Networking basics pdf file

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all part of, computer networks let us share information and resources. In business , Once you have a basic understanding of what networks are and what they. An Introduction to Computer Networks 1 An Overview of Networks. 13 of selected important network applications, or the basics of network. Layer 3 switching, and routing. • Identify the layers of the OSI model. • Describe the functionality of LAN, MAN, and WAN networks. • Identify the possible media.

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Networking Basics Pdf File

Introduction. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. -Each of the . Network Definition. • Set of technologies that connects computers. • Allows communication and collaboration between users. 2. A computer network is defined as the interconnection of two or more computers. It is done to enable the computers to communicate and share available.

It differs from Ethernet in that all messages are transferred in one direction along the ring at all times. When the token arrives at a particular computer or device , the recipient is allowed to transmit data onto the network. Since only one device may be transmitting at any given time, no data collisions occur. Access to the network is guaranteed, and time-sensitive applications can be supported. However, these benefits come at a price. Component costs are usually higher, and the networks themselves are considered to be more complex and difficult to implement. Various PC vendors have been proponents of Token Ring networks. Networking and Ethernet Basics Protocols After a physical connection has been established, network protocols define the standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol establishes the rules and encoding specifications for sending data.

How to install and use novaPDF as a shared network PDF Printer

OSI model, area networks, modems, and wired and wireless connections. This page book broken up into 63 chapters should satisfy the basic needs of anyone looking to get familiar with a wide range of network technologies. The entire book is viewable online in separate web pages, so you don't need to bother with downloading it to your computer or phone. This page book written by Dr. This free networking book is available online as a read-only PDF document.

You can download the book to your computer, phone, etc. Written by Olivier Bonaventure, this free networking book covers primary concepts and even includes some exercises toward the end, as well as a full glossary defining lots of network concepts.

Learn Networking Basics

With a higher latency, more prone to interference and errors, Wi-Fi should only be used when absolutely necessary — such as mobile devices. Power Line Power Line networking involves piggybacking a network signal on top of mains power electrical distribution, by manipulating frequencies not used for the AC current.

Which Should You Use?

In short: using wired Ethernet connections is always preferable. It offers the fastest speed, the best reliability, and the lowest latency. Should You download A Wireless No problem: just download a switch to add more ports. If you need to expand again, using one of the original router ports is best Do I need crossover cable?

You may have heard that crossover network cables are used to connect thing like switches and routers, but modern hardware is clever enough to do this crossover in firmware — there is no need to use special cabling. Read More in the first place.


We take Wi-Fi for granted, but it's not magic -- it's radio waves. These radio waves can be interfered with or obstructed, producing wireless "dead zones" or "dead spots.

I mean, a house is a closed-in box, and you'd think when you place a device that transmits wireless signals in all directions Read More to learn all about the best positions. Wi-Fi Interference The wireless spectrum is a generally a busy place, particularly if you live in an urban environment.

We answer these questions and more in this quick guide. A modern router should do this automatically though.

These may land you jail time! If your mobile devices support it, upgrading your router to one capable of Image from Apple. However, there is an overhead to doing this — expect speeds to roughly halve.

Repurpose an old router to do the same job. Try some DIY methods that focus the antenna in a specific direction using some kind of metal can. Alternatively, consider Power Line networking instead see the section on types of network earlier in this guide. File sizes are quoted in Megabytes or MB — notice the uppercase B, which means Bytes; network speeds are quoted in Megabits, or Mb and the larger Gigabit, which is Megabits.

Internet Addressing Every computer on the Internet has an address. An Internet address is a number that uniquely identifies each computer on the Net. Originally, all Internet addresses consisted of bit values. This address type was specified by IPv4 Internet Protocol, version 4. However, a new addressing scheme, called IPv6 Internet Protocol, version 6 has come into play. IPv6 uses a bit value to represent an address. Although there are several reasons for and advantages to IPv6, the main one is that it supports a much larger address space than does IPv4.

Fortunately, IPv6 is downwardly compatible with IPv4. Currently, IPv4 is by far the most widely used scheme, but this situation is likely to change over time. Because of the emerging importance of IPv6, Java 2, version 1. However, at the time of this writing, IPv6 is not supported by all environments.

Learn Networking Basics

Furthermore, for the next few years, IPv4 will continue to be the dominant form of addressing. As mentioned, IPv4 is loosely, a subset of IPv6, and the material contained in this chapter is largely applicable to both forms of addressing. There are 32 bits in an IPv4 IP address, and we often refer to them as a sequence of four numbers between 0 and separated by dots. This makes them easier to remember; because they are not randomly assigned they are hierarchically assigned.

Computer Networks Tutorial | Studytonight

Most Internet users are on a class C network, since there are over two million networks in class C. The first byte of a class C network is between and , with the last byte actually identifying an individual computer among the allowed on a single class C network.

This scheme allows for half a billion devices to live on class C networks.

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