Internists, surgeons, critical care physicians and nephrologists all treat critically ill DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Critical Care Nephrology still continues to provide an impressive up-to-date comprehensive coverage This book undoubtedly is of. Köp SPEC - Critical Care Nephrology, 3rd Edition, Month Access, eBook av Claudio Ronco, Rinaldo Bellomo, John A Kellum, Zaccaria Ricci på aracer.mobi
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Critical Care Nephrology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Rizo-Topete L.a, c · Ronco C.a-c. Author affiliations. aInternational Renal Research. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | A recent prospective observational study in > ICU patients found that % Critical Care Nephrology: Acute Renal Failure in the Intensive Care Unit .. CRRT. Ronco randomly assigned ARF patients to. Critical Care Nephrology. 2nd Edition. Authors: Claudio Ronco Rinaldo Bellomo John Kellum. eBook ISBN: Imprint: Saunders. Published Date: .
Show all. Table of contents 49 chapters Table of contents 49 chapters Applied cardiovascular physiology Pinsky, Michael R. Pages Fundamentals of resuscitation Brady, John J.
Prediction of outcome in critically ill patients Clermont, Gilles et al. Rationale and application of physiologic monitoring Pinsky, Michael R.
Pharmacologic support of the hemodynamically unstable patient Mehta, Navdeep K. Fundamentals of applied probability and basic statistics Dikta, Gerhard Pages Applied physics of compressible and incompressible fluids Weber, Hans Joachim Pages Basic elements of applied microbiology in the intensive care unit Vas, Stephen I.
Basic elements of applied pharmacology in the intensive care unit Flessner, Michael F. Fundamentals of biochemistry and energy metabolism in the normal subject and in the critically ill patient Leverve, Xavier M. Epidemiology of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit Abbs, Ian C. Risk factors for acute renal failure in critically ill patients Kleinknecht, Dieter Pages Assessment of outcome from acute renal failure Daly, Kathleen et al.
Regulatory mechanisms of fluid and electrolyte turnover Gans, Reinold O. Edematous states in the intensive care unit Boer, Walther H. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia Thijs, Lambert G.
Hyper- and hypokalemia in critical patients Redaelli, Bruno et al. Calcium phosphate and magnesium balance in patients with acute illness Pontoriero, Giuseppe et al. Fluid and electrolyte balance during peritoneal dialysis Krediet, Raymond T.
Fluid and electrolyte balance during extracorporeal therapies Locatelli, Francesco et al. Biochemical and biophysical principles of hydrogen ion regulation Leblanc, Martine et al. Pathophysiology of metabolic acid-base disturbances in patients with critical illness Magder, Sheldon Pages Pathophysiology and diagnosis of respiratory acid-base disturbances in patients with critical illness Gattinoni, Luciano et al.
Impact of acid-base disorders on individual organ systems Forrest, David M. Correction of acid-base derangements Spital, Aaron et al. Acid-base balance during renal replacement therapies Feriani, Mariano Pages Hormonal status in critically ill patients with or without acute renal failure Stenvinkel, Peter Pages Enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapies Iapichino, Gaetano et al.
Microbiological considerations in intensive care Esposito, Silvano Pages Upper and lower respiratory tract infection Linden, Peter Pages Urinary tract infections Leblanc, Martine Pages Intestinal and peritoneal infections Cruciani, Mario et al.
Skin and soft tissue infections Cruciani, Mario et al. Intravascular catheter infections in the intensive care unit Pellizzer, Giampietro et al.
Antibiotics in intensive care unit patients Lalla, Fausto et al. Pathophysiology of the sepsis syndrome Vincent, Jean-Louis Pages Influence of cytokines on the renal circulation and nephron function Schelling, Jeffrey R.
These authors then validated these markers in a separate second phase of their study and compared them with known markers of AKI such as NGAL and kidney injury marker Not only did each marker perform better than other known markers, but their combination improved risk stratification when added to a complex multi-variable clinical model including age, serum creatinine, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, hypertension, nephrotoxic drugs, liver disease, sepsis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease.
After definitive clinical validation, the application of novel AKI biomarkers will permit appropriate triage of patients, more intensive monitoring, and perhaps early involvement of specialists in nephrology and critical care who can promptly evaluate these patients while they are still in the golden hours of this disease prior to irreversible damage to the kidneys.
Similar to cardiac troponin, renal biomarkers are expected in the coming years to allow timely, bedside, sensitive and specific diagnosis of renal dysfunction, even in the emergency room. Risk factors and hemodynamics of acute kidney injury Kellum and Lameire [ 1 ] proposed the concept of risk factors and susceptibility.
