PDF | Most robots today can trace their origin to early industrial robot designs. from book Springer Handbook of Robotics (pp). mobile for use in industrial automation applications. ▫ more general definition (“ visionary”) intelligent connection between perception and action. Robotics 1. 2. A catalog record for this book is available from the German Library. Industrial Robotics: Theory, Modelling and Control / Edited by Sam Cubero. p. cm.
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Industrial Robots Programming: Building Applications for the Factories of the Future This book by J. Norberto Pires constitutes a unique and authoritative. Journal o/Mechanical Working Technology, 15 () ElsevierSciencePublishersB.V., Amsterdam-- Printed in The Netherlands Book Reviews H. book reviews Intelligence at machine tool level Manufacturing intelligence by Introduction to the Special Section on Cloud Robotics for Industrial Applications.
Robot Body-and-Arm Configurations Five common body-and-arm configurations for industrial robots: 1. Polar coordinate body-and-arm assembly 2.
Cylindrical body-and-arm assembly 3. Cartesian coordinate body-and-arm assembly 4. Jointed-arm body-and-arm assembly 5.
Wrist Configurations Wrist assembly is attached to end-of-arm End effector is attached to wrist assembly Function of wrist assembly is to orient end effector Body-and-arm determines global position of end effector Two or three degrees of freedom: Roll Pitch Yaw Pearson Education, Inc. Joint Drive Systems Electric Uses electric motors to actuate individual joints Preferred drive system in today's robots Hydraulic Uses hydraulic pistons and rotary vane actuators Noted for their high power and lift capacity Pneumatic Typically limited to smaller robots and simple material transfer applications Pearson Education, Inc.
End Effectors The special tooling for a robot that enables it to perform a specific task Two types: Grippers to grasp and manipulate objects e. Advances in Mechanical Grippers Dual grippers Interchangeable fingers Sensory feedback To sense presence of object To apply a specified force on the object Multiple fingered gripper similar to human hand Standard gripper products to reduce the amount of custom design required Pearson Education, Inc.
Sensors in Robotics Two basic categories of sensors used in industrial robots: 1. Internal - used to control position and velocity of the manipulator joints 2. External - used to coordinate the operation of the robot with other equipment in the work cell Tactile - touch sensors and force sensors Proximity - when an object is close to the sensor Optical Machine vision Other sensors - temperature, voltage, etc. Robot Application Characteristics General characteristics of industrial work situations that promote the use of industrial robots 1.
Hazardous work environment for humans 2. Repetitive work cycle 3. Difficult handling task for humans 4. Multishift operations 5. Infrequent changeovers 6. Part position and orientation are established in the work cell Pearson Education, Inc.
Industrial Robot Applications 1. Processing operations Spot welding and continuous arc welding Spray coating Other waterjet cutting, laser cutting, grinding 3.
Assembly and inspection Pearson Education, Inc. Robot Programming Leadthrough programming - work cycle is taught to robot by moving the manipulator through the required motion cycle and simultaneously entering the program into controller memory for later playback Robot programming languages - uses textual programming language to enter commands into robot controller Simulation and off-line programming program is prepared at a remote computer terminal and downloaded to robot controller for execution without need for leadthrough methods Pearson Education, Inc.
These two chapters provide another look at the next generation of robots. At this stage the book leaves the technological discussions to consider the increasingly important questions of social and economic effects. Industrial managers will find much of interest when considering the implication of robot systems. Figures are shown for the impact on productivity in metal working and the emotive subject of un-employment is included.
In general the American authors are optimistic about re-deployment but stress the importance of full negotiations with unions and other representatives of the workforce to avoid a Luddite attitude.
An unexpected chapter on education demands will interest those who anticipate offering such courses.
The author argues the importance of sufficient training at both professional and technician level to cope with both the technology and the labour relations. She includes curricula for courses at Purdue and brief description of the 'in house' training at General Motors: Two Hungarian authors give a brief insight into robotic applications behind the Iron Curtain. From this point on the book becomes more systems and applications oriented. Part 6 discusses rules for determining potential installations and shows how a system was set up for car component assembly.
