PDF | Cooperative learning is the learning process in which individuals learn in a small group with the help of each other. Cooperative learning gives importance. PDF | This paper discusses the use of cooperative learning (CL) in second language (L2) instruction. Aftre two brief definitions of CL, key areas. Classroom Arrangements That Help with Cooperative Learning overview of cooperative learning strategies, theories, and practice and should be used during .
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Over the past decade, cooperative learning has emerged as the leading new completing cooperative learning group tasks tend to have higher academic test. infer the basic elements needed to make cooperative learning work in MY classroom. ○ plan at least three cooperative learning strategy from seven options. An Overview. Cooperative Learning. David W. Johnson. The Cooperative Learning Center. University of Minnesota aracer.mobi
Aronson, E. Panitz, T. Collaborative versus cooperative learn- The jigsaw classroom.
Beverly Hills, CA: A comparison of the two concepts which will help Brown, D. Retrieved Bruffee, K. Sharing our toys: The Magazine Sato, M. Crandall, J. Cooperative language learning and af- Monitoring, Ppractice, and proceduralization. Studies in fective factors. Arnold Ed. Sekita, K. Kyodo gakushu no teigi Dillenbourg P. What do you mean by collaborative to kanren yogo no seiri [A proposal for proper use of learning? Dillenbourg Ed.
Cognitive and computational approaches pp. Kyodo to Kyoiku [Cooperation and Educa- Oxford: Dooly, M. Constructing knowledge together. Slavin, R. Student teams and achievement divi- In M. Dooly Ed. Telecollaborative language learning: Bern, Australia: Peter Lang. Storch, N. Are two heads better than one? Pair Erikawa, H. Kyodo gakushu wo toriireta eigo jugyo work and grammatical accuracy. System, 27 3 , — Eigo kyoiku niju isseiki sosho [Promoting co- Storch, N.
Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms. The 21st Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Sugie, S. Kyodo gakushu nyumon [An invitation to Jacobs, G. An investigation of the cooperative learning].
ELT Vygotsky, L. Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Journal, 50 2 , 99— Harvard University Press. Numbered Heads Together Each student within a small group is assigned a number before a topic or problem is discussed. The students from each group who share that same number then relay their group's answer to the entire class. Since instructors choose the numbers randomly, students don't know when they will be asked to answer.
Students are held accountable for acquiring knowledge, one of the necessary components for productive cooperative learning. The video below, from Durham College, discusses this strategy in more detail [transcript]. Figure 3: An explanation of the "Numbered Heads Together" technique Reciprocal Teaching In this strategy, small groups of students work through matieral by coaching each other.
Each students takes turns as the teach or coach, and works through matieral. This strategy is best once material has already been introduced, and is most effective for material that has one objectivly ccorrect answer, rather than questions that have multiple correct answers.
The video below goes into more detail about reciprocal learning [transcript]. Figure 4: An explanation of the "Reciprocal Learning Strategy". Student-Teams-Achievement Divisions Students are placed in teams and assigned a task or learning goal to master, in addition to guidance and resources.
Students perform the task, are assessed, receive feedback, and are then assessed a second time. Pre and post feedback scores are compared, and teams are recognized based on the improvement in their scores. Remeber, the goal is for all group members to achieve mastery. Introduce topic - This can be done in a variety of ways.
The traditional STAD paradigm uses lecture and class discussion to introduce the topic, but other learning strategies can be applied here. Assign taks - Students are given a task to perform and any resources they may need.
Assessment - Assess students level of competence after the initial task. Some students may have already achieved mastery, while others will require additional study. Encourage the group to work through the problem together so that students can learn from each other's knowledge. Facilitate group discussion - Work with each group to identify key areas of focus for that group. Each group may have a different area that they need to focus on. Ensure that the groups are working cooperatively to complete the task.
Compare their scores on this second assessment to the scores on the first. Recognition - Recognize groups based on the improvement in their scores between the initial and final assessment. There are a variety of ways to do this. Some faculty use a news letter or other announcement to recognize the most improved teams. Be creative. Talking Chips Talking chips is a technique that is used to ensure active and equal participation among the group members.
Group members during a Talking Chips activity throw their poker chips into the center of the table to gain entrance into the conversation. The activity sparks discussion and has the added benefit of preventing some students from monopolizing the discussion since they can't comment anymore once they've depleted their supply of chips.
Meanwhile, quieter students must speak up in order to use up their chips. Once all the chips have been used, students redistribute the chips for the next round of discussion.
Think-Pair-Share For this technique, students are paired together to discuss class problems or questions before reporting their solutions or answers to the entire class. As the name implies, this technique is broken into three main segments: think, pair, and share. In the first phase, the think phase, teachers ask students high-level questions regarding the topic to drive their thinking about the consept.
Next, in the pair phase, students are partnered, and tasked with sharing their ideas, discussing those ideas, and asking question of eachother related to their understanding of the topic. In addition, there are a variety of variation to the think-pair-share paradigm that faculty can implement, including adding classroom response systems, making larger teams, or asking students to reflect on the question through writing down or drawing their thoughts.
An indepth explaination of some of these variations can be found here. Cooperative Learning Benefits Students Audio version Your browser does not support the audio element. There are numerous types of techniques used in conjunction with cooperative learning.
While they may differ, they share a common thread. Knowledge is shared student-to-student, instead of via direct instruction with the instructor lecturing to the class. This grammar in collaboration with peers Storch, , situation can be created in classrooms by meeting peer feedback or interaction on writing e.
What should be noted , and other small group activities.
The ways and means of interaction are usually More structured Less structured negotiated by the learners themselves. In addition, More teacher-centered More learner-centered in contrast to covert teacher-centered cooperative learning, the authority of learning in collaborative The dotted line shows linkage between the two approaches learning lies with the learners themselves, which is to say that they are expected to negotiate with oth- Figure 1.
A Relationship Between Cooperative ers to achieve more than they would alone. Thus, Learning and Collaborative Learning these small group activities e.
How can we utilize both approaches? The differences highlighted between cooperative and collaborative learning imply that language How Different Are They? If a teacher aims features that distinguish cooperative learning from at fostering social skills or motivating students with collaborative learning: the degree of structure and a highly structured task, it would be better to utilize learner-centeredness see Figure 1.
Regarding the a cooperative learning approach. This highly structured approach is one of the Because both approaches have their own respec- reasons why cooperative learning has developed so tive advantages, it is ultimately the teaching goals far a lot of teaching techniques e.
Conversely, collab- serve in any individual situation. Any priority of the orative learning generally allows learners to be more two cannot be stated without taking into account flexible in the working process with their peers.
Cooperative of autonomy. On the other hand, collaborative learning al- lows learners more freedom to negotiate their ways Note and means of interaction among peers because it 1. Cooperative learning and Matthews et al. This model views cooperative variety of characters, each with different nuanc- learning and collaborative learning as a continu- es. The lack of uniformity may well induce um rather than a clear-cut dichotomy. Cooperative learning and second language reach- The authors would like to express their sincere grat- ing.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cooperative learning comments and suggestions to improve the quality of for higher education faculty. Phoenix, Arizona: American the paper. Cooperative learning, collabora- and warm encouragement throughout the study. The Modern Lan- References guage Journal, 81 4 , — Aronson, E. Panitz, T. Collaborative versus cooperative learn- The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. New York: Longman.
Retrieved Bruffee, K. Change: The Magazine Sato, M. Cooperative language learning and af- Monitoring, Ppractice, and proceduralization. Studies in fective factors.