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Broszkiewicz Jerzy, Oczekiwanie, Wiedza, Warsaw Czas ciekawy, czas niespokojny. Drewnowski Tadeusz, Literatura polska — Zapiski sowieckie, Czytelnik, Warsaw The problem is not only of the persuasive in efficiency of historical and literary diagnoses, but also mainly? The literature of post-memory does not seem sufficient in this case. Article first printed in: Kulesza Dariusz, Dwie prawdy.
McCarthy Cormac, Sunset Limited. First printed in the US: Informator encyklopedyczny, PWN, Warsaw Romanowiczowa Zofia, Trybulacje proboszcza P. Skarga Barbara, Po wyzwoleniu Teksty Drugie , issue 5. Tulli Magdalena, Skaza, W. Wencel Wojciech, De profundis, Arcana, Krakow Werner Andrzej, Zwyczajna apokalipsa. The starting point for that postulate is the application of external criteria: It was usually raised by reviewers who focussed not so much on the questions posed by the nature of that type of writings, as on specific works.
Auschwitz — Birkenau and Zmienna ogniskowa by Andrzej Brycht. Vide T. The story was translated to, e. Not only the volume of the texts regarding the Soviet Gulag system required me to limit the research focus. One could further supplement the list with the social dimension of the post-camp life: They both marched at the back of the broken column which did not stop anywhere anymore. They were stunned by the disappearance of the guards. Does that topic belong to the history of Nazi KLs?
Those who marched in those ended up in camps be- hind the front line, within the territory of the Third Reich. They just discovered that the SS officers who escorted them were gone.
Guze, Warsaw In Polish writings, one proponent of considering Nazism and communism Lagers and gulags as comparable and mutu- ally referential systems was Andrzej J. Zarychta and the author, Warsaw It described the reality outside the barbed wire. It was often articulated in stories of the world after the liberation. Its author included within the area of Lager literature texts belonging to wartime or occupation experience.
That landscape was used towards one end only: Now [ Zones of silence When considering the features of contemporary studies of Shoah writings, Aleksandra Ubertowska concluded: The area can be discussed using the centre-fringes opposition marking the stress between the mainstream literary awareness positively valued genres, stylistic moods, as well as hidden mechanisms of reception in the circle of the Holocaust literature and marginalised phenomena or even phenomena absent in the aesthetic or literary science studies.
As Paul Connerton remarked several years ago: Holokaust — marginesy dyskursu. Auto tanto grafie, Warsaw , p. Connerton Paul, How Societies Remember: Themes in the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge They consist two types of reticence. The first group is associated with the fear of violating the taboo.
The violation of the ban leads to breaking the applicable patterns of talk- ing about Auschwitz, i. The other zone of silence is associated with the violation of reading habits and the aesthetic choices made by the author. Camp writings appear more sensitive to the application of stylistic devices than others.
The visions of Auschwitz conven- tionalised in literary terms become the goal. If I talk about appropriateness, it shall always be from the perspective of the receiver and the historically significant limits of what we consider aesthetically appropriate acceptable.
Readers, especially in the initial post-WWII years, viewed Lager writings using the testimony perspective. It was supposed to guarantee that the truth about Auschwitz will not be adulterated.
The origins 1 — the pressure of worldview and aesthetics Thematic and stylistic suppressions have twofold origins in camp narratives. When analysing memorial projects from that period, one can observe [ Some of the discussed [ Both factors prevented the author from noticing that what Tadeusz Borowski, her opponent, saw.
The researcher con- cluded: Kulesza Dwie prawdy. Polak, T. Polak eds. Jekiel, Warsaw Kulesza, Dwie prawdy, p. Lager — literature — zones of silence 47 experience. The verification of the truth about Auschwitz entails undermining the truth of memories and experiences. Polish camp prose lied. The perspective of Tadek the Vorarbeiter was not the only key to the camp world, but one which enabled the most extensive understanding of it. Yet the issue is not only to confirm the literary quality after all the years.
