How to study in medical school pdf

Date published 

 

Many students begin medical school training without optimal study skills for the environment. This handbook of practical advice and learning strategies is intended to help the new medical student transition from undergraduate learning practices to more self-regulated, mindful, and. How to. Succeed at. Medical. School. An essential guide to learning. Dason Evans .. efficiently at medical school, how to balance this study with an enjoyable. Study Skills. Lisa Medoff, Ph.D. Education Specialist. Stanford School of Medicine [email protected] Study Tips. • Make sure you are processing the .

Author:LEONARDA MARPLES
Language:English, Spanish, French
Country:Netherlands
Genre:Health & Fitness
Pages:483
Published (Last):17.04.2016
ISBN:507-5-33551-469-2
Distribution:Free* [*Registration needed]
Uploaded by: CONNIE

76655 downloads 125448 Views 34.57MB PDF Size Report


How To Study In Medical School Pdf

Study Method Part I: What it takes to be an Excellent Student. In a very basic However, in medical school, you will discover that almost everyone has that. expect on the wards. No matter where you are up to in your studies, you'll find some great advice here. And as you wend your way through medical school, there. You and your fellow students come to medical school with a varied pre- . Learning strategies, study strategies, test taking strategies you have successfully.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Aug 7, This is not a textbook as the author says but, in my opinion, this is a "Holy Text" of medicine and is a must read for everyone who deals with sickness. It is a thought provoking challenge to modern medical practice and research. Dr Hegde confronts the issue, and proposes an alternative humanistic attitude to education and treatment. Drawing on a huge range of resources from Sanskrit texts, Green and European philosophers, ancient and modern healers, to the most up-to-date Western research and publications. He has written a book that is both scholarly yet easy to read, and which will appeal to everyone involved in medicine whether students, practitioners or patients. Editor, site. What we have here is an overview of the entire system of medical care, seen through the wisdom of a man who cares. This book should be prescribed as must reading for those aiming to be future physicians and surgeons.

One group took tests on the topic of status epilepticus and studied a review sheet on myasthenia gravis. The second group studied a review sheet on status epilepticus and took tests on myasthenia gravis. Testing and studying sessions were held immediately after teaching and on two additional time intervals of about 2 weeks.

Each time, feedback was given to the participants. A final test after 6 months completed the study. Six months after the initial teaching session, repeated testing resulted in final test scores that were on average 13 percent higher than in the group of repeated studying [ 9 ].

A significant contributor to the testing effect is initial feedback to teach the student whether an answer was correct or incorrect. Interestingly, feedback enhances learning, but even testing without feedback is beneficial [ 10 ].

The study by Roediger et al. One group remained passive after reading, and three groups underwent a multiple-choice test. Of these three groups, one was tested without feedback, another received immediate feedback after each question, and a third received delayed feedback for all questions after the entire test.

One week after the initial reading session, all four groups underwent a final test. The group that took no test showed 11 percent correct answers. Those participants who were tested without feedback presented 33 percent correct answers, immediate feedback resulted in 43 percent, and delayed feedback in 54 percent correct answers.

Therefore, testing even without feedback tripled the score in a test 1 week after initial studying. Best results were obtained by delayed feedback, which hints at the positive contribution of spaced representation of learning content that will be discussed in one of the following sections. Despite the various studies that found retesting to be more effective than restudying, students seem to be largely unaware of testing superiority in supporting short-term retention [ 11 ].

When students use testing in a learning context, they apply it to assess knowledge and do not see it as a technique to intensify learning. In particular, students do not seem to be aware of the superiority of testing compared to studying. Active Recall Whenever new information is repeated, an emphasis should be put on active methods of repetition such as free recall.

In the example of the adverse effects of beta-blockers, simple rereading or summarizing of the facts is often applied. However, active recall e. Testing as described in the previous section is a form of active recall. However, testing can also be performed by passive presentation of information such as in multiple-choice tests.

This section regards active recall methods, meaning the effort to consciously reproduce information that was learned before without using cues. Active learning methods engage the mind and do not necessarily need to be instantly successful.

