15/09/ v 1. TOEIC Grammar. TOEIC Grammar. Grammaire conçue par le Groupe ESC Chambéry / La Cité des Langues. TOEIC Grammar - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. TESTS. TOEIC Preparation Tests Speaking: At the Supermarket 12 TOEIC Prepara. TOEIC practice test - Cambridge Grammar and Vocabulary for the.
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Part of TestDEN's free TOEIC guide covering the importance of having good grammar skills to succeed at the TOEIC tests. Grammar and Vocabulary for the. TOEIC® Test Practice Test. Listening and Reading Test. Section 1: Listening. In the Listening test, you will be. TOEIC Vocabulary ○ TOEIC Grammar ○ Listening skills. ○ Test-taking strategies ○ Reading skills ○ Practice Tests. ○ Over 1, items per level ○ Complete.
Then you will have 45 seconds to read the text aloud. Question 1: Enjoy the opportunity of a lifetime on our half-day excursions to nearby lagoons, where you will have an unforgettable whale-watching experience. Our registered tour operators will take you to the three main whale-watching sites off the Pacific coast of Mexico, where you will be amazed by the sight of the migrating California Grey Whales and other resident species.
The best time to go whale- watching is from January to late March. This is when the ocean temperature off Alaska becomes too cold and the California Grey Whales swim south for the warmer water off the Baja Peninsula. Question 2: Here is an example of how a promotional activity works. Suppose you run a coffee shop which typically sells about cups of coffee per week.
To increase sales, you issue a coupon that can be used to download coffee at a reduced rate of say, 20 percent, during a particular week. If your sales of coffee increase enough that the extra sales make up for the lower profit per cup sold then the coupon approach has been successful.
However, if you continue to sell only cups per week, the coupon promotional technique is reducing your profits and should be discontinued. However, the test questions and any other testing information are provided in the entirety by Cambridge University Press.
No endorsement of the publication by Educational Testing Service should be inferred. You will have 30 seconds to prepare your response. Then you will have 45 seconds to speak about the picture. Questions 4—6: Respond to questions Directions: In this part of the test, you will answer three questions.
For each question, begin responding immediately after you hear a beep. No preparation time is provided. You will have 15 seconds to respond to Questions 4 and 5 and 30 seconds to respond to Question 6. Imagine that you are being interviewed by a psychologist studying consumer behavior.
Question 4: Have you ever made a bad choice when downloading a product? Use details in your response. Question 5: Have you worried about whether you were spending too much on a product or service that you have bought? Question 6: Describe a time that you or someone you know were dissatisfied with something you bought and brought it back to the store to complain.
You will have 30 seconds to read the information before the questions begin. No additional preparation time is provided. You will have 15 seconds to respond to Questions 7 and 8, and 30 seconds to respond to Question 9. New Greengen Media Workshops Is your company spending too much on business trips? Unique means one of a kind. There is no other like it, so it is not possible for one president to be more or less unique than another one. The comparisons must make sense. You cannot compare things that are very different.
They must be similar. So, an apple cannot be compared to an orange. Michael's computer is much older than Will. Michael's computer is much older than Will's computer. The English that is spoken in Canada is close to the United States. The English that is spoken in Canada is close to that of the United States. Comparing the English spoken in two countries.
Topic 6 — Adverbs of Frequency. Adverbs are words that are used to help describe verbs. Adverbs can also be used to describe adjectives and other adverbs. Adverbs of frequency are ones that describe when or how often something is done. There are two types: The position of an adverb in a sentence tells you whether it is an adverb of definite or indefinite frequency. Adverbs of definite frequency occur at the beginning or the end of a sentence.
Common ones are hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. In each one, month can be replaced with hour, day, week, or year. Any exact number of times that happen in a given time period are also adverbs of definite frequency: Every day, some employees go out for lunch. Some employees go out for lunch every day. Payroll must be done every two weeks. The sales manager gets new e-mail hourly. Adverbs of indefinite frequency include always, usually, never, often, very often, rarely, sometimes, seldom, once in a while, repeatedly, typically, hardly ever, and occasionally.
