"When Life Begins" is the English translation of the bestselling Urdu novel "Jab Zindagi Shuru when life begins abu yahya inzaar novel download free pdf. Download free pdf from inzaar website. His most famous book is ”Jab Zindagi Shuru Hogi” (English: "When Life Begins") which has been. 'When Life Begins' is the English translation of the Urdu best-selling novel called Download: epub mobi (Kindle) pdf more Online Reader.
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When Life Begins' is the English translation of the Urdu best-selling novel called ' Jab Zindagi Shuru Ho Gee'. It provides a comprehensive sketch of the world. Rahnuma eBooks Library, Free pdf and djvu eBooks downloads, When Life Begins- English Translation of Jab Zindagi Shuru Hogi Novel by Abu aracer.mobi PDF | The search for the origin of life usually involves looking to the past, and usually involves devising experiments to try and repeat those past.
Seeing why will put the embryo research debate on a more solid biological footing. Life Before Implantation Over the past few years, Utah Senator Orrin Hatch has pushed aggressively for federal funding of embryo-destructive research.
When it comes to abortion, Senator Hatch votes consistently pro-life; he believes we have a moral obligation to protect developing human beings.
According to Neaves, not until the embryo receives external, maternal signals at implantation is it able to establish the basic body plan of the human, and only then does it become a self-directing human organism.
According to Neaves, these signaling factors somehow transform what was hitherto a mere bundle of cells into a unitary organism. In reply to Hatch, Neaves, and others who make this argument, the first point to notice is that the standard embryology texts locate the beginning of the human individual at fertilization, not at implantation.
See, for example, William J. Larsen, Human Embryology, 3rd ed. Most people who point to implantation as the beginning of an individual human life — Senator Hatch is a prime example — offer not the slightest bit of evidence to support their claim, relying instead on an alleged intuition. But since such intuitions can be matched by contrary intuitions, and since the alleged intuitions of Hatch and others contradict the evidence supplied by embryological science, they have no evidential weight whatsoever.
Neaves does offer an actual argument, but it is severely flawed. He claims that at implantation maternal signaling factors transform a bundle of cells into a human organism. But there is much dispute about whether any such maternal signaling actually occurs. As Hans-Werner Denker observes, it was once assumed that in mammals, in contrast to amphibians and birds, polarity in the early embryo depends upon some external signal, since no clear indications of bilateral symmetry had been found in oocytes, zygotes, or early blastocysts.
Bilateral symmetry can already be detected in the early blastocyst and is not dependent on implantation. Gardner at Oxford, which shows that polarity exists even at the two-cell stage. Davor Solter and Takashi Hiiragi of the Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology in Freiburg dispute these results, arguing that in the early embryo prior to compaction and differentiation into inner cell mass and trophoblast external factors determine the fate of each cell, rather than an internal polarity.
Moreover — and more importantly — even if it is the case that polarity does not emerge until a maternal signal is received at implantation, that would not provide any evidence at all that such a signal transformed a bundle of cells into a unitary, multicellular human organism.
Rather, just as the lungs begin to breathe at birth only in response to certain external stimuli, so it would make sense that differentiation into the rudiments of the distinct body parts basic bilateral polarity would begin only in response to some external stimuli.
And this is exactly how such signals speculated to occur perhaps in mammalian embryos are interpreted by the embryology texts that mention them. Thus, Neaves not only treats uncertain data as definitive, but — more to the point — his claim fails to hold up even if, for the sake of argument, one grants his assumptions. The last point in reply to the claim that the human being is not generated until implantation is the most important one: there is complex and coordinated development from day 1 to day 6, much of it plainly oriented to preparing the embryo for the implantation process, as well as for processes that will occur only after that.
The proposition that the human organism does not come to be until implantation day 6 offers no explanation for this regular and ordered development. On day 3 or 4 compaction occurs, which is the process in which the cells change their shapes and align themselves closely together. And compaction is the first step toward cavitation — the process at day 4 in which an inner cavity is formed within the embryo and the embryo differentiates itself into the inner cell mass which will later develop into the body of the mature organism and the trophoblast which will later develop into the placenta, a temporary organ of the embryo, equivalent to other temporary parts of the body, like baby teeth.
At the same time, the trophoblast cells secrete an enzyme which erodes the epithelial lining of the uterus and creates an implantation site for the embryo. In order for the embryo as a whole to survive, this complex series of activities must occur in a timely, ordered sequence and with predictable regularity.