The issue at hand is the intellectual appropriation which occurred through Auschwitz stories. Religious life, altruistic sentiment, art — parodied, questioned or completely ousted by Borowski — seemed artificial, almost unreal. That was because the darker the presented image of Auschwitz, the more it was reliable. That is absent from Auschwitz stories seems objectively absent — non-existent in Auschwitz reality. Thus, Borowski established relations between that which ought to be expressed being significant and what ought to be omitted being insignif- icant.
The basic matters differentiating the approach to Auschwitz should also in- clude the question what was the system that created the network of Nazi KLs in the 20th-century Europe? What were its origins? That issue directed my attention towards the relations between Nazism and the western culture.
Lager — literature — zones of silence 49 exploring the Lager. The scope of what was automatically excluded from study discussion was, in that approach, considerable.
Thus, the zone of silence had well-defined borders, and their durability was guaranteed by the concepts of the philosophy of history, which resulted in the removal of the Nazi genocide outside the western traditions. The origins 2 — political ban on expression Political and historical contexts seem significant in analysing the reasons for the suppressions in memoirs and literary works raising the topic of Lagers. The reading of Lager literature outside of them, however possible and existent in the interpretative practices, leads to its semantic impoverishment.
By using it, communists not only shaped the desired way of thinking about what had happened, but also the applica- ble emotions. They used them for their own purposes: Even though the influence of ideological factors was considerable, one can- not agree with the authoritative statement by Marek Ostrowski: Belles lettres, then, e. The extent of the influence of party factors on the shape of Auschwitz ac- counts is today only to some degree traceable.
Just like in the case of other types of writings, self-censorship mechanisms prove to be the most difficult to identify. Vide M. In the case of the influence of communist ideology on the truth about Auschwitz, it existed mainly in one area: In the schools of the PRL, any more extensive references to Shoah were consistently avoided.
That applied to the experiences and the manner of commemorating Nazi Lagers. The suffering of Poles its extent obscured that of others, and prevented people from noticing them. That is not easy for two reasons at least. The exceptional nature of the fate of Jews was recorded in various ways. It was raised very often, and with intensity unknown to other European literatures.
Polish prose also from the start i. Lager — literature — zones of silence 51 sufficient number of accounts to be able to juxtapose them. Christopher Browning wrote: One of the most obvious circumstances was the place occupied by an internee in the KL hierarchy. Those who did so did not return, or their capacity for observation was paralysed by suffering and incomprehension.
But their situation also included limitations. As Levi argued: According to Levi: Levi Primo. The Drowned and the Saved. London One ought to consider the stories of those liberated from the camps through its con- text.
That opens yet another undiscovered area, shamefully ousted from the recollections of the oppressed as something worse, inappropriate, and non-martyrised.
That was the issue which prevented them from boldly entering the elevating circle of the victims. Those with the longest time spent in internment were are treated by their co-internees as experts, and their accounts and judgements as more reliable than other.
Filipkowski discussed the issue using an example: They have kept silent. Who, then, had the opportunity to create the most reliable i. Those components had to go hand in hand with the ability to intellectually grasp that what the person experienced. That is because there exist various psychological stimuli influencing the descrip- tion of that experience.
Some of the saved are closer [ They shape their stories using consciously selected rhetoric devices. They do not feel that such interventions alter the truth about their experiences or distort the memory process. Filipowski thus concluded the phenomenon of recollections reconstructed after several years: Each auto- biographical story recalls not only the individual experience of its author, but also the stories and events of other important for that group of internees events from the history of the camp or from history in general.
And by individual [ It is mainly shaped by the consciousness of the saved. As Levi stated, it is marked by an incurable offence. Inside it all or almost all factors that can obliterate or deform the mnemonic record are at work. Another well-known mechanism was also significant for consolidating the simplifying view of Lager experiences. When he asked about the rea- sons, he discovered two types of memory, each of which had different intentions.
Vide K. Bojarska, Wydarzenia po Wydarzeniu. Szuster, Warsaw Lager — literature — zones of silence 55 alisation attempts. It becomes active in dreams, in the subconscious. It is formed at the intersection of several factors. That had not been verbalised prohibited That which had not been verbalised in Lager prose is an extremely capacious category subject to evolution.