Adverbs of indefinite frequency occur in the middle of the sentence. Where exactly it is placed depends on the type of verbs in the sentence. There are three possible places:. She often takes her vacation in winter.
The employees always work until seven. The manager usually arrives first at the staff meetings. After the be verb form when it is the main verb. The employees are always working until seven. The manager is usually the first person to arrive. Between the helping verb and the main verb. This is always true, even when the main verb is a verb form of be. She has often gone on vacation in winter. The employees can always work until seven. The manager will usually arrive first at the staff meetings.
The owners have been rarely unreasonable. The owners have rarely been unreasonable. Have is the helping verb, been is the be verb form. Usage note: Some indefinite frequency adverbs can be placed at the beginning or end of a main clause: Once in a while we like to for a long drive. He accompanies her to the shopping mall occasionally. Topic 7 — Word Choice. In word choice, how well you understand many kinds of grammar are tested. You will see many commonly confused words.
The right answer may be a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition or conjunction. The questions with four answers listed are related in some way. The words may look or sound similar, but have different meanings. Words that are opposite in meaning might also be used. Sometimes more than one word may seem to be the right choice. Picking the right one will depend on knowing how and when a word is used in English. These words may have similar meanings for example, house and home or grammatical use for example, much and many.
Only one choice can work properly in the sentence. This is one of the most difficult parts of learning English because there are many words that sound or look the same, but have different meanings.
Pay close attention to each answer choice and check whether it fits in the context of the sentence. Words with similar spelling, words that rhyme, words that sound alike, or words that are opposite that do not have similar meanings:. A vain B vein C pain D plain. An adjective is needed to complete the sentence. Plain is the only adjective that makes sense.
A is an adjective used to describe people, not things paper. B is a noun that sounds like A. C is a noun that rhymes with vein and plain.
A noun is needed to complete the sentence. B is a noun meaning writing materials. C is a singular noun which does not make sense in this sentence. A is an adjective meaning unmoving. D is an adjective with the opposite meaning of A.
Words with similar meanings, but different usage: A goods B well C good D badly. The correct answer is C. An adjective needed to complete the sentence. Good is the only adjective. A is a noun. D is an adverb. B is also an adverb. To use well, the sentence would be, The boss thinks we are doing the job well. How is the job being done? It is being done well.
You cannot say, The boss thinks we are doing the job good. C along D beside. Between compares exactly two things. Among always compares more than two. The prepositions along and beside are not used for comparisons. Topic 8 — Prepositions. Prepositions are used to show a connection between two words in a sentence. There are many different prepositions in English which makes it difficult to choose the right preposition to use in a sentence.
For example, there are more than 30 prepositions that may be used to describe the relationship between a desk and something else. Here are some examples:. These are the most common prepositions: To use prepositions accurately, memorize the most common prepositions and how they are used to describe the relationship between two things.
Prepositions always link a noun, a pronoun, or a word acting as a noun to another word in the sentence. The noun type normally comes after the preposition and is called the object of the preposition.
The preposition plus its object and any other words describing the object is called a prepositional phrase. Prepositional phrases act as adjectives or adverbs, and add details to a sentence. They can tell the location of something, or when, how, and where something happens. The man runs on the sidewalk. The man runs at night. The man runs on a trail by the water. The man runs instead of walking.
The man runs before eating breakfast. The man is running to catch a bus. The man runs past the library every day. The man runs with his large dog. The man runs along the side of the road. The man runs like a professional athlete. The words in bold are prepositions. The underlined words are the object of the preposition. Together they are a prepositional phrase.
Each one adds details like how or where or when the man runs. Prepositional phrases can be at the start, middle, or the end of a sentence: According to the newspaper, the companys profits increased last month.
The accounting job at the company was a great learning experience. Prepositional phrases can never be a sentence. They do not have a subject or main verb.
