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I'll be recommending this book highly. Want to learn the fundamentals of electronics in a fun, hands-on way? With Make: Electronics , you'll start working on real projects as soon as you crack open the book. Explore all of the key components and essential principles through a series of fascinating experiments. You'll build the circuits first, then learn the theory behind them!
Build working devices, from simple to complex You'll start with the basics and then move on to more complicated projects. Go from switching circuits to integrated circuits, and from simple alarms to programmable microcontrollers. Step-by-step instructions and more than full-color photographs and illustrations will help you use -- and understand -- electronics concepts and techniques.
I was hoping this would be a good resource for teaching an intro electronics class. At times it is quite good, but often it is only passable. If I didn't know electronics myself, my students would be It's the best intro to building with electronics that I can imagine. Yes, I do pay attention to reader feed- back. At that time, I had specified a 12VDC power source, and felt that the 1.
Unfortunately a deduction of 1. Now that are normally closed. So long as this chain of connec-I am using a 9VDC power supply, I think I need a better tions is unbroken, the base of the transistor is at a lowway to make the relay lock itself on. Solving the Problem Now someone opens a sensor. But the relay also opens the right-hand con-The task of controlling the alarm is shared by two com- tacts.
The transistor Now if someone re-closes the sensor, it makes no differ-starts the alarm. It switches off, and the relay has the task of keep- relay are open, and have cut off the connection to theing itself locked on.
The weakness in this system is that negative side of the power supply.
The transistor contin-when a task is shared by two components, they can in- ues to pass current, and the relay remains active. This isterfere with each other. A better plan would be to have shown in Figure I should main-tain the transistor in a controlling role.
It should keep it-self turned on, and so long as it is on, it will keep the re-lay on. Ah—now I see how to fix it. All I need is to use the sec-ond pole of the relay which is the same relay that youalready used in Experiment 7. I can use the contacts inthe second pole, which are normally closed, to groundthe chain of sensors, as shown in Figure Figure The chain of sensors is now grounded through the Figure Now that a sensor has been opened, the transistorright-hand contacts in the relay, which are normally closed.
This solves the problem. Protection Diode As you saw above, I eliminated the diode from the cir- cuit. It is now inparallel with the coil of the relay. But I had to show how a circuit is developed from the ground up.
Figure shows a breadboard layout. Figure The diode has returned, now serving a function as a Figure Breadboarded alarm circuit, final version. One thing cuitI can tell you right now is that a coil of wire stores energy To simulate the alarm sensors on the breadboard, Iwhen you apply power, and releases the energy when should have used normally closed pushbuttons.
But Iyou disconnect the power. Consequently, as a sub-Therefore, it is standard procedure to add a protection di-ode across a relay coil.
The diode is oriented so that itblocks the normal flow of current, forcing it to gothrough the coil, which is where we want it. This is some kind of secret code on a keypad to turn the alarmadequate for testing. Figure X-ray view of the breadboarded alarm circuit.
Adding the SoundMake sure the wires are touching each other when you For the alarm sound, you could use the oscillator circuitapply power to the circuit. Initially, nothing should hap- and loudspeaker from Experiment Really, though,pen. A little integrated circuit chipNow disconnect the sensor wires. The LED comes on, known as a timer is a better tool for the job—and itand if you build the next version of this circuit, a noise- just happens to be the next thing that I want to tell youmaker will sound, showing that the alarm has been trig- about, in Experiment The timer can also satisfy items 7 and 9 on myNow reconnect the sensor wires, imitating a situation wish list, which require a delay before the alarm starts.
So far so good.
We have a functional circuit here. The Reference: Take-Home Messagesalarm locks itself on. But in that case—how do you ever get it to stop? Just disconnect the power. The relay re- several important points. Consequently, the reduction is more signif- icant when the supply voltage is lower.
The diode should be oriented so that it blocks the normal flow of current but passes the reverse pulse created by the coil. Before I get into the fascinating topic of integrated cir-cuit chips often referred to as ICs or simply chips , I haveto make a confession. Some of the things I asked you todo in previous experiments could have been done a bitmore simply, if we had used chips. Does this mean you have been wasting your time? Abso-lutely not! I firmly believe that by building circuits withindividual components such as transistors and diodes,you acquire the best possible understanding of the prin-ciples of electronics.
Still, you are going to find that chipscontaining dozens, hundreds, or thousands of transistorjunctions will enable some shortcuts. You may also find chips curiously addictive to play with—although you may not become quite as excited as thecharacter in Figure The tools, equipment, components, and supplies de-scribed below will be useful in Experiments 16 through24, in addition to items that have been recommendedpreviously.