In time, the scope of that could be said expanded. Thus, one enters the area of prohibitions, not difficulty with expression the trag- edy of great art touching upon borderline situations. It would be difficult to ignore the influence of mo- rality-based taboo. That applied to issues associated with human sexuality and physiology.
They appeared extremely rarely. In fact, the accounts were assigned specific tasks: In borderline cases, anything that was associated with the problems of everyday existence and was not related to the suffering of the individual, was eliminated as redundant for the account.
Homosexuality was among the most closely kept secrets. Homosexuals were tabooed in Nazi Lagers. In the lates, Heinz Heger thus concluded his recol- lections: And yet till this very day no one has come forward to describe this and honor its victims. Werner, Zwyczajna apokalipsa, p. Roseau, Warsaw , p. Two publications are particularly noteworthy: Lager — literature — zones of silence 57 of Art.
However, the path to micro and macro-history is not simple. One cannot, for example, even based on the most detailed reconstruction of the situation of homosexuals in one Lager, construct the network of ideas which would reflect all the intricacies of their fate in the KL empire. It is the area of human carnality. Contemporary critical discourses ever more often and emphatically touch upon the areas ousted by patriarchal communities. Literary suppressions applied to mainly the areas of the so- called everyday life and carnality, which [ Existing works limited the theme of the body to signs enabling unequivocal evaluation of camp reality.
The same applies to literature. Kulesza referred to that talking about the sacralisation of the body in domestic prose. New research projects and challenges in Poland and Austria organised in Vienna on 26—27 Septem- ber Studium przypadku Paula W.
Kulesza indicated one important exception: It elim- inated the right to burial and rites. An interesting and original view of the issues is offered by feminist and gender methodologies.
Hecht, K. Krasuska eds. Auto tanto grafie. Auto tanato grafie, p. Since the late- s, there have appeared academic centres, international conferences have been organised, and the group of people reaching for the feminist or gender methodol- ogies has been growing, all with the goal to talk about Shoah. Second- ly, they should become the object of separate analyses and interpretations. One should bear that in mind to avoid instrumentalising the message.
The applied method ought not distort the knowl- edge of basic facts or lead to relativisation of suffering by inserting it in new in- terpretative perspectives. That unique character of Auschwitz literature should be considered especially when reading the accounts of direct witnesses. Let me use an example. Alvin Rosenfeld, an American scholar, firmly reject- ed the suggestions of Judy Chicago to blame the patriarchal social structure for the Holocaust. Auto tanto grafie, particularly pp. Its neutralisation is supposed to eliminate the risk of an reintroduc- tion of totalitarian violence.
However, there is no academic proof of homosexual masculinity or femininity to be free of aggressive behaviour. How to discuss Shoah from the point of view of animal studies, and not to offend the suffering and memory of the victims? Cze- kalska, A. Falkowski, M. Herer, Warsaw Vide, e. Kompisch, Sprawczynie, trans. Kupisz, N. Badiyan-Siekierzyska, Warsaw Lager — literature — zones of silence 61 the experience. Consider, e. Auschwitz was, in fact, the perfect example of that.
Christian and Marxist references — proved unacceptable in the s, and even later it was problematic. Lager literature had to fulfil specific promises: Significantly, there could be no transition between the world of the torturers and the tortured. They were supposed to be divided by an impenetrable chasm. Borowski and Levi disputed the host of social visions of the world behind the barbed wire.
Vide P. Prze-pisy- wanie literatury Holocaustu, Warsaw The surprising images in Puste pole refer to one of the most embarrassing issues in the history of Nazi Lagers. One can- not refer those judgements to literature. In various ways and at various stages of the post-WWII history of Poland writers recorded the activities of camp vultures. The notion of kapo or block functionary in Lagers is extremely complex. At the same time, they assumed the role of cruel executors of the instructions of the camp authorities.
