Cook - Applied Linguistics - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read The need for applied linguistics Examples and procedures . GUY COOK. Applied Linguistics [Guy Cook].pdf. By admin on February 10, No Comments / views. Applied Linguistics [Guy Cook].pdf. Download[/su_button . Author: Guy Cook. 72 downloads An Introduction to Discourse Analysis ( Applied Linguistics and Language Study). Read more · The Study of Second.
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Applied Linguistics book. Read 14 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Applied Linguistics investigates real-world problems involving. Applied Linguistics investigates real-world problems involving language. As such it has the difficult task of mediating between academic. Applied Linguistics By Guy Cook Pdf. The field of second- language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives.
Try to imagine relating to your family, making friends, learning, falling in love,. There are other important activities, of course,which do seem to exist without language.
Sexual relations, preparing and eating food, manual labour and crafts, the visual arts, playing and listening to music, wondering at the natural world, or grieving at its destruction.
Yet even these are often developed or enhanced through language. We would perceive them quite differently had we never read about them or discussed them. Throughout history and across the world, people have used language to gossip and chat, flirt and seduce, play games, sing songs, tell stories, teach children, worship gods, insult enemies, pass on information, make deals, remember the past, and lament the dead.
Such activities seem to be intrinsic to human life, as natural to us as flight is to birds. People do them without conscious analysis. It does not seem that we need to know about language to use it effectively. Language use, then, is in many ways a natural phenomenon beyond conscious control.
Yet there are also aspects of language use in which we can intervene and about which, consequently, there are decisions to be made. In making these decisions there are many questions and subsidiary questions to be asked, each one admitting many different and opposed answers. Take, for example, language in education.
And what is basic literacy anyway? Reading and writing, or something more? And, if so, how is that standard form decided and by whom? And does every child have a right to be educated in the language they use at home? And are sign languages as complex as spoken ones? And what is the best way to learn and teach them? And, if so, should it be established works or more modern ones?
And should they study just their own national literature or that of other countries?
Such language issues, however, are by no means confined to the school. On the contrary, these educational dilemmas echo those of society at large. Should this just be accepted 'as an inevitable fact or should change be controlled in some way? Should that be prevented and, if so, how?
And what is accurate or 'good' translation? Could it ever be done by computer? And, if so, should something be done about it? Only by doing so will we be able to set out IJ..
Our provisional definition is, of course, very abstract and general, so we might give it some substance by. How might they be investigated? Ihehead teacher of a London school is thinking of offering.. Which of these languages should be taught, and why? A business executive wants to learn Japanese in preparation for taking up a post in Tokyo. There are three courses available.
Course One has a strong emphasis on learning to write. Course Two focuses on the spoken language, claiming that learning to write too early is demotivating. It does, however, explain the rules of Japanese grammar in English and use translation.
Course Three's approach is 'natural', with no translation or explanation of rules, but only a series of communicative classroom activities and tasks.
Which course is the best choice, and why? There are frequently financial, legal, and safety documents to translate, and it is important that these are accurate. The firm employs two translators: Juan, a sixty-yearold Cuban emigre who once ran a similar business, and twenty-two-year-old Jemima, who studied Spanish literature at a prestigious university.
Juan complains to the management that Jemima'S translation of some safety regulations is full of errors. Jemima says this is nonsense, and there is a terrible row. None of the managers speak Spanish themselves.
How can they judge between them? The Zramzshraran language uses a unique alphabet which developed from the Phoenician alphabet when traders came to the island 3, years ago. Zramzshra's Finance Minister argues for a reform in which this alphabet will be replaced by the Roman alphabet the one used in English and many other languages. This change, he argues, will make the island's life easier and more prosperous, with benefits for English teaching, computer-mediated communication, trade, and tourism.
Is this the best policy? In responding to such language related problems, we can draw upon common sense and experience to judge what action should be taken. But in recommending a particular course of action we might benefit both from more information and from a more systematic approach. For example, we might study what other people have said on similar matters, and we might make investigations of our own, perhaps by interviewing the parents and children in the school, observing some Japanese lessons, consulting a third Spanish.
And when-as sadly often happens-the advice we offer, well-informed though it might be, is ignored for political or commercial reasons, or out of prejudice, we might wish to form a pressure group to put across our case more effectively.