Clearly, these activities — compaction, cavitation, and implantation itself — are organized processes performed by the embryo as an organismal whole. The test of whether a group of cells constitutes a single organism is whether they form a stable body and function as parts of a whole, self-developing, adaptive unit. Compaction, cavitation, the changes occurring earlier to facilitate these activities, and implantation — all of these activities are clear cases of the cells acting in a coordinated manner for the sake of a self-developing and adaptive whole.
In other words, such activities are ordered to the survival and maturation of the whole, existing embryo. This fact shows that the unity of the blastomeres the cells of the early embryo is substantial rather than incidental; the blastomeres are integrated parts of a functional whole, not separate parts that lead to the creation of a whole. This is compelling evidence that what exists from day 1 to day 6 is not a mere aggregate of cells but a multi-cellular organism.
Of course, one might object that even if there is an organism from day 1 to day 6, perhaps it is not the same as the organism after day 6. Perhaps implantation and its concomitant events produce a substantial change, the generation of a new organism.
In reality, however, the direction of the growth between day 1 and day 6, on the one hand, and from day 6 onward, on the other hand, is the same. That is, the sequence of steps in the embryo from day 1 to day 6 is necessary and preparatory for what occurs afterward, and is a unitary trajectory of development. It is unlike, for example, the separate sequences of events undergone by the sperm and the ovum, respectively, before fertilization.
Gametes sperm and ovum are oriented to joining with each other, actions that are performed not by them as a single unit, but by the maternal and paternal organisms i.
The sperm and the ovum prior to fusing are distinct biological parts of the distinct parent organisms even though in coitus a type of organic union is effected between the male and female organisms.
The actions of the embryo from day 1 to day 6 are clearly part of a unitary development toward human maturation. None of the events occurring in the embryo could reasonably be interpreted as creating a new and distinct direction.
Implantation does not change the nature kind of being of the embryo; it is an event in the unfolding life of a whole human organism, not the initiation of an entirely new organism. Life Before Twinning Another attempt to locate the beginning of the human being after fertilization is based on the rare phenomenon of monozygotic twinning and the even rarer phenomenon of fusion.
Regular aerobic exercise is thought to promote a great increase in life expectancy as it helps preserve neurological functioning or enhance it in those who have been sedentary Foley and Gregg, Key Benefits of Exercise for Older People Staying active appears to help minimise some of the problems of ageing which include increased body fat, reduced muscular strength and flexibility, loss of bone mass, lower metabolic rate and slower reaction times Foley and Gregg, However, the benefits gained from an exercise programme depend upon the nature and amount of exercise undertaken, as will be discussed later.
It is a physical activity strategy to enhance the nation's health, whereby doctors prescribe exercise as part of treatment to help avoid heart disease, strokes and mental issues. Maintaining Well-being Exercise is postulated to prevent or slow down intellectual decline Spirduso, This is particularly the case when exercise is undertaken in groups.
It is thought that group cohesiveness exerts a positive therapeutic influence upon attendance, participation and the impact of an exercise programme upon individuals Yalom, It is believed that such group activities are beneficial in mental illness through reducing social isolation and improving self-confidence PATF, Reducing the Risk of Falls Insufficient exercise is associated with weak muscles, poor balance and gait, as well as accelerated bone loss NIH, These are key risk factors accountable for falls in elderly people.
It has been estimated that approximately half of older adults hospitalised for fall-related injuries are ultimately discharged to nursing homes Sattin et al, and so the costs of falls, to society and the health ser vice, are substantial.
It has been shown that exercise offers potential benefits in reducing the risk of falls NIH, by improving balance, strength and flexibility Province et al, ; Rikli and Edwards, Exercise has been seen to increase muscle strength and endurance Pert, ; Fiatarone et al, , and tendon strength and flexibility Pert, , and to reduce static sway Judge et al, Where these benefits of exercise are reaped, so falls may be prevented and subsequent hospitalisation avoided Shephard, The psychological benefits of exercise may also contribute to a reduction in the risk of falls in older people.
There is a significant association between falls and the use of hypnotic and antidepressant drugs Blake et al, If exercise helps to reduce depression and stress, as previously suggested, fewer drugs may be taken and falls may be less frequent.