The main external stressors that may cause AKI include sepsis, shock, burns, trauma, cardiopulmonary bypass, nephrotoxic drugs, radiocontrast agents, and poisonous plants and animals. For susceptibility factors we may consider advanced age, dehydration or volume depletion, female gender, black race, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer and anemia.
Therefore, it is important to screen patients who have undergone an exposure and to continue monitoring them until the risk has subsided. One-half of patients in the study had new or persistent AKI. The development or progression of AKI, regardless of the level of fluid balance and positive end-expiratory pressure, was strongly associated with the CVP level.
This suggests participation of venous congestion in the physiopathology of AKI in severe sepsis and septic shock.
Although the role of renal hypoperfusion low cardiac output or hypovolemia is believed to contribute to the development of sepsis-induced renal dysfunction, AKI appears to be only partially reversible after the optimization of systemic hemodynamics [ 18 ].
Fluid resuscitation and pressure optimization is a landmark treatment for septic patients in order to improve renal perfusion pressure. For some patients, the induced CVP elevation may overcome the DAP increase, reducing renal perfusion with harmful effects on renal function.
This aspect is supported by the recently reported association between fluid overload and mortality in critically ill patients, especially in patients with AKI or septic shock [ 19 ]. The creation of a vicious circle with oliguria and fluid-loading may then aggravate AKI.
Therefore, targeting a pre-defined CVP as a therapeutic target might not be suitable in septic patients. Legrand and colleagues suggested instead that hemodynamic targets are best achieved at low CVPs that is, a CVP less than 8 to 12 mmHg [ 18 ]. Therefore, a strategy of fluid restriction in these patients is an important option to be considered. Poukkanen and coworkers [ 21 ] evaluated if a higher MAP maintained during the first 24 hours of ICU admission is associated with a lower risk of progression of AKI in patients with severe sepsis.
More than patients with severe sepsis were enrolled in this prospective observational study. AKI progressed in patients These authors also found that chronic kidney disease, higher lactate, higher dose of furosemide, use of dobutamine and time-adjusted MAP below 73 mmHg were independent predictors of progression of AKI. Interestingly, a more recent randomized controlled trial assigning septic shock patients to arms with MAP targets of 80 to 85 mmHg high-target group or 65 to 70 mmHg low-target group found renal outcome differences only in patients with chronic hypertension [ 22 ].
The main difference between the observational study of Poukkanen and colleagues and the prospective SEPSISPAM study is that, in the first, hypotensive patients were those with the highest vasopressor loads and, in the second, the high target group received the largest amount of vasoactive drugs.
It can only be concluded that, possibly, the underlying septic syndrome severity rather than MAP or inotropic score is the most important determinant of renal function. Outcome The impact of AKI on long-term clinical outcomes still remains controversial. However, long-term outcomes in a larger setting of patients still remain to be fully evaluated.
For this purpose, Hansen and coworkers [ 23 ] conducted a cohort study including 1, patients scheduled for acute or elective cardiac surgery in order to examine the 5-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke after elective cardiac surgery complicated by AKI.
Patients where followed from the fifth post-operative day until myocardial infarction, stroke or death happened within 5 years. A total of The 5-year risk of death was The corresponding adjusted hazard ratio HR of death was 1. The 5-year risk of myocardial infarction was 5. The 5-year risk of stroke was 5. Adjusted HRs were 1. AKI within 5 days after elective cardiac surgery was associated with increased 5-year mortality but not with increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke.
In line with these results the work of Lopez-Delgado and coworkers [ 24 ] evaluated the impact of AKI on short- and long-term outcome 6. One intra-operative longer cardiopulmonary bypass time and two post-operative a longer need for vasoactive drugs and higher arterial lactate level 24 hours after admission variables were identified as predictors of AKI.
Kaplan-Meier analysis showed survival of These authors concluded that AKI development after cardiac surgery is associated with post-operative variables, which ultimately could lead to a worse RIFLE class. It remains to be ascertained if these data on AKI patient outcomes may be applicable to non-cardiac surgery critically ill patients.
Renal replacement therapy In critically ill patients with AKI, urea and creatinine are not well performing indicators of renal function given the lack of steady state in terms of production and the influence of catabolism, volume status and production rates, particularly in sepsis. Consequently, physicians treating critically ill patients put an increasing emphasis on fluid overload, oliguria, impaired oxygenation and acidosis as triggers for initiation of renal replacement therapy RRT with a general trend to initiate RRT earlier in sicker patients.
Thakar and colleagues [ 25 ] performed an international survey predominantly among North American nephrologists consulting in the ICU.