It is these processes of study, reflection, investigation, and action which constitute applied linguistics as an academic discipline. Iarge and open-ended number of quite disparate ,J;:Y:ll. So even with ples, the scope of applied linguistics remains rather. In other words we need to. Critical Discourse Analysis CDA : the study of the relationship between linguistic choices and effects in persuasive uses of language, of how these indoctrinate or manipulate for example, in marketing and politics , and the counteracting of this through analysis.
All of these areas fall within our definition of applied linguistics and are claimed as areas of enquiry by organizations and journals concerned with the discipline.
Yet in practice some of.. Clinical linguistics and' translation studies in particular are often regarded as independent disciplines.
Among the others some-such as the study of foreign language learning-are more active as areas of academic enquiry than others. It will not be possible in this short book to cover all of these areas in detail.
Inevitably, examples will be selective, and many important matters will be omitted. The aim is rather to seek out key themes and to set out the ideas and procedures that underlie and unite their study. Like any discipline, linguistics. In functional linguistics the concern is with lan-guage as a means of communication, the purposes it fulfils, and hofV people actually use their language.
In recent years a particularly important development in the investigation of language use has bern corpus linguistics. These approaches to linguistic study seem much closer to the reality of experience than Chomsky's, and therefore more relevant to the concerns of applied linguistics.
Yet they, too, in their different ways and for their different purposes, abstract and idealize, detaching language from the experience of its use. Their purpose moreover is to describe and explain and not, as in applied linguistics, to engage with decision making. What is needed in all cases-and perhaps particularly in those approaches where the relevance of linguistics seems self-evident-is constant mediation between two discourses or orders of reality: that of everyday life and language experience, and that represented by abstract analyses of linguistic expertise.
The two are very different and difficult to reconcile, but the atteinpt to make each relevant to the other is the main challenge for applied linguistics and the justification for its existence. Linguistic theory and description cannot, then, be deployed directly to solve the problems with which applied linguistics is concerned.
One important reason is the nature of the problems themselves. They, too, like models of linguistics, represent certain perspectives on reality. Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution.
This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics. The methodology of applied linguistics must therefore be complex. It must refer to the findings and theories of linguistics, choosing among the different schools and approaches, and making these theories relevant to the problem in hand. At the same time, it must investigate and take into account the experience and needs of the people involved in the problem itself.
It must then seek to relate these two perspectives to each other, attempting perhaps, in the process, to reformulate each. And it must undertake investigation and theorizing of its own. Conceived of in this way, applied linguistics is a quest for common ground.
In the chapters that follow we these relationships further as they unfold in specific issues. The two are by no means easily reconciled and, as in other areas of academic enquiry affecting everyday life, are likely to be aggravated by any attempt to impose insensitively an 'expert' view which runs contrary to deeply held belief. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our attitudes to the language education of children, and the beliefs which they reflect about the 'best' language use.
These provide a good illustration of the kind of problematic issues with which applied linguistic enquiry engages. Children's language at home and school As every parent knows, young children speak idiosyncratically. A child growing up in an English-speaking family, for example, might say 'I brang it', even though everyone around them says 'I brought it' to mean the same thing. Even when the child does say 'I brought it', they may still not pronounce the words as adults do.
They might, for example, say 'I bwort it'. Parents-even the most anxious ones-are usually indulgent of such deviations. They are the stuff of anecdotes and affectionate memories rather than serious concern.
It is clear, after all, what the child is saying, and most idiosyncrasies disappear of their own accord. At school, however, the situation is very different. Here the child is expected, and taught, to use language 'correctly'. Not only are English-speaking children expected to say the words 'I i.
In school, however, the issue of what counts as is much more complex. What of the child who, through messoeecn impediment, never does make the transition from to 'brought'? Should the teacher eliminate these. They put 'RU' instead of 'are 'You' in text messages; they give words different fashionable senses, invent new ones, and include slang or swear words of which. Within the school context by far the most controversial aspect. The standard is generally used in written communication, taught in schools, and codified in dictionaries and grammar books.
Dialects are regional and social-class varieties of the language which differ from the standard in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary, and are seldom written down at all. The teaching of the standard can be viewed in two quite contradictory ways. On the one hand it can be seen as iconferring an unfair advantage upon those children who already speak a variety close to it, while simultaneously denying the worth of other dialects and damaging the heritage of those children who speak them.
On the other hand, given that the standard exists, has prestige and power, and provides a gateway to written knowledge, it can be argued that teaching it helps to give an equal opportunity to all. In support of this latter view, there is no reason why children cannot grow up knowing both a dialect and the standard form, valuing both in different ways and using them appropriately according to context.
