From the author of the national bestseller F in Exams comes a brand new compendium of hilarious and inventive wrong test answers and homework hiccups. F for Effort!: More of the Very Best Totally Wrong Test F for Effort! by Kamens Richard Benson, , download free ebooks, Download free. PDF. NPR coverage of F for Effort!: More of the Very Best Totally Wrong Test Answers by Richard Benson. News, author interviews, critics' picks and more.
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From the author of the national bestseller F in Exams comes a brand new compendium F for Effort and millions of other books are available for site Kindle. F for Effort From the author of the national bestseller F in Exams comes a brand new compendium of hilarious and inventive wrong test answers and homework. F For Effort!: More of the Very Best Totally Wrong Test Answers. Chronicle Books, The following are a few snapshots of my favorites.
Why did the traditional Mariner kill the albatross? In what situations does the fourth act of Hamlet start? Who used to be the Hunchback of Notre Dame? What did Paul Revere say on the finish of his well-known journey?
Describe an immense social move from the 20th century and its results. What hemisphere do you reside in? Who signed the Magna Carta? Enumerate them. Cite 3 variations among the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. What used to be the reason for the economic Revolution? What used to be the Age of Pericles?
What made the tower of Pisa lean? In what areas is Buddhism basically practiced? What revolutions preceded the French Revolution? What legislation used to be universal to all the Colonies? On what grounds was once Aaron Burr attempted for treason? Figure 2 illustrates how we body center. Therefore, our Shape model modifies a particular calculate vdy and vdz, the contributions of the Vertical parameter keypoint by moving it along the direction that passes through the ver to a particular keypoint.
We use the Reach Space parameter rs to calculate the amount by which the keypoint is moved toward or away from the center of mass. This Reach Space modifier is considered after the keypoint has been modified according to its Horizontal, Vertical and Sagittal door plane a parameters. Initially, we tried to deduce movement characteristics from Figure 2: A Keypoint Modified by theVertical Parameter motion capture data.
Analysis of the motion capture data led to only the most obvious conclusions; i. The The Effort settings determine which interpolation space is used.
Free Effort arose from several factors. Our empirical studies show that drive to respond to the physical forces in nature.
Thus, Effort is Indirect movements tend to be driven by the elbow, and thus use embodied in the whole person and manifested in all body parts, interpolation in elbow position space. Furthermore, numerous other movements such as visual We separate timing control from trajectory definition by using a attention, changes in muscular tension, facial expressions, and variation of the double interpolant method introduced by Steketee breath patterns are not adequately captured by current motion and Badler .
The interpolating splines that define the capture technology. As a result, we turned to other methods for trajectory described in the preceding section compute values deducing the low-level movement parameters and corresponding between keypoints using an interpolation parameter s that varies settings for Effort. Visual analysis of the motion . Let the trajectory be defined by some function P s,i. We capture data played an important role in extracting other now need a method of translating frame numbers into s and i.
For in-between frames, we define a influence of Effort on arm movements.
Let prev equal the frame number of the from the literature [7,17,26,28], application of traditional previous keypoint, next equal the frame number of the next animation principles [25,35], and much experimentation with keypoint, and curr equal the current frame number.
Then, feedback from a CMA. Then, we show how these parameters are set based on the settings for the Effort parameters. For each in-between frame, we flourishes that add to the expressiveness of the movement. Our parameterized frame number-to-time function Q assumes every movement from one Goal keypoint to the next starts and For end-effector interpolation, we use the end-effector position ends at rest.
Also, every movement has a constant acceleration a and swivel angle stored for each keypoint. We define an until time ti, followed by a constant deceleration. We introduce interpolating spline between the positions at keypoints using the velocities v0 at time t0 and v1 at time t1 to achieve the traditional tension parameter to determine the curvature of the path. We also animation effects of anticipation and overshoot .
For joint angle interpolation, we compute and store the This model gives us the following velocity function Figure 3 : shoulder and elbow rotations at keypoints. Figure 3: Velocity Function 4.
For example, the where the movement changes from accelerating to decelerating. A default interpolation space is set to elbow position for Indirect, value of 0. A value greater joint angle for Free, and end-effector for the other Effort than 0. The default tension of the path curvature Tval is set to value less than 0. The start v0 and Elements, we generated the range between opposing Effort end v1 velocities2 default to 0.
Increasing v0 generates Elements by interpolating continuous variables and using the movements with anticipation, where the hand pulls back before nearest value for discrete variables such as the interpolation space. Decreasing v1 We note that these may lead to discontinuities in the animation if generates movements with overshoot, such as in Free movements Space, Weight, or Flow cross zero when they are phrased across where an indulgence in flow causes one to swing out past a target the keyframes.