Both studies included biblio- graphic references to press releases published before , i. Today, concentration camps can be viewed as complex social structures. Consequently, there exist no more extensive studies regarding the internal frictions, solidarity, collaboration, serving the SS, or the help offered to other inter- nees. There are no studies regarding the activities of individuals in the camps. That in an obvious way hinders the academic discourse, though it does not prevent it altogether.
Unfortunately, no substantial Polish study of criminal internees has been written as of yet. Why is that? Ben-Naftali, Y. Jock- usch, G. Finder eds. New research projects and challenges in Poland and Austria organised in Vienna on 26—27 September Thus, women and men with black badges violated the community of innocent victims. At the top, there were political internees as those who fought the regime, those who received the glory of the heroes and steadfast fighters as if by default.
They became the guardians of the memory. That group included homosex- uals, lesbians, and those forced to prostitution. In , during the preparations to open the Sachsenhausen memorial site, the barrack which housed the Puff [Nazi brothel] was destroyed.
In communist states, the tabooing of forced prostitution was supported by the authorities as an element of social didactics. The same principle of maintaining the proper image of the victims and am- plifying their correct image was the basis of the ban on Lagersprache. In line with the spirit of the stories, we omitted the words which were present in the manuscript, commonly considered offensive, yet typical for the camp communication sys- tem.
Borowski, Pisma, S. Lager — literature — zones of silence 65 remain within the convention in which there is no place for cursing, scatologia, and expressionistic dissonance. Lagersprache, was, of course, present in Auschwitz. Kossak avoided quoting it for different reasons than Borowski. Kasprzysiak, Krakow Lagerszpracha, Krakow , p. Wolski, Tadeusz Borowski — Primo Levi, p. Thus, the relevant task of giving testimony — with which writings on Nazi camps have been coping since the beginning — was cancelled by the fear of the world, and placement between life and death.
Sometimes, in fact, one can find testimonies of people who managed to leave that state. Even though those are always — inevitably — stories constructed not from the inside of the ex- perience, but after returning to the living, it is worth quoting one such account: That was the end.
At that level of utter exhaustion even my memory was failing. The silence of the Muselmann is for us the final silence. That might be the only truth about Auschwitz which we as readers and researchers will never be allowed to know.
Agamben, Homo sacer. Agamben Giorgio. Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the Archive. Zone Books: That is caused by two issues. First of all, in the whole host of memories regarding Lagers, researchers have rarely found any accounts recorded by the persecutors. As Gitta Sereny stated: There- fore, any attempt at explicating the actions of the Nazis could be viewed as an indirect approval of what had happened, and exculpation of those who had done it.
In fact, the issue is difficult to settle completely. Tomkiewicz, P. Milencki, Warsaw , p. Sereny Gitta. Into That Darkness: The oppressor ousted from the academ- ic discourse is becoming again the subject of thorough study of sociologists, social psychologists, philosophers, literary scientists, historians, and political scientists.
Nonetheless, one of the 20th-century embodiments of evil had long remained out- side the focus of contemporary humanities. The change of the focus meant, e. Some things they said during the trials should be considered as the truth, not lies. That was sometimes the case. Another reason is the meagre number of testimonies of the culprits though not as meagre as in the case of the accounts of internees who were criminals or men with the pink triangle.
Some — like Com- mandant of Auschwitz by Rudolf Hoess — raise questions regarding their reliabil- ity. Newman, R. Erber eds. Budziszewska, A. Czarna, E. Dryll, A. Welzer, Sprawcy.
Kurowska, Warsaw , p. We instinctively remove from our memory those acts which pres- ent us in an unfavourable moral light. In communist Poland, no separate studies into the mystery of the fascist mur- derers were conducted if one excludes the propaganda press pieces. The most important achievements in the field were made by the team directed by Prof. It preceded the activities of the academic community.
Since the s, Polish camp prose released at least several important works the authors who attempted to understand the minds and motivations of the murderer in the black uniform e. It offered an image of the pathological nature of the SS officers.