Preserving Functional Ability As has been described, compromised exercise tolerance and functional ability in older people can increase the risk of falls. It Professional articles can also decrease the ability to get up after a fall, making individuals fearful of falling and so reluctant to mobilise.
This may contribute to a spiral of physical, functional and social decline through reducing activity, limiting social interaction and constraining activities of daily living Walker and Howland, This loss of functional ability and independence may culminate in hospitalisation or institutionalisation Tinetti et al, It can help reduce the physiological and psychological changes due to inactivity.
Ultimately exercise offers a means of retaining or restoring sufficient fitness, physically and mentally, to enable everyday tasks to be done comfortably, easily and efficiently Bortz, ; Fentem et al, Reducing the Risk of Fractures Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk of bony injury Pert, It is suggested that exercise can reduce the risk of osteoporosis Pert, , possibly even reversing the process McArdle et al, ; Dargie and Grant, This in turn may reduce the number of fractures when falls do occur.
It has been suggested that regular exercise may reduce the risk of fractures by as much as half, thereby preventing some 20, hip fractures each year Law et al, Reducing Medical Problems A loss of physical endurance may lead to the development of medical complications requiring costly healthcare.
Exercise has been shown to prevent common conditions experienced in old age, such as non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease Young and Dinan, Additionally, the benefits of regular exercise include dramatically reducing the risk of coronary heart disease, reducing blood pressure Duncan et al, , and helping to lower cholesterol levels Heath et al, It is also possible to facilitate weight control due to changes in metabolic functioning, thus also helping to reduce obesity and obesity-related disease Pert, Providing Health Cost Savings The reduced morbidity from medical conditions, accidents, falls and fractures 87 associated with exercise may result in healthcare cost savings.
Where exercise results in maintained or recovered function and reduced need for medication, further savings are possible Brechue and Pollock, It is estimated that the health benefits and consequent cost savings would become evident soon after exercise programmes are implemented for middle-aged people, and much more than offset the costs due to injury from exercise Nicholl et al, Why Promote Exercise for to year-olds?
There has been a shift of emphasis in healthcare policy away from responding to illness towards preventing the onset of illness by actively promoting lifestyle changes, including regular physical exercise Nicholl et al, If we educate adults in their 40s then there is a chance that we can prevent some of the common conditions experienced in old age, which we have described in the previous section. It is possible that an improved quality of life and a small extension of lifespan may be gained through pursuit of an endurance exercise programme started at or before the age of This suggestion is supported by research in rats where exercise before the age of days, corresponding to about 40 years in humans, was shown to have these health gains Shephard, These active men maintained the same values for blood pressure, body mass and maximum VO2 as men of It has been suggested that individuals who exercise regularly in midlife may regain functional ability more quickly following hospitalisation Bird, This additional benefit of exercise is particularly significant in the current climate of ever-shortening periods of time available for rehabilitation following acute admissions Smith et al, Psychologically there may be advantages to targeting exercise programmes at individuals in their middle years.
This article was developed from part of her final year coursework towards her degree. She edited and advised throughout the development of this work for publication. Facing physical ailments for the first time, such as the first experiences of low back pain; facing physical inadequacies -- for instance seeing their children display greater strength, speed or stamina than their parents; and watching previously healthy parents advance into old age, are all experiences which may coincide with the outset of the fifth decade.
Added to this cocktail, individuals are bombarded with images from the media where energy and youth are portrayed as glamorous and desirable. There are relatively few positive role models for the overs, and where they do exist they are usually inextricably bound up with trying to appear and behave in a youthful manner.
Consequently the fifth decade is often one in which people choose to consider their future, re-evaluating their lives, health and habits. It therefore seems ideal to promote exercise to this age group, harnessing the fear of ageing to achieve a positive end. Furthermore it has been suggested that younger people may be more enthusiastic to learn and less resistant to change of habit than elderly individuals Simpson and Mandelstam, The experiences of Chandler and Hadley substantiate such a suggestion; they found that exercise programmes for frail subjects suffered from poor recruitment and large drop-out rates.
Consequently it may be more cost-effective to channel resources into a campaign aimed at younger people, when recruitment, retention and impact upon individuals can be expected to be greater. The financial arguments for targeting the to year-old age group are also convincing.
Shephard states that an employee fitness programme improved perceived health to the point that individual workers were using about 0. In addition to the health cost savings to be made through improving the health of an ageing population, targeting exercise programmes at a pre-retirement population may also affect statistics regarding lost work.