It has been demonstrated that even unsuccessful attempts to retrieve information from memory that were accompanied by feedback enhanced learning [ 12 ], and even quizzing about learning content that was never presented before enhanced learning of that very content.

In a study by Kornell et al.

One group read the question for 8 seconds and was demanded to immediately type the answer. After 8 seconds, the answer was presented for 5 seconds. The second group simply studied the question and answer together for 13 seconds without the instruction to give an answer.

Although the second group had more than double the time to study the fictional fact, both groups showed comparable results without significant difference. The attempt to retrieve fictional information, which was inevitably unsuccessful due to the fictional history facts presented, resulted in comparable learning success compared to a group that had more than double the time to study the learning content.

Therefore, quizzing is superior to learning because an equivalent learning success can be reached in less than half of the time.

It is understandable that challenging tests are thought of as discouraging for students. Yet the experiment conducted by Kornell et al. Another experiment performed by Morris et al. The experiment simulated a real-life experience of learning names when meeting new people at a party. One group experienced representation of names, and another group applied retrieval practice. On average, the group experiencing representation of the name of a newly met person recalled 5.

The retrieval practice group recalled Spaced Repetitions The mentioned experiment by Morris et al. Participants were asked to try to recall the name of the person shortly after they had just met him or her and then again after a longer interval [ 13 ].

Instead of trying to recall the name every 30 minutes, it is advisable to space out the repetition and recall the name after 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and then after 2 hours.

In an experiment that tested steady against expanding retrieval practice, students studied 30 immunology and reproductive physiology concepts [ 14 ]. The students were divided into five groups. Two groups recalled the concepts actively at a steady interval without days 1, 10, 20 or with a delay of 7 days days 8, 15, Another two groups recalled the concepts actively at expanding intervals again without days 1, 6, 16 or with a delay, in this case of 1 day days 2, 7, The fifth group served as a control group.

All of the groups underwent a test at day 29 to assess the final score; consequently, the end point for all groups was the same. It was found that expanding retrieval practice led to a significantly greater recall of facts at day 29 than recalling at steady intervals [ 14 ]. Longer delay between initial learning and recalling facts was associated with poorer retention rate.

Applying to Leicester Medical School

Therefore, the group that learned with expanding retrieval practice and no delay preceding the first assessment proved to have the best learning strategy. Generally, the four groups with retrieval practice performed twice as well as the control group did, thus emphasizing the positive effect of active retrieval practice independent of specific retrieval strategy.

In comparison, the two groups that applied expanding retrieval performed significantly better than the two groups that recalled the concepts at steady intervals. The combined mean of the first groups In comparison to the control group Thus, two findings stand out: Retrieval practice after initial learning is a main contributor to successful learning, confirming the findings stated above about active recall and the testing effect, and retrieval practice should be performed on expanding intervals to further enhance learning.

Additional insight into the benefit of expanding retrieval practice was presented in another study [ 15 ]. The authors found that the positive impact of retrieval practice depends on the degree to which the to-be-learned information is vulnerable to forgetting.

It is especially helpful when the learning content consists of several units that may interfere with each other. In one experiment, 30 participants studied an educational text about Antarctica. They were then instructed to free recall information about Antarctica at 4 time intervals of either 0, 3, 7, and 18 or after 7, 7, 7, and 7 minutes. Between these intervals, the participants read text passages about 10 additional regions e.

Consequently, this intervening activity led to interference with the facts that were initially learned. In a final test 1 week later, the group that learned at expanding time intervals performed significantly better than the group learning with steady intervals, outperforming the latter group by a 2-to-1 margin [ 15 ]. The authors conclude that expanding retrieval practice is best used when the learning material is vulnerable to being forgotten.

In this case, expanding retrieval practice improves long term retention of correct information and prevents from learning incorrect information. Conclusions How do these studies impact learning in medical school?

Whenever students learn factual knowledge, they should test themselves while learning, actively recall information, and retest the facts at expanding time intervals to make learning in medical school most effective. These learning strategies help students learn the most in the least amount of time. Studying according to scientific findings on the testing effect, active recall, and expanding repetition intervals assures optimal long-term retention of factual knowledge.