Such examples were not uncommon. In an attempt to describe was had happened in Auschwitz, Krystyna Justa offered the following image: Thus, camp prose was cautious about any changes in the image of the German.
Neither did it produce any continuations in the literature devoted to Nazi Lagers as the SS officers embodied the absolute evil. Those appeared as facts questioning the Auschwitz Pandemonium.
If Auschwitz was to be the epit- ome of Nazism, it could not had included even the slightest signs of goodness. That was the prevailing conviction of the authorities and the citizens of the PRL. If one can talk about the need to maintain some taboo in Lager experience, that includes death in the gas chambers. For him — nothing more than sexual play and vulgar boasting.
On this topic vide K. Lager — literature — zones of silence 71 However, in the case of the death in the gas chambers, our knowledge is so fragmentary that any access to the past proves extremely limited. We also know about the gassing procedure, and even about the reaction of the human body to Zyklon B, from other indirect testimonies Ruszkowska included some of those in an annex to her monograph. The imperative to maintain silence regarding the death in the gas chambers has been consistently observed in Polish prose.
The rule was, it seems, only vi- olated by Tadeusz Borowski and Alexander Czerski. The character-narrator peers into the chamber: By the wall, twisted, dense piles of bodies and in the centre Naked arms and legs of the Jew wrapped aro- und him like an octopus with love, fury, and revenge. The sick were taken aside; the first fifty healthy ones were called for bathing.
In the vestibule, we were told to disrobe, and fold our clothes neatly which were to be sent for disin- fection. Then, we were told to enter the chamber naked. We did not resist, we were indifferent. You will never understand it. When the door was closed behind us, we began to bid farewell to our lives.
Some cuddled and cried not being ashamed of their fear. Others bid farewell like men, kissing each other on their unshaven cheeks. Others yet clutched their lips with only their eyes glowed feverishly. But they had something to die for: But you, man, what are you dying for?
For fascism? Then the showers hissed. Terrible screams rose suddenly in the room, but they faded just as quickly. He used the technique of suspense, gradually increasing the tension, known well from crime stories. It is tawdry. Borowski stopped in the face of the temptation to peer inside the chamber.
Instead of an account of the horror of death one could expect its caricature or something which in no way would communicate the proper meaning of the perfected killings. Surely art or historiography constructed on the basis of the mimesis category has no access to it. Art can only develop equivalents of that experience and assign pseudonyms to it, while historiography can only reach the point which is the starting point for art.
Frank Ankersmit concluded: Its pursuit of punchy exaggerated descriptions of the torment. But, in fact, on the reverse side of the problems with expressions there are the problems with understanding on the part of the reader. Ankersmit stated: In order to understand anything of it, one must engage in the endless task of seeking similarities. Thus another conflict arises. The under- standing, by utilising analogy, of the basic cognitive mechanism must fail.
The situation of researchers is not much better. According to Langer: The latter utilises non-classical description methods departing from discursive cognition to seek ethical engagement of the cognitive entity.
Krupa, Wspomnienia obozowe jako specyficzna odmiana pisarstwa histo- rycznego, Krakow , pp. The reflex to portray and thus to touch up the reality which is being described seems overwhelming. Even though the authorities of the PRL often and willingly used wartime accounts, their consent and encouragement for utilising such stories as an educational element was hindered not only regarding the nature of the published literary texts.
That was because the goal was not to answer what it was like, but what can be used from the past. The po- litical, moral, and socially normative perspectives were supposed to be points of reference, markers for the verification of the truth about the camps. Lager — literature — zones of silence 75 are — putting it plainly — different stories about the world, different strategies for expressing and experiencing it.
Instead of conclusions Instead of recapitulating, let me once more pose the question about the themes awaiting their researchers. The missing links in the study of Auschwitz include, e.
Akropolis directed by Jerzy Grotowski. In that case as well it was stripped of the noble aura. How big is that group of texts? It is difficult to determine.