Some prepositions are always used with certain nouns, adjectives and verbs. The preposition and other word work together as a single prepositional form. Noun Examples: Adjective Examples: Verb Examples: Some prepositions are always used with certain times or place or direction. At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day:. We finish work at 6pm. In is used with other parts of the day, with months, years, or seasons:. To show longer periods of time, the prepositions most commonly used are:.
Since They have been gone since last week. For Charles is going on vacation for three weeks. By We must finish this project by Friday. Within We must finish this project within a week.
From … until The resort is open from fall until spring. From … to The conference runs from Monday to Friday. During I read during my lunch break. The prepositions in, at, and on are used with different kinds of places:.
In Used before large places name of a country, state, We stopped in the park. At Used with specific addresses. Can also be used with some We live at Main Street. On Used before middle-sized places: To show something is higher than something else, use above or over. To show something is lower than a place, use under, underneath, below, or beneath. The book is on a shelf above the desk. The painting hangs over the desk. The disk is underneath the file folder.
The computer is kept under the desk. Cargo is kept below the main deck. We ate lunch beneath the trees. To show the location of something in relation to something else, use the following prepositions:. He lives near a school. The hospital is by the library. She parked her car next to mine. His folder is among the others. The van parked between a truck and a car. Some words that show a location do not use any preposition: He went on home. They went up upstairs. He went home. They went upstairs. The kids are playing at outside.
The kids are playing outside. The following prepositions show movement toward something: To Used to show movement towards something He ran to school.
Onto Used to show movement towards a surface He put his cup onto the table. Into used to show movement towards the interior of a volume He jumped into the pool. It would also be correct to say, He jumped in the pool. In and on can be used with many verbs showing motion. However, only in and on can show the location of the subject as a result of an action verb:.
He fell on the floor. He fell onto the floor. The book is onto the table. The preposition to also shows direction when used with verbs of motion: The preposition toward can be used also with these verbs except transfer. To is used to show a specific location. Toward is used to only show a general location. He will transfer to another bus. He will transfer toward another bus. Transfer means to go from one place to another, specific, place so toward cannot be used.
Another use of to is to show a goal that will be reached. For a physical place, the form is to plus a noun: For a purpose or reason, the form is to plus the infinitive of a verb: He washed his car to get rid of the mud. Sometimes prepositions are used when they are not needed. They might be heard in conversation, but they are not grammatically correct.
These are some examples: In each, the preposition in bold should NOT be used. She asked me to jump up and down. Jump already means to go up into the air and come back down. Be careful not to fall over. Fall already means go from a higher to a lower level. She threw the book out of the window. She threw the book out the window. Topic 9 — Unnecessary Words. There are rules to follow to make a proper sentence in English. You learn what words must be used to make a sentence.
You learn how to add words to make sentences express more detail. You learn when each type of word can and cannot be used. It is not easy to understand all the rules, or to remember them all. So mistakes are sometimes made when creating sentences. One common type of error is to use too many words.
The extra word may be an article, a verb, a pronoun, a preposition, an adjective, a conjunction, or an entire phrase. Using words with the same meaning in one sentence is another kind of unnecessary word error. Sometimes a sentence can be written with less words if the word order is changed. In this section, you will need to use all of your knowledge of grammar. Read through the question. Decide if each answer choice MUST be in that sentence to make it work.
Read the sentence out loud and pay attention to how the sentence sounds. If a phrase sounds awkward or incorrect, check to see if there are extra words that are not needed. Too many words with the same meaning used: He is nearly almost finished with the financial statement. He is nearly finished with the financial statement. He is almost finished with the financial statement. Despite leaving 10 minutes early, the worker arrived late nonetheless.
Despite leaving 10 minutes early, the worker arrived late. Leaving 10 minutes early, the worker nonetheless arrived late.
The secretary was annoyed when the copier broke on down. The secretary was annoyed when the copier broke down. The preposition on is not used in the verb form broke down. I will have download a new car. Mixed up verb tense formation. I will download a new car.
