The Inheritance Cycle adalah seri novel fantasi karya Christopher Paolini. Sebelumnya diberi judul The . Download E-Book (PDF) (Versi Indonesia) Eragon (MB) . ada yang punya inheritance versi bahasa indonesia g? ReplyDelete. Siklus Warisan (Inggris: Inheritance Cycle) adalah sebuah seri novel fiksi fantasi remaja karya Christopher Paolini. Sebelumnya, seri novel ini disebut sebagai. Pada usia 19 tahun, Paolini menjadi pengarang terlaris versi Newyorktimes. Semenjak saat itu Eragon diadopsi menjadi film dengan nama sama. Essai Paolini.
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Females who are carriers usually have enough clotting factors from their one normal gene to prevent serious bleeding problems, though some may present as mild haemophiliacs. Complications[ edit ] Severe complications are much more common in cases of severe and moderate haemophilia. Complications may arise from the disease itself or from its treatment:  Deep internal bleeding, e. Joint damage from haemarthrosis haemophilic arthropathy , potentially with severe pain, disfigurement, and even destruction of the joint and development of debilitating arthritis.
Transfusion transmitted infection from blood transfusions that are given as treatment. Adverse reactions to clotting factor treatment, including the development of an immune inhibitor which renders factor replacement less effective. Intracranial haemorrhage is a serious medical emergency caused by the buildup of pressure inside the skull.
It can cause disorientation, nausea , loss of consciousness, brain damage , and death. Haemophilic arthropathy is characterized by chronic proliferative synovitis and cartilage destruction. The hypertrophied and fragile synovial lining while attempting to eliminate excessive blood may be more likely to easily rebleed, leading to a vicious cycle of hemarthrosis-synovitis-hemarthrosis.
In addition, iron deposition in the synovium may induce an inflammatory response activating the immune system and stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in cartilage and bone destruction. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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April Learn how and when to remove this template message X-linked recessive inheritance Females possess two X-chromosomes , males have one X and one Y-chromosome. Since the mutations causing the disease are X-linked recessive , a female carrying the defect on one of her X-chromosomes may not be affected by it, as the equivalent allele on her other chromosome should express itself to produce the necessary clotting factors, due to X inactivation.
If the genes responsible for production of factor VIII or factor IX present on a male's X-chromosome are deficient there is no equivalent on the Y-chromosome to cancel it out, so the deficient gene is not masked and the disorder will develop.
In contrast, for a female to inherit the disease, she must receive two deficient X-chromosomes, one from her mother and the other from her father who must therefore be a haemophiliac himself. However, it is possible for female carriers to become mild haemophiliacs due to lyonisation inactivation of the X-chromosomes.
Haemophiliac daughters are more common than they once were, as improved treatments for the disease have allowed more haemophiliac males to survive to adulthood and become parents.
Adult females may experience menorrhagia heavy periods due to the bleeding tendency. The pattern of inheritance is criss-cross type. This type of pattern is also seen in colour blindness. A son cannot inherit the defective gene from his father. This is a recessive trait and can be passed on if cases are more severe with carrier.
Genetic testing and genetic counselling is recommended for families with haemophilia. Prenatal testing , such as amniocentesis , is available to pregnant women who may be carriers of the condition. As with all genetic disorders, it is of course also possible for a human to acquire it spontaneously through mutation , rather than inheriting it, because of a new mutation in one of their parents' gametes.
If a female gives birth to a haemophiliac son, either the female is a carrier for the blood disorder or the haemophilia was the result of a spontaneous mutation. Until modern direct DNA testing , however, it was impossible to determine if a female with only healthy children was a carrier or not.
Generally, the more healthy sons she bore, the higher the probability that she was not a carrier. If a male is afflicted with the disease and has children with a female who is not a carrier, his daughters will be carriers of haemophilia. His sons, however, will not be affected with the disease. The disease is X-linked and the father cannot pass haemophilia through the Y-chromosome.
Males with the disorder are then no more likely to pass on the gene to their children than carrier females, though all daughters they sire will be carriers and all sons they father will not have haemophilia unless the mother is a carrier.