Figure My role model. The only new tool that you might consider using in con-junction with chips is a logic probe. This tells you wheth- Surface-mount packages often are identified with acro-er a single pin on a chip has a high or low voltage, which nyms beginning with letter S, as in SOIC, meaning small-can be helpful in figuring out what your circuit is doing. Numerous surface-mount var-The probe has a memory function so that it will light its iants exist, with different pin spacing and other specifi-LED, and keep it lit, in response to a pulse that may have cations.
They are all outside the scope of this book, andbeen too quick for the eye to see. Search online and Inside the package, the circuit is etched on a tiny waferdownload the cheapest one you can find. TinyComponents wires inside the package link the circuit with the rows of pins that protrude on either side.
If you prefer to download your own compo- making a total of Just about every chip has a part number printed on it. This is because both of them areFigure shows two integrated circuit chips. This is often referred toholes in your breadboard or perforated board. The initial letters identify theto handle. If you are wonderingboards or perforated boards and are difficult to handle. The body of a chip is usually made of plastic or resin andis often referred to as the package.
The traditional chip isusually sold in a dual-inline package, meaning that it hastwo i. There are many more. Just be sure that they will fit your breadboard.
In this book, I All the chips needed for the experiments in this chapteram using the HC generation of the family exclu- of the book are listed in Figure You will need a fewsively, because almost all chips are available in it, other types of components, which I will list here. For our purposes, the extra speed offered by later Optional: IC Socketsgenerations is not relevant—although you can certainlyuse the HCT generation if you prefer.
These identify the specific function of the chip. This is veryFollowing the digits is another letter, or two letters, or difficult. To avoid the problem, download some DIP sockets,more. For our purposes, those terminating letters are not solder the sockets onto the board, and then plug theimportant. You will need 8-pin, pin, and pinlectronics, in the 74xx family, HC generation, with its sockets.
Quantity of each: 5 minimum. Two sockets arefunction identified by numerals The purpose of this long explanation is to enable you tointerpret catalog listings if you go chip shopping. You Figure To avoid the risk of damaging a chip by soldering it directly, it can be mounted in an IC socket after the socket has been soldered into a circuit board. Essential: Subminiature Slide Switch A slide switch has a tiny lever that you slide to and fro with the tip of your finger, making and breaking an elec- Chapter 4: Chips, Ahoy!
It See Figure Figure The subminiature slide switch recommended for Figure Seven-segment displays are the cheapest way toprojects in this book.
Caution: Switching Overload Essential: Voltage RegulatorA very small slide switch is not designed to switch signif-icant currents or voltages. It is designed for low-powered Because many logic chips require precisely 5 volts DC,circuits.
A limit may be as low as mA at 12VDC. This is you need a voltage regulator to guarantee this. Thesufficient for our purposes. The chip number will be precededtasheet if you want a slide switch to do more than this. Any manufacturer will do, but the regulator should look like the one in Figure This is known asHC series logic chips are not designed to deliver current the TO package style. You need them in any logicmuch beyond 5mA. You can take as much as 20mA from circuit, so five would be a good number to have avail-them to drive an LED, but this will pull down the output able.
I will mention this wherever it is im- windows, such as the Directed model , availableportant. Essential: Numeric Displays If you expect to move a project from a breadboard to a permanent enclosure, the tactile switches that you haveOne of the chip projects will display its output using sev- been using will be insufficiently sturdy or accessible.
Foren-segment numeric displays—the simple kind of digits Experiment 18, you will need a full-size DPDT pushbut-that you still find on digital clocks and microwave ovens. This was shortly after Shockley had set up a business based around the transistor, which he had coinvented atBackground: How Chips Came to Be Bell Labs. While he was the general man-Geoffrey W.
Dummer, who talked about it for years ager of Fairchild, Noyce invented a silicon-based integra-before he attempted, unsuccessfully, to build one in ted circuit that avoided the manufacturing problems as He is generally credited as theuntil by Jack Kilby, working at Texas Instruments. These applications consumed almost allment But Robert Noyce, pictured in Figure , had a chips produced from through , during whichbetter idea. In the late s, MSI medium-scale integration chips emerged, each containing hundreds of transistors.
Robert Noyce eventually cofounded Intel with Gordon Moore, but died unexpectedly of a heart attack in You can learn more about the fascinating early history of chip design and fabrication at the Silicon Valley Histori- cal Association. You can find numerous guides to it online, so why do I need to discuss it here?