Dramaty, Warsaw The most complete list of drama including foreign language drama the plots of which were located in camp reality, has been offered by Morawiec. The theme has not been studied completely. It was generally thought that by studying camp humour, one would offend the suffering and mar- tyrology of the internees, undermine the seriousness of the entire issue of extermination, and sug- gest that the extermination locations were not, in fact, the terrible torture sites and death factories they were, since one could laugh there and tell each other funny anecdotes and jokes.
The researchers agree that kitsch can only be discussed in the case of works of literature fiction. It should not be applied to autobiographical non-fictional works, non-indirect authentic accounts from the world behind the barbed wire. However, should one suspend all aesthetic judgements in the case of camp re- collections? Jagoda, S. Lager — literature — zones of silence 77 people who are in no means associated with the art of the word — always desired and necessary?
Where does the reserve of researchers and regular readers towards any at- tempts at evaluation come from? It was the concern for offending the memory of the victims. It has also been significant that the notion of kitsch is indispensably associated with the zone of pop-cultural trumpery, poor quality, and catering to low taste.
If one can apply the category of graphomania to autobiographic texts centring on other areas of human experience, then why one should not use it for camp accounts.
In fact, it does not always apply to the entire accounts, sometimes just individual shorter or longer passages. It would also be necessary to separate camp and Holocaust topics. One of the obstacles is the reception of Shoah.
Some topics developed at the borderline between two areas — those are the fragments of Holocaust literature and camp literature. There is another modifying factor: That applies to both, writers and the representatives of the ac- ademia. They are becoming increasingly popular in the studies of the Holocaust, as well as in camp writings. Apart from the dynamically de- veloping gender studies, there appear others.
The material analysis of Lager accounts and the focus on the coexistence of people and items constitute yet another more substantial area of research. For example when in one go they free the researchers from the traps of the linguistic turn and the well- known dilemmas of representation: Its factual nature is commu- nicated through the language of the items that were left after it, especially if one respects their individual characters [ Filip- kowski took priority in Polish studies devoted to Nazi KLs.
If the gen- der and feminist perspectives offer specific interpretative approaches, oral history offers sources without which any interpretation would not be possible to begin with. Lager — literature — zones of silence 79 choose precisely whom to interview and what to ask about. They record voices from outside the centre. Paul Thompson concluded: In popular culture, there occur multiple reductions of the complexity of the Holocaust to ima- ges mimicking the past, selected motifs, narrative patterns, texts instrumentally describing people and their stories as well as to simplified visions which make memory almost unrealistic or unnatural.
Alvin Rosenfeld thus described the environment in which contemporary memory of Shoah functions: Kierzkowski, [in: Antologia, E. Thompson Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History. Oxford Univer- sity Press: The so-called critical art and WWII have received many studies. It would not be an overstatement that the theme currently constitutes in pop culture the most extensive area of academic study as it transcends literature.
The literary message is not dominant within the group of Internet uses of the theme. The final matter without discussing which one cannot actually talk about the zones of silence in domestic Lager prose is communist censorship. Today, no one can offer any final judgements regarding two major issues: One cannot discuss the holistically approached issue of covering with silence and suppressing while omitting censorship files and its role in the shaping of the per- ception of Auschwitz and other camps.
For example, one of the most basic ones: Yet, there are other tasks before us: In the meantime, the story of non-Jewish non-Holocaust camp experience [ And which today is rather too difficult to listen to. The language in which they learnt to describe it is no longer understood.
Rosenfeld, Kres Holokaustu, p. It is the same task as the one with which we need to cope when we think about many other aspects of the occupation and WWII.
This time, though, those are not areas which had been covered with silence intentionally, rather which can speak only now when we possess new research tools and new historical knowledge. Agamben Giorgio, Homo sacer. Guze, Czytelnik, Warsaw Bojarska Katarzyna, Wydarzenia po Wydarzeniu.
Jewish Honor Courts: Gabriel eds. Browning R. Connell Raewyn W.. Kompisch Kathrin, Sprawczynie, trans. Langer L.