Future tense of irregular verb download is will download. I will have bought a new car. Future perfect form: The postman delivers a mail in the morning. The postman delivers mail in the morning. The indefinite article a is not used in front of a non-count noun. My manager she has some contracts for me to sign. My manager has some contracts for me to sign.
Right after a noun, do not also use a pronoun that replaces the noun. Unnecessary phrase: Simple, direct sentences are better than complicated, indirect ones.
It was a project which was very complex in structure and very ambitious in nature. The project was complex and ambitious. Topic 10 — Pronouns. Pronouns take the place of nouns in sentences. Pronouns work in sentences the same way as nouns. Pronouns are used so that nouns are not repeated. A pronoun generally refers back to a noun that was written earlier. There are many different kinds of pronouns. Each kind has different forms and rules for when it is used.
Check whether the pronoun used in a sentence matches the noun or subject of the sentence. Personal pronouns refer to a specific person or persons. The personal pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we and they. Personal pronouns change form depending on their role in a sentence. The subjective case means the pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence or a clause.
The subjective personal pronouns are I, he, she, you, it, we and they. We are going to the meeting in the same car. The other cases are objective and possessive. Objective case means a pronoun usually is the object of the verb or a preposition in a sentence.
Objective pronouns are me, him, her, us and them. The metal chair gave him an electric shock. When there is a linking verb in a sentence, the pronoun that follows it must be in the subjective, not objective, case. A common linking verb is any form of the verb be such as is, are, was and were. This is her speaking. This is she speaking. The possessive case pronoun shows ownership. The possessive pronouns are my, mine, our, ours, his, her, hers, their, theirs.
My boss approves of my conducting of the interview. Michael bumped his hip against the desk. Only the personal pronouns have these three cases. All other types of pronouns only have their regular dictionary form and a possessive case.
The exception is the relative pronoun who. Whom is the objective case and whose is the possessive case. Relative pronouns relate groups of words to nouns or other pronouns. The secretary gave three boxes to the mailman who entered the office. That and which can only refer to things. Who and whom can only refer to people.
Whom is always the object of a verb or prepositional phrase. He doesn't know whom to assign to the project. Whom is the object of the verb to assign. Who will be assigned to the project has not been decided. Who is the subject of the verb will be assigned. Intensive pronouns add emphasis to a noun or another pronoun. The form of an intensive pronoun is a personal pronoun plus -self: Reflexive pronouns show that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb in the sentence.
Reflexive pronouns have the same form as intensive ones: Objective or possessive pronouns are mistakenly used when a reflexive one is needed. Help you to whatever you need. Help yourself to whatever you need. Indefinite pronouns function as nouns, but they do not replace a noun. Everybody admires the companys president. Demonstrative pronouns identify or point to nouns. Demonstrative pronouns include this, that and such.
Interrogative pronouns introduce questions. Interrogative pronouns include who, which and what. One general rule for all pronouns is that a singular noun must be replaced with a singular pronoun.
Also, a plural noun must be replaced with a plural pronoun. I have to do a presentation tomorrow for my manager. The employees want their afternoon break to start later. It is important to remember that any word with an every, like everybody, everyone, or everything is singular, not plural. Therefore, every type words need a singular pronoun like his or her, and not a plural one like their.
Everybody needs to hand in their report to the manager. Everybody needs to hand in his report to the manager. Another general rule is that the pronoun must have the same gender feminine, masculine or neuter as the noun it replaces. Julie wants to upgrade her computer software. The computer had new software installed on its hard drive. Topic 11 — Conjunctions. Conjunctions are words that join together words, phrases or clauses. Conjunctions are used to show a relationship between the words, phrases or clauses.
Conjunctions also show agreement or disagreement between ideas. There are four types of conjunctions. Only three types will be covered: Memorize the most commonly used conjunctions shown below and when they are used to show relationships between words and phrases.
Coordinating conjunctions join together words or clauses of equal importance. They are and, but, nor, or, for, so and yet.
