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KP9 Art. KSH Art. PCCC Save as otherwise provided in the company articles, a shareholder who has failed to make payment by the date referred to in paragraph 1 shall be liable to pay statutory interest for the default, or damages. Bem R. Kucharska, J. Marynowicz, A. PU Art. PCC 1. Embedded fact-situation in Polish legislative sentences The fact-situation may also take the form of an embedded modifier which is introduced in Polish legislative sentences by means of w razie, w przypadku, w wypadku.
CCC1 The company articles may provide for redeeming shares without the resolution of the general meeting should a certain event occur. PCCC The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2, 4 and 5 shall apply accordingly in the case of cessation of a relationship of dependency.
The provision of paragraph 2 shall apply correspondingly if an enterprise is leased or a usufruct is established on it. Tenses in legislative drafting 2. XV Introduction to legal translation als, however, the drafter may also use present tense since the majority of rules have a continuing effect.
They speak at the time of reading, not merely at the time of their adoption. The present tense thus includes the future tense. See the example below: ; A violation of any provision of this article A violation of any provision of this article shall be a misdemeanour. Tense in Polish legislative drafting There are no separate grammar rules to be applied in Polish legislative texts.
Permission and authorisation in legislative sentences 3. Permission in English legislative sentences As acknowledged by many lawyers, an act which is not prohibited is permitted. Permissions and authorisations convey rights, privileges and powers on legal subjects.
Permissions usually express a facultative operation which a person or legal institution is free to do. In other words, permissions cannot be violated.
It must also be remembered that the granting of a permission serves as a means of cancelling a command, requirement, or a prohibition or making an exception to a command, requirement, or prohibition XVI 3. Crimes Act — Sect. All these phrases usually appear in the indicative tense. The agent who receives the fugitive into his custody shall be empowered to transport him to the jurisdiction from which he has fled.
Negation of command, prohibition and requirement in English legislative sentences As mentioned above, permission can also be construed as cancellation of a command, prohibition or requirement. This is done by means of negation.
In other words, a provision that includes one of these phrases negates the obligation, but not permission to act. KP Art. KH25 Art. KC Art. XIX Introduction to legal translation Every partner having the right to conduct affairs of the partnership shall have the right to revoke the procuration.
This should be obvious from the context. OP Art. Miller and J. Yrkoski, Ordynacja Podatkowa. PCCC In the cases referred to in paragraph 1, subparagraphs 1 and 2, the company may acquire its own shares only if the following conditions have been satisfied jointly: 1 acquired shares are fully paid up.
AORFT 3. Explicit limitation in permissions in Polish legislative sentences Some prohibitions can be transformed into permissions by making the statement of law positive as well as the excluded condition.
CCC1 A share may be redeemed only following registration of the company in the register and only if the articles of association so provide. PCCC Shares shall not be redeemed other than upon the company being entered in the register and only where the company deed so provides.
CCC1 New business can be transacted only where this is necessary to close the business in progress. PCCC New interests may be undertaken only in the case if it is necessary to finish the pending matters. Negative obligation in Polish legislative sentences As asserted above, permission can also be expressed by negation of obligation. Negation is manifested in Polish by means of negative markers. They are either free forms such as the negative particle nie or affixes.
CCC1 A limited partner shall not be obligated to return what he received in respect of profit under the financial report. PCCC A limited partner shall not be required to refund what he collected as profit on the basis of financial statement. KH Art. Authorisation in Polish legislative sentences dise correct rendering of legal modality as such.
CCC1 If, in the course of enforcement proceedings, there is to be a sale of the share PCCC Where a share to be sold under execution is PCC 3. Obligation and entitlement in Polish legal provisions Occasionally, legislators wish to include both obligation and power within the same provision. CCC1 A dismissed member of the management board shall be entitled and obligated to offer explanations PCCC The recalled member of the management board may and shall CCC1 If the management board comprises several members, all the members shall be obligated and entitled to jointly manage the affairs of the company.
PCCC Where the management board consists of more than one person, all members shall have the duty and right to jointly manage the affairs of the company. Prohibition in legislative sentences 4.
Prohibition in English legislative sentences Prohibitions are legal speech acts with the illocutionary force of forbidding Following this logic any criminal provisions are taken to constitute prohibitions.
A person must not operate a motor vehicle in violation of motor vehicle noise rules adopted by the pollution control agency. Phrase The commissioner may not issue a license. A person may not operate a without a license. The clerk may not release the report. Interpretation It is beyond the power of the commissioner to issue the license.
A person is not permitted to do the specified act without a license. The clerk is prohibited from releasing the report. XXV Introduction to legal translation 4. Phrase no person may Interpretation no person is authorised to i No election may be made in respect of ordinary shares in a venture capital trust. Workplace Relations Act 4. See the following example: For the purposes of paragraph 3 e , junior wage provisions are not to be treated as constituting discrimination by reason of age.
Other descriptive patterns to express prohibition There are also some other descriptive patterns which express prohibition which are formulated by negating permission to perform a given act. US Law Collection, Title Customs and Duties, Part I.