Kasprzysiak, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Krakow Ostrowska Joanna, Afterword to: Prenninger Alexander, Zapomniane ofiary: New research projects and challenges in Poland and Austria. Vienna, 26—27 September Rosenfeld H. Alvin, Kres Holokaustu, trans. Czekalska, A. Milencki, Cyklady, Warsaw Herer, PWN, Warsaw Kierzkowski in: Tkaczuk J.
Ubertowska Aleksandra, Holokaust.
Welzer Harald, Sprawcy. Kurowska, Scholar, Warsaw Lagerszpracha, Impuls, Krakow Lager — literature — zones of silence 85 Lager — literature — zones of silence Summary The article reconstructs the most important issues on the map of Polish lager prose, those that are ignored, inconvenient for readers or authors, and sometimes for both. The author of the essay also presents the zones of silence that resulted not from the threat of violation of social taboos and political prohibitions, but from the negligence of researchers.
They characterize the most important tasks faced by scholars of Polish lager prose. The grotesque — surely, but is it necessarily untrue?! Werner ed.
Proza, introduction and editing Z. How- ever, one could try to find, particularly for the purposes of reading camp literature, specifically complementary elements, even in mutually exclusive concepts. In one of the most important and earliest concepts of the grotesque in the 20th c.
Wyrzy- kowski, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Krakow , p. Groteska, op. Jennings, op. On the grotesque in Gulag literature 89 becomes hostile and alienated, subjected to the influence of Es, i.
According to the Russian formalist, the carnival sensation of the world is the true nature of the grotesque. Bolecki identified two types of such actions: Yet he carefully avoided the reefs of camp literature. Balbus ed. Brodzka, M. Puchalska, M. Semczuk, A. Sobolewska, E. The suggestion was, how- ever, directed at researchers rather than writers.
Mityk, Inne spojrze- nie. Morawiec eds. The attempts at altering the focus of the study of camp literature are surely increasingly connected with the fundamental change in the formula or even re- sulting from it of presenting the camp world, though actually the texts which are the subject of my study were created much earlier, the first ones just after WWII.
Terlecki, B. But he probably made inroads for another formula of talking about the Holocaust. Lang, B. Act and Idea in the Nazi genocide. Spiegelman, Maus. Bikont, Wydawnictwo Komiksowe, Krakow , p. Maus II. Holocaust survivor: And what for? Did people become better thanks to that? Adam Chmielewski, Teksty Drugie , issue 5, p.
One does not need to read too much into camp texts to find confirmations of the importance of play, and laughter, which accompanied the cruellest of experiences. As if you could endure otherwise. In it, he reconstructed the fortunes of the Karuzela cabaret, which operated in the ghetto of the Czech Terezin Theresienstadt.
Latawiec, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kra- kow , p. Bogusz, Wydaw- nictwo Literackie, Krakow , p. Kayser, op. Bakhtin, op. That does not mean, however, that those works lacked grotesque situations combining terrifying and comical aspects, subjected to the laws of the absurd,54 an over-abundance of which was offered by camp reality.
Skarga, op. The author of Ludzie sponiewierani achieved grotesque effects rather incidentally, against her creative intention. They resulted from her excessive care for the beau- ty of the language, and the poetics of expression redundant in the creation of the space of death. The latter of the fragments referenced above is particularly significant; in it the author, revising the beautiful humanistic tradition in the description of the horrible and absolutely dehumanised reality of Kolyma, recalled his various camp tasks.
Quite the opposite: And in that world, the binding principle was: Naglerowa often referred to mythology: Ludzie 56 sponiewierani, op.
Krakowiecki, op. Kayser op. Jennings op. Polish witnesses faced events which were not even imaginable. Krakowiecki told the story of an old Bolshevik arrested during the Great Purge, who through being beaten every night, held in detention, and being threatened was forced to plead guilty to fabricated accusations.
He stood up to it very long despite severe torture. Eventually, not only did he plead guilty, but he also created an action-espionage story: That enabled the Soviet slyedo- vatyels to develop the judgement: Works which reconstructed Gulag reality include many images closely relat- ed to the primary meaning of the term the grotesque.
