should also dip in here to find out about the qualifications and training you need to meet your requirements and those of prospective employers. In this chapter you get an overview of the industry and an idea of what the lifestyle of a person in this rewarding career is really like.
Understanding Why English Many factors contribute to the market for Teaching English as a Foreign Language The historical factor offers the legacy of the old British Empire that took the language around the world.
The political factor gives the current dominance of the USA. Science and technology have developed with English at the forefront. These days English is viewed as a language which gives you access to the world. Some want to study at prestigious English-speaking universities; some want a high flying career with international connections. Others just want a better chance in life and move to wherever the money seems to be, and then again, some just love Hollywood, international rock stars or their English girl- friend.
Even the free-spirited backpackers need English to get by in far-flung lands. Considering countries — both home and abroad Before entering TEFL, give some consideration to where you want to teach and who your ideal students would be. Subtle differences exist between the criteria for teachers in English speaking countries and elsewhere.
The train- ing you need for particular student groups also varies. In addition, unlike a career change at home, teaching abroad presents challenges you may not have considered. Staying in the home market Finding work in TEFL in an English-speaking country can be more difficult than doing so abroad.
As many English-speaking nations are economic powerhouses, they tend to have various regulatory bodies governing the employment of teachers and trying to ensure high stan- dards in education. In other words you need to jump through more hoops to get a decent job. Many students are entitled to attend government funded courses or free classes run by charitable organisations. In addition, private language schools offer courses from two weeks up to two years.
In the latter case, students pay for their lessons and often have other activities to make the experience more fun, including a social programme that teachers generally get involved with too.
Chapter 1: Discovering the Wonderful World of TEFL 11 Although the basic skills of the job are the same in each sector, you may not be eligible to apply for all of these jobs. Most employ- ers require teachers to have a first degree and a TEFL qualification certifi- cate, diploma or Master of Arts although in the public sector you usually need a qualification specifically for teaching adults in further education.
Non- graduates can often get onto a training course but fewer job opportunities are available to them. Amongst countries in the European Union things have been changing. Citizens of the EU have rights in the UK, including the right to enrol on courses offered by the state.
There have been quite a few changes in the number of jobs offered in countries like Poland for these reasons. Unfortunately the British economy is not what it was, and as the world struggles with the recent banking crises, people are thinking twice about their prospects abroad anyway. The world is a big place, after all! However, despite the thrill of setting off on a new adventure overseas, you need to approach a TEFL work with a balanced outlook that considers both the advantages and the disadvantages.
The advantages are that: But the disadvantages are that: So many TEFL operators in the world — almost anyone who speaks the lan- guage well can find work somewhere but, as with jobs on home soil, the best opportunities go to graduates with a recognised TEFL qualification. Ask a school abroad if you can contact one of the current foreign teachers to get some insight into local living. Even if the school declines, you can still put out some feelers among friends and Internet forums such as on www.
So in most countries jobs start in September or October and run for nine months to a year. Start looking for a good contract in the summer if you want to fly off in the autumn.
It has become one of the biggest econo- give some thought to where you want to teach. Apparently the weather varies greatly too, the potential is huge. Discovering the Wonderful World of TEFL 13 When the academic year finishes, students visit English speaking countries so they can practise their language skills. You can often find short contracts from two to twelve weeks long at summer schools.
Advertisements for these jobs start appearing in spring, typically in March and April. Teaching trends English language teaching has become more tailored to the varying needs of students. ESP English for Specific Purposes is big news, so instead of study- ing general English for years, more students are opting for business English, EAP English for Academic Purposes or similar courses that address their needs more directly.
Another trend is towards online learning and training for students and teach- ers. Many resources are available on the Internet so students feel less inclined to ask a teacher for help in person these days. And with fewer students around, employers are looking for a higher standard from their teachers. You need to prepare your mind in advance, not just your suitcase. Find the answers to these questions: How much money do I need to take and in what form?
Have your paper- work sent abroad or to a safe place back home. Setting up elsewhere Arriving in another country is a very exciting and frightening experience. Use these tips to help start feeling at home: Find out all you can about your new environment.
Local people try to advise you about all kinds of things. If your students are going for a drink, go along from time to time as long as your employer approves.
The lifestyle of an EFL teacher is usually a pleasant one. Jobs are most often three to five hours a day plus the time you spend preparing. So you can usu- ally find time to explore your surroundings.
You may find that if you look different from local people, they start conversations with you out of curiosity or on the other hand they may just stare. Either way, be friendly. A small piece of advice is to judge accommodation by local standards.
If you must complain, save it for your friends back home. Taking someone from the basics of the language to independence is continu- ally rewarding.
Filling gap years and career breaks TEFL is the perfect antidote to a life chained to a desk. Real benefits can be gained from taking a year out; they include: You may have thought you had it all worked out but sud- denly you wonder whether your chosen path is really what you want.