In educational theory, from the s onwards, this ongoing debate has been further aggravated and complicated by the claim, made by the educational sociologist Basil Bernstein, that some social-class variations indicate not only differences but deficits. In Bernstein's view, the language used in some sections of society is a restricted code which lacks the full resources of the more elaborated code of the standard. Not surprisingly, this view has been hotly contested by others who argue that all varieties are equally complex, functional, and expressive.
Schools are a good barometer of both language use and social values, and their approach to teaching the national language or languages, which is much the same all over the world, arises from two interesting facts. The first fact is that a language-any language-is subject to enormous variation. Reference is the third section of the book. All the references of eight chapters are given with short commentary.
It is also important for people, who want to go for advance search. Glossary the fourth and final section of the book is very useful for those, who are new to this subject Applied Linguistic. This sentence basically shows his bent of mind that language encircles almost every activity of life. He, then, raises some questions regarding child acquisition of L1. For this we should investigate and understand facts of language use basing upon our accumulated knowledge. Applied Linguistics concerns with the decision making, that is justified and taken rapidly, but not on foolish grounds with the relation of language to its usage, The author has posed some imaginary situations to exemplify his idea clearly.
The author of this book divides the scope of Applied Linguistics into three headings as: Language and Education; Language, Work and Law; Language, information and affect. Chapter 2 Prescribing and describing: popular and academic views of correctness Children are expected to speak best language.
A child pronounces brang instead of brought. Moreover, spelling of words like color or colour makes him confused again. There is a need for standardization, while we often see disagreement when we precede the standardization.
Applied linguistics needs to approach such debates carefully and with respect. What is the standard, language should not be changed. The standard is neither superior nor more stable than any other variety. Having different regional standards are considered positive for the growth of language. Criteria of correctness may change, and it could be implicit or explicit.
Applied Linguistics is to bring out what these criteria. Question arises, who learns whose language. Linguistics have to deal with various arbitrary notions. Latin is more logical language than others, German is more efficient and French are more romantic than other languages and so on, are some of the beliefs of people and these ideologies do not base on any scientific reasons.
Nowadays, languages are compared in two ways; the number of speakers and the geographical distribution, because of these numbers and geographical distribution some linguists consider one language is more important than other.
In every country English is being taught. The insight of study tells us, there is a wider relevance than might at first appear. The primary objective of Grammar translation method is to make students understand the structure and translate the first language into second and target language into the native.
A language student focuses on reading and understanding the things through translation and speaking and listening are neglected by the instructor and the students as well. To learn a language in a minimum time was the need of students, immigrants, business people and tourists. Linguists advocated a direct method target language was the vehicle of classroom communication. The communicative approach was introduced after the natural approach.
To achieve the goal of successful communication CLT is considered the most appropriate and modern way language learning. In knowing a language, traditionally grammar translation language teaching, assumed that knowing the rules of a language and using them in a language are same things, but in the society there are several examples where someone masters the rules he can not apply those rules in his communication.
Communicative competence remains, however an extremely powerful mode for applied linguistics, not only in language teaching but in every area if enquiry. Chapter 6 Context and Culture For users, a language is not abstract, it always makes sense and happens in specific situations, but in linguistics, language is very obviously abstracted from experience in order to be seen more clearly.
Systematizing context: discourse analysis, culture, translation culture and context, own language: rights and understanding and teaching culture are the main topics of this chapter. Furthermore, three areas of study which contribute to this field are paralanguage, pragmatics, and genre studies. The successful understanding of a language in context depends upon the how participants share conventions and procedures including those related to paralanguage, pragmatics and genre.
In Foreign language education, doing business with other communities, and in research work, we always do the Cross-culture communication.
Meanings of different conventions like kissing, pressing palms, nodding of head are different at different communities. Culture has a strong impact on language. Whatever our definition of culture, or our views about its universality, there can be a little doubt that a real danger in the many activities which involve cross cultural communication is misunderstanding. Consequently, in a wide range of personal and professional contexts, practical decisions must be made about how to avoid it.
Translation, own language, and teaching culture also interwoven with culture. In short, without considering culture, language study is not possible.
Chapter 7 Persuasion and poetics; rhetoric and resistance In this chapter literary stylistic, language and persuasion and Critical Discourse Analysis CDA has been chosen as main topics.
What is relation of literature with the applied linguistics?