This lack is questionable. Obviously, medical knowledge is growing. Despite an increase in depth and complexity of medical knowledge in the past decades, the length of medical education remains constant. Time is scarce in the medical curriculum and never sufficient to teach the whole body of medical knowledge.

Providing time to teach medical students how to learn is difficult. It is, however, even more difficult for students to provide time to learn in an ineffective way in medical school, to learn factual knowledge, forget, and relearn it. It takes modest time for medical schools to teach the above-mentioned concepts that enable students to save time and effort.

How should medical schools implement programs to convey these learning strategies?

The author proposes that a program based on these concepts should be taught in medical school at an early stage. The program should be based, obviously, on the concepts it conveys. This means that the program should be taught actively by posing questions and quizzing students, provide tests to foster learning, and repeat the learning strategies in spaced intervals.

A basis module of this program may consist of several hours to present the concepts and the scientific background. Shorter modules serving as repetition and application of the learning strategies should be taught in expanding time intervals so that students learn the concepts at the start of the term and restudy them, e. Therefore, a basis module combined with several short follow-up modules would suffice to teach the basic scientific findings on effective learning strategies.

Additional scientific concepts apart from the three that were presented in this paper may be added to the program.

Active learning methods engage the mind and do not necessarily need to be instantly successful. It has been demonstrated that even unsuccessful attempts to retrieve information from memory that were accompanied by feedback enhanced learning [ 12 ], and even quizzing about learning content that was never presented before enhanced learning of that very content.

In a study by Kornell et al. One group read the question for 8 seconds and was demanded to immediately type the answer. After 8 seconds, the answer was presented for 5 seconds. The second group simply studied the question and answer together for 13 seconds without the instruction to give an answer.

Although the second group had more than double the time to study the fictional fact, both groups showed comparable results without significant difference. The attempt to retrieve fictional information, which was inevitably unsuccessful due to the fictional history facts presented, resulted in comparable learning success compared to a group that had more than double the time to study the learning content.

Therefore, quizzing is superior to learning because an equivalent learning success can be reached in less than half of the time. It is understandable that challenging tests are thought of as discouraging for students. Yet the experiment conducted by Kornell et al. Another experiment performed by Morris et al. The experiment simulated a real-life experience of learning names when meeting new people at a party. One group experienced representation of names, and another group applied retrieval practice.

On average, the group experiencing representation of the name of a newly met person recalled 5. The retrieval practice group recalled The mentioned experiment by Morris et al. Participants were asked to try to recall the name of the person shortly after they had just met him or her and then again after a longer interval [ 13 ].

Instead of trying to recall the name every 30 minutes, it is advisable to space out the repetition and recall the name after 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and then after 2 hours.

In an experiment that tested steady against expanding retrieval practice, students studied 30 immunology and reproductive physiology concepts [ 14 ]. The students were divided into five groups. Two groups recalled the concepts actively at a steady interval without days 1, 10, 20 or with a delay of 7 days days 8, 15, Another two groups recalled the concepts actively at expanding intervals again without days 1, 6, 16 or with a delay, in this case of 1 day days 2, 7, The fifth group served as a control group.

All of the groups underwent a test at day 29 to assess the final score; consequently, the end point for all groups was the same.

It was found that expanding retrieval practice led to a significantly greater recall of facts at day 29 than recalling at steady intervals [ 14 ]. Longer delay between initial learning and recalling facts was associated with poorer retention rate. Therefore, the group that learned with expanding retrieval practice and no delay preceding the first assessment proved to have the best learning strategy.

Generally, the four groups with retrieval practice performed twice as well as the control group did, thus emphasizing the positive effect of active retrieval practice independent of specific retrieval strategy.

In comparison, the two groups that applied expanding retrieval performed significantly better than the two groups that recalled the concepts at steady intervals. The combined mean of the first groups In comparison to the control group Thus, two findings stand out: Retrieval practice after initial learning is a main contributor to successful learning, confirming the findings stated above about active recall and the testing effect, and retrieval practice should be performed on expanding intervals to further enhance learning.