Giving yourself time to think and look at other possibilities should set you straight. A short diversion into TEFL can energise you again. Seeing how others live can really help you see the good in your own lifestyle when you return home. You can gain by: Being in a new environment helps you to sort out the things you want to do from the things you previously just went along with and being exposed to other cul- tures truly inspires the imagination.
If you do happen to take to the job like a duck to water, you can work up the career ladder too. The problem with managerial roles though, is that they tend to take you away from teaching and into the office. So you may want to embark on more of a sideways move: Some common fears include: Save enough to pay for some TEFL training, a return flight, and enough to set you up in the local currency which may be comparatively little.
Although you have commitments, if you think positively you may be able to get nine months abroad without changing your whole life. Have you asked your boss about taking an unpaid sab- batical?
You never know, he may be keen on the idea. You can also speak to an estate agent about letting your home for a year and even your loved ones may be happy for you to take a break in my experience, they love to have a place to visit for a free holiday. Students love to a see a mature face in the classroom. You may just have the time of your life working in TEFL, so go ahead and take the plunge.
In this section I give you some of the most common — and commonly troubling — questions and their answers. In a word, yes! The only language you really need to know well is English. Even though your students inevitably speak to you in their mother tongue from time to time, you can respond in simple English, with gestures or pic- tures.
In a way, it makes the whole situation more authentic. Will the students be children? Youngsters in many countries need English lessons, but the state takes care of this by using primary and secondary school teachers. TEFL teachers some- times give support to the state education system but do most of their work in the private sector. Parents often pay for extra English lessons, especially during the summer months.
However, many adults and teenagers preparing for work abroad or in an inter- national environment have a great desire to learn English. These students are highly motivated and usually well behaved.
Do I have to know all the grammar in the English language? Check the chapters in Part 4 for some help with grammar issues. The aim of TEFL is to produce students who can speak the language almost as well as you can, at the most. In reality, very few students have the time and resources to stay in the classroom setting beyond upper-intermediate or advanced level proficiency is the highest level.
As soon as students feel confident that they can use English for whatever purposes they need, they often get on with their lives. Chapter 2: Yes you can, but finding work is easier if you have them. Most schools adver- tise vacancies for graduates in any discipline who have a TEFL certificate comprising about hours of training. However, if you actually live overseas and are prepared to trawl around the local language schools, you may find that these schools welcome native speakers with open arms, without or without the typical entry requirements.
Get some training if you can as this gives you better opportunities. I hated language lessons at school. I remember some of the phrases I learnt in my O-level French lessons.
Most of them are pretty irrelevant to my life now and even to my life back then. Fortunately, language teaching has moved on rather a lot in the last thirty years. Even if education in general in your chosen destination is still rather dry, you can expect to teach according to the livelier techniques of the modern TEFL industry.
Are there lots of books and exercises for students to work through? You can make use of the stacks of course books, work books and resource books on the market but most schools encourage teachers to use their own ideas too. Depending on the country and the employer, you probably have a book and syllabus but a fair amount of latitude as well. Most large bookshops have a section on English as a foreign language, so have a browse through some popular course books to get an idea of the kind of material teachers use.
Some examples of course books that are popular in many countries are titles such as Innovations, Cutting Edge and English File, which are available for each level of English students and cover elementary, pre-intermediate and so on. A good EFL teacher enjoys meeting people and is interested in other lan- guages and cultures.
The most successful teachers are often the ones who can put the students at ease and who have a sense of humour. You definitely need to have a methodical approach, which usually includes taking the time to do your research and preparation before you enter the classroom.
So, in a way, good teachers of English are also good students of their subject. Most employers expect you to be proficient in English and have excellent, native pronunciation. However, in the public and vol- untary sectors this may be different, as the students are usually immigrants who may relate well to a fellow immigrant who has found her feet in the English-speaking community. How many students will I have? It depends on the country, the economy and the integrity of your employer.
Yes, but you need to have good grammar and a clear speaking voice, with or without a regional accent. If native speakers have trouble following you, you need to make some changes.
Will the students like me? Students should like your lessons and respect you as their teacher. In general, you can be a likeable teacher by being fair, considerate, responsible and well prepared. How will I know what to do? If at all possible, get yourself some training and observe some lessons before you start teaching. Use up-to-date course books to help you. Talking to Students and So Much More — Teaching Basics The human brain is a marvellous instrument with the built-in capacity to decipher language.
You discov- ered this as a baby. So, when students attend language classes, they need a system or methodology so that they can mea- sure their progress and balance this against the money they pay.
The next sections give the basics on teaching methods. In the classroom, students learn actively through direct instruction from the teacher and pick up the language incidentally at the same time. However, when you teach systematically you generally start with easy words and phrases and then add a bit more each time.