The coordinating conjunctions and, but, nor and or always join words or word groups of the same kind: James or Michelle will be promoted. Two nouns joined by or. The chair was old but comfortable. Two adjectives joined by but. Amanda worked every day and partied every night. Two verbs joined by and. The conjunctions for and so cannot connect words, phrases or dependent clauses.
They can only join independent clauses. For shows cause. So shows result. She was sick, so she went to the doctor. She was sick. She went to the doctor. They stayed late at the office, for they had work to do. They had work to do. They stayed late at the office. While the word yet is usually used as an adverb, it can also be a conjunction. Like but, it shows contrast.
Charles works as an accountant, yet he was trained to be a lawyer. She read through the contract carefully, yet she could not understand it all. Whatever is joined by a coordinating conjunction must be alike.
The assistant needs to edit and typing the documents. To edit is a verb form. Typing is a noun form. The assistant needs to edit and to type the documents. The manager sent a notice to all staff, but written by her assistant. The words before but form a clause. What follows but is only a phrase, not a clause.
The manager sent a notice to all staff, but her assistant wrote it. Her assistant wrote it is a clause. Now but joins two clauses. Subordinating conjunctions join a dependent subordinate clause with an independent clause. They always come at the beginning of dependent clauses. Dependent clauses are used as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. The dependent clause can be before or after the independent clause.
This means a subordinating conjunction is at the beginning or middle of a sentence. These are the most common ones:. Unless we start now, we will not finish on time. Because he enjoys traveling, he became the company's sales representative. The main office is in an old building where the alarms need to be updated. The clerk was writing an e-mail when her computer failed. Make sure the subordinating conjunction is placed at the start of the dependent clause.
After they have to go to work, their vacation ends. Their vacation ends after they have to go to work. After their vacation ends, they have to go back to work. The subordinating junction after must be before the dependent clause their vacation ends. They have to go back to work is the independent clause.
Correlative conjunctions are pairs of coordinating conjunctions that work together. They are always used as a pair. The words, phrases, or clauses that correlative conjunctions put together must be the same type: These are the common ones:. The report is either on the desk or in the copier room. The delivery was made neither in the morning nor in the afternoon. Phrases are the type of word joined. Never use neither or and either nor. Their manager doesn't laugh as often as your boss laughs. Both his uncle and his cousin work in forestry.
Nouns are the type of word joined. The presentation was both interesting and educational. Adjectives are the type of word joined. Do not use as well as with both. My friend learned both French as well as Japanese in school. My friend learned both French and Japanese in school. The boss is not only friendly but also very smart. Do not use but in place of but also. Leave behind not only your cellphone but your computer. Leave behind not only your cellphone but also your computer. Only not is grammatically wrong.
They will teach only not new skills but also new knowledge. They will teach not only new skills but also new knowledge. The company creates not hardware but software.
Do not use only in place of but. He should have spoken not louder only more slowly. He should have spoken not louder but more slowly. Topic 12 — Conditionals. Conditionals are statements with an if clause. They show a result depending upon a set of conditions.
The result can be very different because there are many ways that objects and actions can interact. The if clause controls what the result can be.
Knowing the rules for if clauses let you understand how conditionals work. There are two kinds of conditional sentences: Each kind of conditional sentence has an if clause and a result main clause. Identify whether the conditional is real or unreal.
Then use the correct verb tense for both the if clause and the result clause. Real conditionals express facts and what is absolute completely true. They also express very likely or possible results, or state something that is done regularly.
Is there rain? Or there will be rain for sure. The if clause is true so it is a real condition. The "if" clause is always written in the present tense. The result clause is written in the present or future tense.
Present tense verbs for both the result and if clause means the statement is true or a habit or a fact. Do not use helping verbs have, has, do, does plus the verb in the result clause.
The manager is always pleased if the employees work hard. If water boils, it becomes a gas. If water boils, it has become a gas. Statements of fact about something done regularly can be made in the past. Simple past tense for the if clause and result clause is used.
If we went out on the weekend, it was to go see a movie.
A statement of a true, future result has the future tense in the result clause. The future tense is will plus a verb infinitive. If the boss approves, I will go on vacation next month. We will attend the conference if we get our hotel reservations confirmed.