In , we show that such discontinuities occur before hitting it. We set t0 to 0. The magnitude of an Effort Element is used to weight its contribution for a parameter setting. If more 4. Several expressiveness of the movements.
These are listed below: parameters undergo minor adjustments when combining Effort Elements from different motion factors. The wbmag Finally, we express our Effort model as a set of equations.
Let the parameter is a multiplier that represents the magnitude of the variables ind, dir, lgt, str, sus, sud, fre, and bnd represent the wrist bend. If the wbmag is set for a flexed wrist, the wrist bend magnitudes for Indirect, Direct, Light, Strong, Sustained, Sudden, is set to 0. Otherwise, the wrist bend Free, and Bound, respectively. Each of these variables is in [0,1]. We modify the angles in the key pose by adding the weighted contribution of all the dimensions that affect the 4.
For instance, if the clavicle The underlying key poses of the torso involve, in fact, the neck rotation about the z-axis is represented by the variable joint, the spine, the pelvis and the two clavicle joints. A key pose consists of angles as follows: angles for the neck, the pelvis, and the clavicles, in addition to the configuration of the spine . In the opposing attitudes towards the Sagittal dimension. We based our 5. EXAMPLES To demonstrate the power of our approach to gesture we have Shape to body part associations on the suitability of each body created a series of animations shown on the accompanying video.
The first series of directions.
Thus, we associate the upward-downward direction animations are all generated from the same set of key poses and with the neck and the spine; the sideward direction with the try to mimic an actor during an actual performance. We vary the clavicles, and the forward-backward direction with the pelvis.
By forward-backward component as the movement becomes planar, suppressing its Shape parameters, we also show the important role affect mostly the angles of the clavicles but also slightly alter that the torso plays in gesture and in the depiction of a convincing pelvis rotations.
Changes in the Vertical dimension, which are character. For each opposing attitude associated with the above dimensions Spreading, Enclosing, Rising, Sinking, Advancing, and 6. In order to further assess the advantages of using expect to find connections between emotions and personality and Effort and Shape parameters from the perspective of user our high-level parameters and so be able to synthesize movements interaction, formal methods of evaluation of our approach should that reflect these inner states.
We did a preliminary evaluation of the Effort Elements of 7. Using a stylized character with head, arms, and animation that tries to close the gap between characters animated hands, we created a minute video of randomly selected Effort by the use of manual techniques and characters animated Elements.
In the first part of the tape, Effort gestures with 16 procedurally. This approach goes beyond the realm of two-keypoint and 16 five-keypoints were paired with a neutral no psychology of gestures and linguistic-based approaches by Effort Element animation. The second part of the tape consisted exploring the domain of movement observation. This approach of 30 long 5 keypoint animations with various Effort uncovers the movement qualities, which can be combined combinations.
The tape was given to 3 CMAs and the project together to reveal different manners, inner states, personalities and consultant CMA.
They were asked to view it once to get a feeling emotions. The EMOTE approach to gesture proposes a for the presentation and then a second time while marking a computational model of the Effort and Shape components of coding sheet.
They were asked to mark the primary overall Effort Laban Movement Analysis and associates with each one of their Element s they observed as present -1 or 1 or neutral 0.
The first row indicates the movements. The first is the ability to phrase Effort marked neutral when we were trying to display neutrality along a and Shape parameters across a set of movements. We believe that given motion factor. Since range. The low but significant percentage intentions, motivations, and mood. Furthermore, EMOTE the animation segments on our video showed combinations of the reflects our belief that, even if a character moves its arms with Effort Elements — thus, a more prominent Effort may have masked appropriate gestures, it will lack conviction and naturalness if the other displayed Effort Elements.
If the empirical One consequence of this experiment for us was to increase the principles of movement science hold up when transformed into maximum movement rate for the limbs. For example, the Sudden computer code implementations, we should be able to animate movements did not appear fast enough to trained observers.
Also, engaging, committed, expressive, and believable characters the Shape elements were not included in this experiment. Note consistently and automatically.
Janis Pforsich courante juno. She played a key role in the development of our Effort with refinements to the Effort Elements and the incorporation of and Shape model, was an enthusiastic teacher of movement the torso and Shape components. We are very grateful for her generous Neutral This research is partially supported by U. Air Opposite 0. Support for Monica Costa by the National Scientific animated and characters animated by procedures establishes a new and Technological Development Council CNpq of Brazil is also layer in the motion control process in which expressiveness is gratefully acknowledged.
We expect that this layer of control will give rise to yet another layer, where characters controlled by natural language commands show 9. Emotion from motion. In different performances according to adverbs that convey manner. Davis, W. These adverbs should be automatically mapped into Effort and Society, May Light and slightly Sustained Effort portrayed during arm  Badler, N. A computational alternative to effort notation. In Gray, movements and a little Retreating Shape displayed by the torso; J.
Furthermore, we Trends.
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