You save the most difficult words for the end. Figure uses an imaginary language — we can call it Dummese — to illustrate a dialogue typical of a Dummese beginner-level lesson. The lesson would logically continue with another few words connected with vehicles and transport as you use easy words in a clear context and build up from there. If you had to pick out words like these by listening to a compli- cated traffic report in Dummese, you would have a much more difficult, if not impossible, task.
Dum dim deeba Figure Starting off simply with Dum dim dooba props. Getting Started in TEFL Focusing on the most useful words In theory you can spend your whole life learning a new language, especially a global language such as English to which new words are added or borrowed from other languages all the time.
Most people, however, make do with a few thousand words and leave the rest to those who particularly need them. So the question is, if English has around half a million words in its vocabulary, which ones do you teach? The idea is to focus on teaching the words that allow the students to function competently in the language.
Your students need to know all the words typically associated with a given level of English so that they can measure their progress and move on. The best way to become familiar with what students need to learn within each level is to refer to the syllabus at the beginning of an EFL course book. Usually the syllabus sets out the vocabulary areas and grammar chapter by chapter. In most cases the language school has approved a course book or set of materials, which you should use as your guide.
Giving students room to talk Learning a new language is a great deal harder if you feel stressed. This is why an important aspect of TEFL work is to present lessons in an enjoyable and engaging way.
In the TEFL industry, you challenge the stereotype of teachers as boring, sour-faced characters who spend most of their time writing on the board with their backs to the students. Neither do you lecture the students, forcing them to simply listen and take notes. Actually, the students should be doing the talking for most of the lesson. Speaking to a classmate in small groups or pairs and role playing is one of the more effective ways to learn.
In TEFL the aim is to give your stu- dents practice and a nice safe environment to try out everything they learn. People really need to be able to speak a language to master it, so remember that in your lessons. Keeping things relevant Whatever you teach the students should be realistic and have some rele- vance to their lives. Depending on the situation, students sometimes come to you with their own goals. If the class is a general English course, the onus is on you to select the words and phrases most used in the situations your par- ticular students are likely to meet.
Likewise, students who are living in an English-speaking country need some colloquial expressions to survive. Some students have very specific goals such as passing exams or getting a job. Once you know what these are you can more easily tailor your classes to fit their needs. This is especially true if all the students are working towards the same goal. TEFL does comprise some very focused areas, such as business English, EAP English for academic purposes , and even courses adapted for particular jobs like football coaching and hairdressing.
Then, they start complaining or stop attending. Getting Started in TEFL From the moment a student turns up at the reception area of your school or makes contact with you directly, she expects you to understand that she has a lack in her ability and that communicating in English is beyond her level and presents a problem.
Students want help. In a country where English is not the first language, students tend to make contact with a school or teacher in their own language. However, a form of speaking test happens quite quickly when in the case of a language school a student is introduced to a teacher or teaching manager who begins a conversation in English.
You can download written placement tests from EFL publishers such as Oxford University Press or you can put one together using questions that move progressively through the grammar and vocabulary typical of each class level.
Students need to make measurable progress from their starting level. Proof of this may be completing a syllabus, gaining confidence or passing a test.
Encouragement goes hand in hand with improving English skills. Students want to know that you as the teacher are an expert and as a native or proficient speaker of English you are and that you know the process involved in making their English better. Nobody wants to have a boring experience, so students rely on you to make their lessons as lively and memorable as possible. This game can work with almost any age group and is a listening and speaking game.
Materials needed: nothing! Lesson idea 4: Talk to Three Confused about how to teach basic English? This speaking activity can be used with any age group. It can be used to practice any language structure you teach or as a warm up. The teacher models the activity with three volunteers.
He or she approaches the first volunteer and it goes something like this: Teacher: Hello! How are you? Teacher: Super! Student: Goodbye. The first students to sit down are the winners! Materials needed: timer Lesson idea 5: Crossfire Doing English teaching for beginners? This a great warm up for younger teenagers and kids and can be used to practice previous knowledge.
All students stand up. The teacher picks a student at random and asks him or her a question that tests the language structure the class has already already learned. Materials: none! Lesson idea 6: Rock, paper, scissors train This is a good listening and speaking activity for young kids and you need a lot of space to play this game.
Each student is a train engine. Each student meets another student and says the target sentence s. Student 2: I like volleyball. Then, they play rock, paper, scissors. Let them listen first More than likely, your students will want to start practising speaking pretty much from the get-go.
Drill, repeat, drill, repeat, drill… Beginners need lots of repetition and drilling, especially as they get to grips with the sounds of their new language. It might seem boring to go over the same sentences again and again, but it is necessary. When practising a new sentence, try back-drilling, breaking the sentence down into manageable units and then building it back up, working backwards from the end of the sentence to the beginning; this helps to ensure that your intonation is natural and that you get elements of connected speech right.
Establish classroom language early on Classroom language — Can you speak more slowly? What do we have to do? What does… mean? How do you say… in English?