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This causes jaundice and hepatic carcinoma. This disease is deadly and more infective than AIDS. A, PGT in Zoology, www.
Write notes on Bacterial Genetics. S In bacteria the cells have a single circular strand of DNA. It is not associated with proteins as are eukaryotic chromosomes. The bacterial genes,like the eukaryotic genes possess the features of replication, phenotype expression, mutation and genetic recombination etc. In bacteria the genetic recombination results from three types of gene transfer viz. Conjugation involves the transfer of some DNA from one bacterial cell to another followed by the separation of the mating pair of cells.
In this,large segments of the chromosomes and in special cases the entire chromosome may be transferred. Bacterial transformation is a process in which cell free or naked DNA containing the genetic information is transferred from one bacterial cell to another. It was discovered by an English health officer, Griffith in In transduction, a bacteriophages acts as a vector, transfering a portion of DNA from one bacterium donor to another recepient.
If all fragments of bacterial DNA have a chance to enter a transducing phage, the process is called Generalized transduction. On the contrary if a few restricted genes of the bacterial chromosomes are transduced by bacteriophage, it is called specialized transduction.
Write notes on Viral Genetics. Smaller viruses like paraviruses may have 3 to 4 genes while larger viruses like herpes and pox may have several hundred genes.
Virions contain only a single copy of the nucleic acid. Hence they are called haploid viruses. The only exception is the retroviruses, which are said to be diploid as they contain two identical single-stranded RNA genomes. The virions are called the infectious particles.
The structure of nucleic acid in the virion may be either linear or circular. The DNA of most animal viruses in a linear molecule. In some plant viruses the genome is a circular RNA. But the RNA in animal viruses exists only as linear double stranded or single stranded molecule. List out the significance and benefits of Human Genome Project. To understand more about the diseases and to design drugs.
Helps in diagnosis of defective genes that cause disease. Tool to Eugenical concept and can create superior, disease free human beings in future.
Helps in somatic cell gene therapy and germ line gene therapy. What are the ethical issues,merits and demerits of cloning Describe the demerits of cloning.
S, M, S, J An unethical and unnatural technique. May lead to the birth of wrong persons.
Cloning cannot produce children like the children born to genetic mothers. Variations in traits are bound to appear. The longevity of the new born, disease tolerance capacity are some criteria to be considered. Cloned animals have also developed diseases like arthritis. Cloning also leads to wastage of egg cells.
Cloned animals may have health problems. They may die at a much earlier age and may have short life span. Write about Huntington's chorea M,S This is a fatal disease caused by an autosomal dominant gene in human. The onset of the disease is between 35 and 40 years of age. It is characterized by uncontrolled jerking of the body due to involuntary twitching of voluntary muscles.
It leads to progressive degeneration of the central nervous system accompanied by gradual mental and physical deterioration. Huntingtons disease was the first completely dominant human genetic disease to come to light. The affected gene is located on chromosome 4. Other characteristics of this disease are deterioration of intellectual faculty, depression, occasional hallucination and delusions and other psychological problems.
For environmental management to reduce or abate the pollution load in soil or water. In waste recycling to increase productivity. In plant breeding by the incorporation of useful genes In bringing pest resistance in agriculture crops.
And in treatment of diseases by way of gene therapy etc.
Write a note on scope of Bio-informatics. J, M, S Helps to create an electronic database on genomes and protein sequences from single celled organisms to multicellular organisms. It provides techniques by which three- dimensional models of biomolecules could be understood along with their structure and function.
It integrates mathematical, statistical and computational methods to analyse biological, biochemical and biophysical data. It provides genome level data for understanding normal biological processes and explains the malfunctioning of genes leading to diagnosing of diseases and designing of new drugs.
Mention the uses of recombinant DNA technology. The understanding of structure of eukaryotic genes and their components.
To synthesize certain vital life saving drugs, hormones and antibiotics eg. The genotypes of plants are altered. New transgenic plants which are resistant to diseases and pest attack have been produced. Genetic defects in animals as well as human could be corrected through gene therapy. Genetically engineered bacteria are called superbugs. Superbugs can degrade several aromatic Hydrocarbons and clearing oil spills in the ocean. What are the uses of transgenic animals? M, M More efficient than their normal counterpart in feed assimilation.
Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. Make students aware of issues of global importance.
Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Chapter 2 — Gene: its nature, expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon. Microbes in Industrial Production. Microbes in Biogas energy Production. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents Microbes as Biofertilizers.
Law of limiting factors.
Fermentation Exchange of gases. Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Significance of Respiration. Asexual reproduction; uniparental modes vegetative propagation, micro propagation Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte, Structure of anatropous ovule. Development of female Gametophyte. Pollination: Types and Agencies. Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction.
Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. Post-fertilization changes development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony.
Significance of seed and fruit formation. Ecological succession, Ecological services carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.