Severity[ edit ] There are numerous different mutations which cause each type of haemophilia. Due to differences in changes to the genes involved, people with haemophilia often have some level of active clotting factor. Several options are available to parents.
If there is no family history of haemophilia, it is usually only diagnosed when a child begins to walk or crawl. They may experience joint bleeds or easy bruising. Before pregnancy[ edit ] Genetic testing and counselling are available to help determine the risk of passing the condition onto a child. Such tests include: chorionic villus sampling CVS — a small sample of the placenta is removed from the womb and tested for the haemophilia gene, usually during weeks of pregnancy amniocentesis — a sample of amniotic fluid is taken for testing, usually during weeks of pregnancy There's a small risk of these procedures causing problems such as miscarriage or premature labour, so the woman may discuss this with the doctor in charge of her care.
Blood from the umbilical cord can be tested at birth if there's a family history of haemophilia. A blood test will also be able to identify whether a child has haemophilia A or B, and how severe it is. Haemophilia C is not completely recessive, as heterozygous individuals also show increased bleeding.
This type can be inherited or acquired. Treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes is done primarily by replacing the missing blood clotting factors. Clotting factors are usually not needed in mild haemophilia. Factor replacement can be either isolated from human blood serum , recombinant , or a combination of the two.
In Eiffel , the ancestors' features are chosen explicitly with select and rename directives. This allows the features of the base class to be shared between its descendants or to give each of them a separate copy of the base class. Eiffel allows explicit joining or separation of features inherited from ancestor classes. Eiffel will automatically join features together, if they have the same name and implementation. The class writer has the option to rename the inherited features to separate them.
Multiple inheritance is a frequent occurrence in Eiffel development; most of the effective classes in the widely used EiffelBase library of data structures and algorithms, for example, have two or more parents. If a structure D embeds two structures B and C which both have a method F , thus satisfying an interface A, the compiler will complain about an "ambiguous selector" if D.
F is called, or if an instance of D is assigned to a variable of type A. B and C's methods can be called explicitly with D.
Java 8 introduces default methods on interfaces. If A,B,C are interfaces, B,C can each provide a different implementation to an abstract method of A, causing the diamond problem. Either class D must reimplement the method the body of which can simply forward the call to one of the super implementations , or the ambiguity will be rejected as a compile error. JavaFX Script in version 1.
In case of conflict, the compiler prohibits the direct usage of the ambiguous variable or function. Each inherited member can still be accessed by casting the object to the mixin of interest, e. Logtalk supports both interface and implementation multi-inheritance, allowing the declaration of method aliases that provide both renaming and access to methods that would be masked out by the default conflict resolution mechanism. In OCaml , parent classes are specified individually in the body of the class definition.
Methods and attributes are inherited in the same order, with each newly inherited method overriding any existing methods.
OCaml chooses the last matching definition of a class inheritance list to resolve which method implementation to use under ambiguities. To override the default behavior, one simply qualifies a method call with the desired class definition. Perl uses the list of classes to inherit from as an ordered list. The compiler uses the first method it finds by depth-first searching of the superclass list or using the C3 linearization of the class hierarchy.
Various extensions provide alternative class composition schemes. The order of inheritance affects the class semantics.
In the above ambiguity, class B and its ancestors would be checked before class C and its ancestors, so the method in A would be inherited through B. This is shared with Io and Picolisp. In Perl, this behavior can be overridden using the mro or other modules to use C3 linearization or other algorithms. Python had to deal with this upon the introduction of new-style classes, all of which have a common ancestor, object. That algorithm enforces two constraints: children precede their parents and if a class inherits from multiple classes, they are kept in the order specified in the tuple of base classes however in this case, some classes high in the inheritance graph may precede classes lower in the graph .
Thus, the method resolution order is: D, B, C, A.
In the absence of runtime metaprogramming this has approximately the same semantics as rightmost depth first resolution. Scala allows multiple instantiation of traits, which allows for multiple inheritance by adding a distinction between the class hierarchy and the trait hierarchy.
A class can only inherit from a single class, but can mix-in as many traits as desired.