The importance of including the process in the component design is stressed. Shimon Nof himself presents a chapter on ergonomics and optimization comparing robot and human performance. He also includes comparisons between U. This comprehensive chapter continues by showing how an assembly cell is planned and implemented using a car water pump as an example.
Clearly Professor Nof has enjoyed his work with the book and his enthusiasm shows in this very long chapter packed with useful data. The next chapter covers the macro field and suggests rules to be used by the systems designer. Ideas on location analysis, queueing theory and batching are discussed and supported with production examples.
The chapter has references sub-divided into its 19 sub-sections. The human element is also included in this section with examples from Japan of the effects on personnel in robot environments. The suggestion is made that robots provide a competitive edge but that it is essential that the role of the human operators is considered from the outset of the planning.
Finally an economic investigation lists some 60 questions to be adopted as a checklist. This work complements the first chapter in this section and uses a brake shoe assembly as an example of the approach showing capital, maintenance and running costs.
A payback period of 15 years seems rather longer than figures usually quoted. System integration is covered in 5 chapters in part 7. Examples from General Motors and Ford show the commitment of these companies to robotic production systems. Descriptions are given of planning, system layout, auxiliary equipment and sensors. While there is little new material here, the examples are useful as further broadening for the reader.
The less exciting but essential factor of maintenance is given proper coverage in one of the chapters. Sound warnings are given to the unwary user with examples of 'handsome' installations failing to meet targets due to lack of proper care and servicing. Safety is also included here. The next three sections are all concerned with robot systems in action and include examples in fabrication, welding, and materials handling.
Mostly these comprise descriptions by a particular company of their own installation and use of robots and examples are taken from BL, Lockheed aerospace and Sperry Vickers which includes their FMS.
All chapters are well illustrated but many of the ideas have appeared in earlier parts which also included industrial examples and at this stage the book becomes somewhat repetitive.
However specialist users in particular fields may find something closely allied to their own application. The more interesting presentation returns in section 11 on robot applications in assembly.
Again the more general issues are addressed with specific examples used to enhance the arguments. The approach used to plan the system for assembly of an alternator is described and the subsequent chapter shows an equally thorough approach to the design of other systems illustrated by case studies.
An analysis of part mating is given by an author from MIT and this is followed by two contributions from Japan with several diagrams and photographs of robot cells in action. While the discussions are rather brief, the illustrations make these two most informative chapters. After descriptions of a system to assemble computer components the section concludes with an analysis of assembly research issues. A modular approach is outlined to give a generalized method of assembly planning and examples show how modules are brought together to solve particular problems.
The penultimate section 12 is concerned with inspection and quality control. Obviously the main theme is the use of vision systems and pattern recognition with the robot either holding the part in front of the camera or holding the camera and traversing the part.
In one chapter the robot is only used to feed a vision guided X - - Y table. Examples of inspected parts include welds, soldered joints on printed circuit boards and car bodies at General Motors. The authors all stress the accuracy and time gains of these systems. An unusual system used to inspect and repair a nuclear plant is described by a contributor from the UK but this is a very specialised robot. Finally, two chapters describe finishing and painting.
The selection and programming of robots for spray painting is discussed at length together with the advantages of putting them to work in this hostile environment. The author makes a strong case and enhances this by claiming a pay back period of only 1. The last chapter shows how the consistency of the robot may be used in the application of sealant using refrigerator cases as the example.
The book is completed by a 30 page glossary of terms and finally a comprehensive index.
Although many of the examples quoted are from the car manufacturing industry, anyone contemplating a robot installation should find some assistance in this book.
There are so many industrial examples included that it is likely that problems could be anticipated before they occur since they will have been described in some form. Even if the situation is unique the chapters giving checklists should ensure that new users follow logical and systemmatic procedures and do not get drawn into the same blind alleys as their predecessors may have done.
The drawing of chapters from around the world assists the interchange of ideas between nations as well as companies and makes another small step towards international industrial cooperation. The result is a reference book of considerable authority and one that it will be difficult to better. Educational and research institutions will find the publication of immense worth although the pace of advance is so rapid that these parts of the book will require some updating within a year or so.
However it will remain a useful teaching aid for many years to come with the high standard of illustrations providing lecture backup for the motivated student. The many photographs of robots in action will help even those students who may be familiar with robots in their own experience.