A statement of a possible future result has a helping verb plus the main verb in the result clause. Only the helping verbs may, might, can, could, and should are used.
If the shipment arrives soon, we might be able to fill our orders. If the shipment arrives soon, we can fill our orders. We should finish our orders tomorrow if the shipment arrives soon.
Will the shipment arrive soon? Unreal conditionals express not true, very unlikely or not possible results. If it had rained, I would have driven to work. No, it did not rain. The if clause did not happen so it is an unreal condition. For a present unreal condition, the if clause is written in the past tense. The result clause contains would, could, or might plus a verb. The verb in the if clause is not a form of the verb be.
If she owned the company, she would hire more people. They could send him the contract if they found his address. You might find the stapler if you looked in the bottom drawer.
When the verb in the if clause is a form of the verb be, it is always written as were, even for a singular subject. If Mark was the boss, he would give everyone a raise. If Mark were the boss, he would give everyone a raise.
Mark is NOT the boss, so the condition is unreal. If I was you, I would complete the report quickly. If I were you, I would complete the report quickly. I am NOT you, so the condition is unreal. The unreal conditional is a type of subjunctive. So sometimes it is called subjunctive. The subjunctive mood is a verb form that shows a requirement, a wish, a suggestion, an uncertainty, or a condition opposite to known fact. If she were to get sick, her work would suffer. Unreal condition equals what is opposite to known fact: She is sick.
This sentence suggests what might happen, but it is not likely to happen. For a past unreal condition, the if clause is written in the past perfect tense. The result clause is written with would, could, might, plus have plus a verb in the past tense: They could have made more money if they had invested sooner. If Michelle had become the sales representative, we would have had many new clients.
If you had listened at the meeting, you might have learned all about the new CEO. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Verb Tense Page 2 Topic 2: Subject-Verb Agreement Page 10 Topic 3: Word Families Page 16 Topic 4: Comparative and Superlative Page 21 Topic 6: Adverbs of Frequency Page 27 Topic 7: Word Choice Page 29 Topic 8: Prepositions Page 31 Topic 9: Unnecessary Words Page 37 Topic Pronouns Page 39 Topic Verb Forms Verbs have five forms: Infinitive Form The infinitive form is the plain or dictionary form.
It is used when the verb's action happens in the present and the subject is a plural noun or the pronouns I, we, you, or they: I go to work. You cook very well. We live downtown. They help me. Past Tense Form The past tense shows the verb's action happened in the past. The past tense is formed differently for most irregular verbs: I went to work.
We have lived downtown. They have helped me. Irregular verb The present participle is made by adding -ing to a verbs infinitive form: How the -s form is made depends on the last letter of the verb: These are some of the common irregular verbs: These are verb phrase examples: They show a necessity, possibility, ability, permission, prediction or responsibility: The helping verb do does or its past tense did is used together with the infinitive of a verb to ask questions, make the negative form, or to show added importance: Progressive Tense The progressive tenses show continuing action.
Tense Example Present Progressive I am working. The past progressive can show an action that happened in the past and was not finished: The perfect tense form plus been plus the verbs present participle makes the perfect progressive tenses: She is pretty.
He owns that. Singular Plural The employee goes to work. Subjects There are rules to follow to help decide what form the subject or verb is in. Singular and Plural Noun Forms The plural form for most nouns is made by adding -s or -es. Common ones include: The news tonight has to be good.
Measurements and figures ending in -s may be singular when the amount they refer to is a unit: Three years is a long time to wait. These words and amounts are plural when they describe single items instead of a whole: Compound Subjects A compound subject, two or more subjects joined by and, takes a plural verb. Coffee and tea are served hot. Collective Nouns A collective noun names a group of people or things.
Always Singular or Plural Words Some words that can be part of the subject need to be remembered as always being singular or always plural. Something is wrong here. Neither is right. Everyone deserves to be happy. Few people go to the annual picnic. Both of them deserve a raise.