You simply have to know about this chip. Some sources estimate that more than 1 billion are still being manufactured annually. It will be used in one way or another in most of the remaining circuits in this book. The is probably the most versatile chip that exists, with endless applications. Its relatively pow- Chapter 4: Chips, Ahoy! Whileand the chip itself is hard to damage.
After reading literally dozens of not have a dimple beside pin 1. The packagehas a notch, or a dimple, or both, at the end which isconsidered the top. All other through-hole chips have the same specifica-tion, although they may have more pins. If the trimmer is rotated so that the wiper connects directly to the nega- tive ground side of the power supply, this will allow the tactile switch to overwhelm the 10K resistor and apply low voltage to pin 2. This triggers the timer.
Figure A circuit to assist in your investigation of the Figure Breadboarded version of the timer test circuit. If the 20K trimmer is turned all the way in the oppositeYou can set up this circuit on a breadboard as shown in direction, button A will apply positive voltage directly toFigure Note that near the bottom-left corner there pin 2, and because pin 2 already has positive voltageis a short red jumper connecting the top section of the through the 10K resistor, an additional positive voltagepositive bus to the section immediately below it.
The through button A makes no difference. To as- the chip. The timer is the chip. Set it up by turning the Ktrimmer to the middle of its range. But, how positive is positive, and how much of a dropNow rotate the 20K trimmer all the way counterclock- will be low enough to act as a trigger?
If still nothing happens, rotatethe 20K trimmer all the way clockwise, and try again. One of these settings or the other should create a pulsefrom the LED, depending on which way around youplugged in your trimmer. Check the schematic, and you see that pin 2 of the timer—the trigger pin—is hardwired through a 10K resistorto the positive side of the power supply.
But a purplewire also connects with the trigger pin, and runs down, Chapter 4: Chips, Ahoy! Figure Connections inside the breadboard wired for the timer test. Get out your meter, set it to measure DC volts, andmeasure the voltage between pin 2 and negative Figure shows how the timer is behaving, in graphi-ground while you adjust the 20K trimmer to various set- cal format.
The converts the imperfect world aroundtings and press button A. Above 3 volts, I doubt that to appear instant. Now try triggering the timer while you turn the K trimmer to different positions. Press button A, and then quickly press but- voltages on pins 2 and 4 respectively. Hold down button B while you try to trigger the timer Timing the Pulseagain with button A, and nothing happens. When you ground it, you that positive current reaches pin 7 the discharge pin by force the timer to interrupt whatever it is doing, passing through a 10K resistor and a K trimmer.
The and it is immobilized until you release pin 4 10K resistor is there because pin 7 should not be con- from its connection with negative ground. This prolongs the pulse from the Hmmmm, a resistor followed by a capacitor—does thistimer, until you let go of button A. A more direct connection to You can measure this yourself. Set the K trimmer tonegative ground will overwhelm the pullup resistor. You shouldare dealing with chips, because you must never allow an see it climbing up—until it reaches about 6 volts.
Theinput pin to remain unconnected. This is why pin 7 is known aswhat voltage is on it from one moment to the next.
But why are the discharge pin and the threshold pin tied together? At that time, the timer will be running in astable mode. Currently, you are using it in monosta- ble mode. Chapter 4: Chips, Ahoy! Using a timer, everything is much eas-and prevent it from interfering with normal functioning. You just look up the duration of its output pulse in a table such as the one in Figure The resistance be-Caution: Beware of Pin-Shuffling!
Other schematics that you may find, on websites or inbooks, do things differently. For convenience in drawingcircuits, people often resequence the pin numbers. Also,there is no attempt to replicate a breadboard layoutwith a positive bus and a negative bus at each side. Togive you an example, in Figure the circuit is identi-cal to that in Figure , but the pins have been shuf-fled to simplify connections and minimize wiring cross-overs. Figure This circuit is identical in function to the test circuit Figure Pulse duration, in seconds, of a timer running inshown previously, but pins on the chip have been resequenced to monostable mode, for values of the timing resistor and timingsimplify the schematic.
Times are rounded to two digits. What if you want a time longer than 1, seconds or shorter then 0.
Or what if you want a pulse Make: Electronics Experiment Emitting a Pulseduration that falls somewhere between the values in the The two yellow triangles are comparators. Each compa-table? I have depicted it as a double-Bear in mind that the result may not be exact, because throw switch, although in reality it is solid-state.
Some peoplein a pattern that is too complex to be explained here. Notice the external wire that connects pin 7 with capaci-Figure Simplified representation of internal functions of a tor C. I omitted the internal connections to those position. This sends a positive pulse from pin 3, the out-pins for the sake of clarity. Now the capacitor can start charging through the resistor.