Additional insight into the benefit of expanding retrieval practice was presented in another study [ 15 ]. The authors found that the positive impact of retrieval practice depends on the degree to which the to-be-learned information is vulnerable to forgetting. It is especially helpful when the learning content consists of several units that may interfere with each other.

In one experiment, 30 participants studied an educational text about Antarctica. They were then instructed to free recall information about Antarctica at 4 time intervals of either 0, 3, 7, and 18 or after 7, 7, 7, and 7 minutes. Between these intervals, the participants read text passages about 10 additional regions e. Consequently, this intervening activity led to interference with the facts that were initially learned.

You might also like: DAVIDSON MEDICINE PDF

In a final test 1 week later, the group that learned at expanding time intervals performed significantly better than the group learning with steady intervals, outperforming the latter group by a 2-to-1 margin [ 15 ]. The authors conclude that expanding retrieval practice is best used when the learning material is vulnerable to being forgotten.

In this case, expanding retrieval practice improves long term retention of correct information and prevents from learning incorrect information.

How do these studies impact learning in medical school? Whenever students learn factual knowledge, they should test themselves while learning, actively recall information, and retest the facts at expanding time intervals to make learning in medical school most effective.

These learning strategies help students learn the most in the least amount of time. Studying according to scientific findings on the testing effect, active recall, and expanding repetition intervals assures optimal long-term retention of factual knowledge. This lack is questionable. Obviously, medical knowledge is growing.

Despite an increase in depth and complexity of medical knowledge in the past decades, the length of medical education remains constant. Time is scarce in the medical curriculum and never sufficient to teach the whole body of medical knowledge.

Providing time to teach medical students how to learn is difficult. It is, however, even more difficult for students to provide time to learn in an ineffective way in medical school, to learn factual knowledge, forget, and relearn it.

It takes modest time for medical schools to teach the above-mentioned concepts that enable students to save time and effort. How should medical schools implement programs to convey these learning strategies? The author proposes that a program based on these concepts should be taught in medical school at an early stage. The program should be based, obviously, on the concepts it conveys. This means that the program should be taught actively by posing questions and quizzing students, provide tests to foster learning, and repeat the learning strategies in spaced intervals.

How to Learn Effectively in Medical School: Test Yourself, Learn Actively, and Repeat in Intervals

A basis module of this program may consist of several hours to present the concepts and the scientific background. Shorter modules serving as repetition and application of the learning strategies should be taught in expanding time intervals so that students learn the concepts at the start of the term and restudy them, e.

Therefore, a basis module combined with several short follow-up modules would suffice to teach the basic scientific findings on effective learning strategies. Additional scientific concepts apart from the three that were presented in this paper may be added to the program. A module presented in year 1 of medical school may focus on learning factual knowledge, whereas a module in year 3 may shift toward factual and procedural knowledge to prepare for effective learning in clerkships.

However, the content of the modules may not be the most important issue. The key is to create a constructive atmosphere and to raise awareness about the process of learning in medical school. Before students start to learn, they should be taught how to learn. This idea should become an essential part of the medical curriculum. The presented learning strategies provide a starting point to enable students to learn more effectively in medical school.

Research is conducted concerning the larger picture of how to combine scientific evidence in cognitive neuroscience with medical education [ 17 ]. The author proposes this program as a first step to explore concepts that improve learning in medical school. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Yale J Biol Med. Marc Augustin. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. To whom all correspondence should be addressed: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License, which permits for noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any digital medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered in any way.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. The Testing Effect The testing effect concerns a paradox in the life of every student in medical school. Active Recall Whenever new information is repeated, an emphasis should be put on active methods of repetition such as free recall.

Spaced Repetitions The mentioned experiment by Morris et al. Conclusions How do these studies impact learning in medical school? Learning the facts in medical school is not enough: BMC Med Educ. Perceived stress during undergraduate medical training: Med Educ. Retention of medical genetics knowledge and skills by medical students. Genet Med. What can medical education learn from the neurobiology of learning?

Acad Med.

School of Medicine | University of Leeds

Ueber das Gedaechtnis. Acquisition of a memory skill. Test-enhanced learning. Psychol Sci.

Similar files:


Copyright © 2019 aracer.mobi. All rights reserved.
DMCA |Contact Us