Cengel Cimbala Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals Applications 1st text sol PDF. Rey El-Shaarawy. aracer.mobi 11/23/04 AM Page i FLUID. Fluid mechanics: fundamentals and applications / Yunus A. Çengel, John M. Cimbala. John M. Cimbala is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at The Penn- with PDF files by chapter, all text chapters and appendices as downloadable. Solutions Manual for. Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. Third Edition. Yunus A. Çengel & John M. Cimbala. McGraw-Hill, CHAPTER 1.
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Discussion The man feels like he is six times heavier than normal. You get a similar feeling when riding an elevator to the top of a tall building, although to a much lesser extent. The acceleration of the rock is to be determined.
The entire EES solution is to be printed out, including the numerical results with proper units. Units are in square brackets.
The percent reduction in the weight of an airplane cruising at 13, m is to be determined. Properties The gravitational acceleration g is 9. Analysis Weight is proportional to the gravitational acceleration g, and thus the percent reduction in weight is equivalent to the percent reduction in the gravitational acceleration, which is determined from g 9. Sorry, but flying in an airplane is not a good way to lose weight.
The best way to lose weight is to carefully control your diet, and to exercise. Analysis Accuracy refers to the closeness of the measured or calculated value to the true value whereas precision represents the number of significant digits or the closeness of different measurements of the same quantity to each other.
A measurement or calculation can be very precise without being very accurate, and vice-versa. When measuring the boiling temperature of pure water at standard atmospheric conditions, for example, a temperature measurement of Discussion Accuracy and precision are often confused; both are important for quality engineering measurements.
Analysis The experimental approach testing and taking measurements has the advantage of dealing with the actual physical system, and getting a physical value within the limits of experimental error. However, this approach is expensive, time consuming, and often impractical.
The analytical approach analysis or calculations has the advantage that it is fast and inexpensive, but the results obtained are subject to the accuracy of the assumptions and idealizations made in the analysis. Discussion Most engineering designs require both analytical and experimental components, and both are important. Analysis Modeling makes it possible to predict the course of an event before it actually occurs, or to study various aspects of an event mathematically without actually running expensive and time-consuming experiments.
When preparing a mathematical model, all the variables that affect the phenomena are identified, reasonable assumptions and approximations are made, and the interdependence of these variables are studied.
The relevant physical laws and principles are invoked, and the problem is formulated mathematically. Finally, the problem is solved using an appropriate approach, and the results are interpreted. Discussion In most cases of actual engineering design, the results are verified by experiment usually by building a prototype. CFD is also being used more and more in the design process.
Analysis The right choice between a crude and complex model is usually the simplest model that yields adequate results.
Preparing very accurate but complex models is not necessarily a better choice since such models are not much use to an analyst if they are very difficult and time consuming to solve. At a minimum, the model should reflect the essential features of the physical problem it represents. Discussion Cost is always an issue in engineering design, and adequate is often determined by cost.
In natural flow. The flow of liquids in a pipe is called open-channel flow if the pipe is partially filled with the liquid and there is a free surface. We are also to discuss whether wind-driven flows are forced or natural. The flow caused by winds is natural flow for the earth. Discussion As we shall see in later chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts Introduction.
A flow in which density varies significantly is called compressible flow. If Ma is less than about 0. Discussion There is no such thing as an inviscid fluid. Discussion It turns out that the Mach number is the critical parameter to determine whether the flow of a gas can be approximated as an incompressible flow.
The flow in a pipe or duct is internal flow if the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. The flow of compressible fluid such as air does not necessarily need to be treated as compressible since the density of a compressible fluid may still remain nearly constant during flow — especially flow at low speeds.
Analysis A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. Discussion The opposite of steady flow is unsteady flow. Analysis Stress is defined as force per unit area. The region of flow in which the velocity gradients are significant and frictional effects are important is called the boundary layer. Discussion the pressure. Analysis A process is said to be steady if it involves no changes with time anywhere within the system or at the system boundaries.
Discussion Some authors like to define closed systems and open systems. This has been a source of confusion for students for many years. The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings.
The velocity then varies from zero at the surface to the freestream value sufficiently far from the surface. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary.
In a fluid at rest. Discussion As we shall see later. Fluids in motion may have additional normal stresses. Analysis The classical approach is a macroscopic approach. Discussion The classical approach is easier and much more common in fluid flow analysis. The development of a boundary layer is caused by the no-slip condition. Analysis When a fluid stream encounters a solid surface that is at rest. The normal component of a force acting on a surface per unit area is called the normal stress.
Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts C Solution We are to discuss when a system is considered closed or open. If there is zero acceleration. A closed system also known as a control mass or simply a system consists of a fixed amount of mass.
There is no acceleration. It is not proper to say that one kg-mass is equal to one kg-force since the two units have different C Solution Analysis We are to calculate the net force on a car cruising at constant velocity. Analysis Systems may be considered to be closed or open.
An open system. In other words. Discussion It is not proper to say that one lbm is equal to one lbf since the two units have different dimensions. Discussion In thermodynamics. Analysis Pound-mass lbm is the mass unit in English system whereas pound-force lbf is the force unit in the English system. One kg-force is the force required to accelerate a 1-kg mass by 9.
Discussion dimensions. Analysis The unit kilogram kg is the mass unit in the SI system. One pound-force is the force required to accelerate a mass of The density of water is constant throughout. Discussion Note the unity conversion factor in the above equation.
Assumptions Properties Analysis The interior dimensions of a room are given.
Considering that the mass of an average man is about 70 to 90 kg. The weight of the combined system is to be determined. The mass and weight of the air in the room are to be The density of air is constant throughout the room. The net upward force acting on a man in the aircraft is to be From Newton's second law.
The acceleration of the rock is to be determined. Discussion The man feels like he is six times heavier than normal. You get a similar feeling when riding an elevator to the top of a tall building.
Which scale would you consider to be more accurate? It is to be determined how much he weighs on the spring and beam scales on the moon. Analysis a A spring scale measures weight. The beam scale reads what it reads on earth. Units are in square brackets. The best way to lose weight is to carefully control your diet. The entire EES solution is to be printed out. The percent reduction in the weight of an airplane cruising at Analysis Weight is proportional to the gravitational acceleration g.
Properties The gravitational acceleration g is 9. The analytical approach analysis or calculations has the advantage that it is fast and inexpensive.
Discussion Most engineering designs require both analytical and experimental components. Analysis The experimental approach testing and taking measurements has the advantage of dealing with the actual physical system.
When measuring the boiling temperature of pure water at standard atmospheric conditions. Discussion Cost is always an issue in engineering design. CFD is also being used more and more in the design process. Analysis The right choice between a crude and complex model is usually the simplest model that yields adequate results.
Analysis Accuracy refers to the closeness of the measured or calculated value to the true value whereas precision represents the number of significant digits or the closeness of different measurements of the same quantity to each other.