There appear characters of damaged, deformed, beast-like monsters. Zapiski sowieckie, Czytelnik, Warsaw , p. Yet the words surely cannot be blamed for offering negative ethical evaluations.
He compensated the external mutilation or disfiguration with spiritual dignity. Usually, though not always. It was all obscurely funny and did not arouse our sympathy.
The description of bathing inmates is also both natu- ralist and grotesque: On the grotesque in Gulag literature 99 is croaking. It is laughing at itself, but it is also laughing at the terror it evokes.
They are sent off by an orchestra! Can anyone play in such bitterness? Their funda- mental difference is striking.
Krakowiecki op. Barbed wire! Degenerated ruffians: The same essential matter He achieved mastery in his dialogues. But also because he was probably the most afflicted by the absurdity of Soviet jurisdiction.
He presented those extremely dramatic experiences in an almost cheerful narrative, with slight irony, which he used to view both himself and his oppressors. Thus, one of the major Polish comedy writers of the first decades of the 20th c. Wittlin, op. Mandalian, poems trans. His book, when compared to other Gulag texts, seems almost saturated with those.
One of the superb instances of those was the record of an exchange at the prison library, in which when asked about the greatest Russian classics like Dostoevsky, Blok, Turgenev, and Goncharov, the librarian asked him each time to repeat the name unknown to her, only to state: The same applied to the readership of other classics, not exclud- ing the major ones: Wspomnienia kierownika biura planowania published in In the foreword to his novel, Olszewski presented its origins, which are particularly noteworthy.
From the introduction to the novel, one learns that the author used in it his personal memories, experiences, and observations, both from his time spent in the so-called Soviet freedom, and in numerous prisons and camps while building the northern railway route: Republika atomowa by Zygmunt Bohusz-Szyszko. It received an ex- ceptional compositional framing: Inventiveness which in reality means ingenious imitation of the Soviet newspeak.
The telling titles of the chapters engaging in an intertextual play with the texts which shaped the Soviet collective awareness, and which became ingrained in it are also extremely significant.
Jedu, jedu, jedu k niej, jedu k liubuszkie mojej. Drawicz ed. Olszewski perfectly depicted the special flavour of Russian, actually not only its camp varie- ty. Angrily, he comments on any deviation from the solely just convictions. Main Currents of Marxism: New York ].
Olszewski, op. The title the right. A serious one? Or is a way to keep a low profile? Tutka puts it. Pollice verso is not calculations, wishes …to walk out of the tight circle of digits, absolutely clear. The rebel, on the contrary, from his very first That would have made it appear to look to self-slaughter of step, refuses to allow anyone to touch what he is.
In Camus, these primary opposing reactions are the as opposed to vs. They may also be significant only or above all for Pondering on what title should best express my reasons for the future of the rebel himself. I was thinking of the repeating images of a crowd and solitary figures.
But why is that? Can you tell, after all? He expresses This is a man stuck in a safe, comfort-securing clockwork. Bigaj, Enthronement, oil on canvas, x cm, Bigaj, Shower, oil on canvas, x cm, Bigaj, Theatrum, oil on canvas, x cm, Camus, The Rebel, translated by A.
Bower, Hamish Hamilton Wilson, Outsider, Houghton Mifflin Kafka, The Trial, translated by D. The ones I specifically have in mind are Aleksandr out any hope. Or he does retain vistas for survival yet without Deyneka, Yuri Pimenov, Alexander Samokhvalov, Kuzma the unnecessarily consuming hope.
Dead on the outside, not Petrov-Vodkin or Constantin Vyalov. In possibly the most shocking scene, enmeshed Repin, and the unique Art Nouveau works of Mikhail Vrubel. Sometimes, the feeling that what we do is at odds with not least, Poland.
Soviet influences were later traceable in the activity of Also, resistance can be an act of unnecessary heroism. Or conversely, Guttuso; certain affinity leaps to the eye in some of the solutions a frozen man. There are some fairly obvious themes that bring and situations, which, chances are, will be akin to that of my together various oeuvres and approaches in these painting, audience.
In the name