However, long-term participation in exercise programmes is essential to obtain the associated health benefits ACSM, and ways of promoting this need to be investigated NIH, It has been postulated that images of morbidity and mortality perceived in the fifth decade may contribute to exercise uptake and adherence, but these alone may not be enough. The latter point was also emphasised by Thomas who believed that interaction with a healthcare professional helped increase compliance levels by providing a realistic and enthusiastic role model.
What Type of Exercise? It has been recommended that the emphasis for a sedentary population should be upon developing the habit of regular physical activity ACSM, However, the proposal from The Health of the Nation DoH, and recent research Riddoch et al, ; PATF, is to encourage people to build up to taking 30 minutes of moderate activity a day, five days a week. The intensity of exercise prescribed Professional articles should be dictated by the person participating.
An initial stress test can be used to ascertain the level of exercise a client can safely undertake Finlayson, ; Thomas, However, many authors believe it is preferable to use a lower exercise intensity Thomas, ; Williams, ; ACSM, This is because higher intensities present a greater risk of musculoskeletal injury, can cause patients discomfort and, in some, may carry a greater cardiovascular risk Williams, Moreover, a gentle exercise programme has been seen to be an important factor in maintaining adherence levels Epstein et al, To achieve all-round fitness, strength training with resisted exercise should also be considered Finlayson, Circuit training may be advantageous as it enables variety in modes of exercise, while exercising most large muscle groups Finlayson, An exercise programme which increases muscle strength is correlated with improved function and independence Verdery, Recent research has shown that intervention which uses balancing exercises, strength training and low impact aerobic exercises appears to be the most promising at reducing the risk of falls NIH, However, there is also some evidence to suggest that short bursts of high intensity activity such as brisk walking or stair climbing can be equally beneficial, provided they are repeated several times a day PATF, ; Shephard, ; Fletcher et al, Indeed, Kerr suggests that partaking in physical activity which already forms part of normal daily life, such as walking to the next bus stop or using the stairs, provides an individualised approach requiring less of a major change in behaviour and is therefore more likely to be maintained over time.
Paley states that improvements in aerobic capacity could be achieved by simple brisk walking programmes because walking can improve cardiovascular fitness, lower extremity strength and joint mobility Walker and Howland, Worcester et al , who prescribed twice weekly formal exercises with daily walking on the remaining days, also support this.
A variety of exercise is also a crucial aspect to staying fit, as it helps reduce the monotony of exercise, while increasing the 89 number of muscle groups being worked.
Familiarity with a variety of exercises is also important when illness or injury interfere with exercise participation. Exercising may then be sustained by substituting the usual activity for another familiar one, for example swimming instead of running when recovering from running injuries Buchner and Wagner, While we have stated that the long-term cost savings associated with exercise far outweigh the costs of sports-related injuries which might be sustained, it still remains important that this group of people be educated to warm-up and cool-down correctly when exercising to reduce the risk of sports-related injury.
Overcoming Barriers to Exercise Some of the personal or intrinsic barriers to exercise were identified earlier and it was indicated that professionals might contribute significantly in enabling individuals to overcome these.
If success is to be achieved in the long term, however, multiple levels of intervention are required.
These interventions need to be organisational, environmental and societal as well as personal PATF, ; Robison and Rogers, ; Yoshida et al, It is important to help overcome barriers, which include ageism and views about what is appropriate activity for later life. However, it must be acknowledged from the start that even if all these problems can be overcome no campaign will achieve unified attendance and satisfy all participants Riddoch et al, Television can be used to promote exercises through commercials and editorial and dedicated programmes.
Central government finance to support community schemes and fitness awards for local communities or districts. A structured exercise programme for independent performance should be defined at initial intrerview, with follow-up dates, group classes, ideas of how to exercise at home, community walks, cycle rides, local dances, etc.
Evaluation of these and other strategies is essential before it is possible to identify the most successful and cost-effective means of promoting exercise and adherence to exercise in the long term. A cohort study is also needed to ensure that exercise uptake will be maintained in people reaching their 50s and 60s after an exercise promotional and educational campaign in their 40s to 50s.
Are Physiotherapists Most Appropriate? We have identified that professional involvement in exercise schemes may improve adherence to exercise. Physiotherapists recognise the physical and psychological benefits of exercise and are well versed in the art of motivating people.