Chapter 53, Sec. It usually occurs either as: 1 it shall be unlawful for X to do Y, where X is a legal subject and Y is a legal action It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to distribute explosive materials to any individual who: 1 is under twenty-one years of age; 2 has been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year; 3 is under indictment for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year; 4 is a fugitive from justice; 5 is an unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance as defined in section of the Controlled Substances Act.
It shall be unlawful to make entry of any vessel or to unlade the cargo or any part thereof of any vessel elsewhere than at a port of entry: Provided, That upon good cause therefor being shown, the Commissioner of Customs may permit entry of any vessel to be made at a place other than a port of entry designated by him, under such conditions as he shall prescribe.
Prohibition in Polish legislative texts 4. CCC1 During the term of the company, the contributions made by the shareholders may not be returned to them in whole or in part PCCC Throughout the lifetime of the company no full or partial refund of contributions shall be made to the shareholders.
PLC 4. CCC1 An inalienable right or the provision of work or services may not constitute a contribution. The above examples show also different interpretation approaches adopted by particular translators British vs. American drafting who do follow TL norms indicative of the drafting styles they are familiar with. Prohibition as lack of entitlement in Polish legislative sentences This prohibition shall also apply to the subscription for, acquisition PCCC This prohibition shall apply equally to the taking up, acquisition CCC1 The non-competition rule referred to in Art.
CCC1 During liquidation, the prohibition on competitive activity shall apply only to persons serving as liquidators. PCCC During liquidation, the prohibition of competition shall only apply to persons being the liquidators. Prohibition as lack of entitlement in Polish legislative sentences As mentioned above, some prohibitions may take the form of negations of permissions and authorisations. CCC1 A shareholder shall not have the right to terminate the articles of association.
PCCC A shareholder shall not have the right to terminate a partnership deed. CCC1 A division of a joint-stock company shall not be permitted where the share capital has not been paid in full. PCCC A division of a joint-stock company shall not be admissible unless the initial capital was fully paid up. CCC1 In a single-shareholder company in organisation, the single shareholder shall not have the right to represent the company.
Czy zechce mnie z powrotem? Na pewno nic takiego do ciebie nie czuje. Jej twarz jest blada, niemal przezroczysta.
Dwa, trzy kilogramy? I nagle Ana siedzi obok mnie. To takie w jej stylu. Jestem potworem. Jestem bezradny. Przypomina lepsze czasy: sad w jesieni. Patrzy na mnie skonsternowana. Taylor otwiera drzwi i wysiadam ze swojej strony. To moja dziewczyna. Chusteczki to moja sprawa. Nie jego. Natychmiast, Grey. Och, Ano. Jak ona to robi? Tak dobrze do siebie pasujemy, Ano.
Niczego nie dotykaj. Sprawdzam kontrolki. Oczy ma szeroko otwarte i jest podekscytowana. Och, uwielbiam to. Czas na show, Grey. Jej komplement mnie zaskakuje.
Jest ciekawa. Jaki jest? Niech to szlag. Nie wystrasz jej znowu. Ale czy to jej wystarczy? I czy wystarczy mnie? Pochodzi z innej epoki.
Od kiedy? Zaszczyca mnie zaskoczonym spojrzeniem szeroko otwartych oczu. Szukaj gdzie indziej. Wzruszam ramionami. Tak, to przeze mnie jest taka wychudzona. Zbyt zainteresowany.
Hola, hola, kolego. Ona jest moja. Fotograf strzela kilka fotek. Ana zerka na mnie. Ale o tym wiesz. Ale nigdy na randki. No wiesz, na zakupy. Oto ona. Kiedy jej dotykam, wstrzymuje oddech. Psiakrew, znowu to robimy, tutaj, teraz? Czemu ona to robi tutaj? Przy tobie zwyczajnie nie wiem, czego akurat ode mnie oczekujesz.
W tej chwili. Och, te usta. Smakuje mnie. To mnie podnieca jeszcze bardziej. Wiem, co robisz.
Chcesz tego fotografa, Anastasio? Widzisz, do czego mnie doprowadzasz, Ano? Co znowu? A to jest dziecinne.
Zwodzisz go. Zwodzisz mnie? Powiedz jej, czego chcesz. Zagryza wargi i blednie. O nie. Trudne to niedopowiedzenie. Do czego ona zmierza? Och, kochanie, uwierz mi. Co, do jasnej cholery? Mruga kilka razy, ale milczy. Ona tego zwyczajnie nie pojmuje. Cholera, Grey. Wypijam je szybko. Ana i ja nie odrywamy od siebie oczu. Jasna cholera. Niknie w oczach. Do licha! Nie znowu! Nie najgorszy. To dobrze. Nadal mnie pragnie. Celowo mnie prowokuje?
Taylor po nas przyjedzie. Co racja, to racja, panno Steele. Powiedz jej. Powiedz jej teraz, Grey. No, przynajmniej jest zaintrygowana. Serce bije mi coraz szybciej.