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Lesson 2: Your First XML Document .. has a pre-defined "head" and "body" type structure. . First, we'll create a folder to keep all of our XML stuff organized. Let's begin by analyzing the first level of XML: how it contains and manages . it incorrectly, leaving you scratching your head wondering where you went wrong. HTML. The entire page. HEAD. Heading information, such as the page title . example, unlike HTML, every XML element must have both a start-tag and an.

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Head First Xml Pdf

„XML is the cure for your data exchange, information integration, data pdf">. A . Elements may have attributes (in the start tag) that have a name and a value, e.g. tion (My favorite reader comment about the first edition was, “It would seem head>.. A Pink Triangle, Listing from the XML Bible. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is a text-based markup If the document contains XML declaration, then it strictly needs to be the first.

And all the code used in the book is available to customers in a downloadalbe archive. As always, you can download this excerpt as a PDF if you prefer. Who here has heard of XML? Okay, just about everybody. So, what is XML? A significant portion of the group leans forward eagerly, wanting to learn more. The others either roll their eyes in anticipation of hype and half-formed theories, or cringe in fear of a long, dry history of markup languages. XML is extensible. It lets you define your own tags, the order in which they occur, and how they should be processed or displayed. Another way to think about extensibility is to consider that XML allows all of us to extend our notion of what a document is: The most recognizable feature of XML is its tags, or elements to be more accurate. However, XML allows you to define your own set of tags. XML is a meta-language:

It defines the final look of a document. Prince understands layout by means of CSS, cascading style sheets. In the following chapters we shall go through the main points when preparing the layout of a page. It mainly follows the general steps of layout for web pages: starting from Text formatting and Paragraph formatting , via the Box Model , until Tables , Lists , Columns , Floats , Flex Layout , and Footnotes. Text formatting Text can be styled with CSS by defining font styles or text layout styles.

After choosing an appropriate typeface for your text with the font-family property see Fonts , you can assign it different sizes with the font-size property.

Next up you should decide whether to give it some color. The default text color for a page is defined in the body selector, but each selector can have its own color. All of these properties can also be set with the shorthand property font. It is also possible to style the vertical alignment of text in an inline box with the vertical-align property. The value baseline is the default, sub and super align the baseline of the element with the subscript-baseline or superscript-baseline of its parent respectively.

The text-top and text-bottom values align the top of the element with the top or bottom of the parent's font, while middle aligns the middle of the element with the baseline plus half the x-height of the parent. In order to determine how compact the text should be displayed, the letter-spacing can be used. Alternatively, the property font-stretch might be used, but note that it does not change the geometry of any arbitrary font by stretching or shrinking it - instead, it merely instructs Prince to choose the most appropriate face of the font, if the selected font offers several ones.

Also note that this property is not supported for system fonts on Windows. In a similar fashion, the property word-spacing can be used to determine the distance between words.

The directionality of the text is controlled through the Writing Mode. Paragraph formatting Now that you have decided on the basic properties of the text, you can turn your attention to styling the paragraphs.

The text-align property is used to control how text is aligned within its containing box, while the text-indent property determines the indentation of the first line of text in the element. If the text-align property has a value of left, right or center, the text will be aligned to the left, right or center respectively. The justify value instructs Prince to justify text. It is not uncommon, in printed texts, to align text based on whether the text appears on a left or right page.

To support this, two new keywords are added to the text-align property: inside is the same as 'left' on right pages and 'right' on left pages, and outside is the same as 'right' on left pages and 'left' on right pages. Prince adds the property prince-text-justify to define how to treat justified text for CJK languages. The value prince-cjk allows space to be inserted between CJK characters when justifying even if there aren't any space characters.

The last line of an element can receive its own alignment style with the text-align-last property. It takes the same values as text-align. The selector ::first-letter is useful for this purpose. In the following example we are selecting the first letter of the first paragraph, which gets styled much bigger than the normal text, and gets floated to the left.

The normal text is wrapping around this first large letter. The property line-height can be used to determine the height of text lines. The property line-stacking-strategy allows to choose whether individual lines should have their height determined based on their content, or whether all lines in a paragraph should have the same height, or a compromise where their heights are determined by their content and then rounded up to a multiple of the paragraph line height.

In order to lay out text in a well-balanced way, it might at times be necessary to hyphenate some words - to enable hyphenation, the hyphens property is used.

For details please refer to the section on Hyphenation. Prince also allows for line-breaking in certain situations even in the absence of whitespace - for example, after slashes in long URLs. This behavior can be disabled with the prince-linebreak-magic property for situations in which more precise control over line-breaking is preferred.

The property overflow-wrap controls wrapping behavior of last resort: whether it is better for a word to overflow its container, or to be broken at an arbitrary point subject to white-space , and not splitting within a grapheme cluster , without adding a hyphen.

Prince does not support the value break-word of the property word-break to achieve a similar effect. Use the value break-all of word-break , or the property overflow-wrap with the value break-word instead.

Writing Mode A writing mode describes the directionality of a script, i. To control the rendering of the text, a couple of CSS properties can be used: the direction property defines the inline direction of the script, that is left-to-right like e. Latin or Indic scripts or right-to-left like e. Arabic and Hebrew scripts. The writing-mode property, on the other hand, describes the block direction of the script, namely whether the text should be laid out horizontally, top-to-bottom like e.

Head first xml pdf

Latin or Arabic scripts , or vertically, right-to-left like e. Chinese scripts. The default value is horizontal-tb, which means horizontal, top-to-bottom. Prince sets the PDF direction based on the direction and writing mode of the document root element to support right-to-left books. Changing the writing mode of a document, that is, the inline or block direction, not only changes the direction of the script, but also affects several other aspects of the printed document.

The page selector pseudo-classes :recto and :verso see Selecting pages are relative to the direction of the script. In a left-to-right script, :recto is the right-hand side of a spread, and :verso is the left-hand side, while in a right-to-left script these values are inverted: :recto defines the left-hand side of a spread, and :verso defines the right-hand side.

See also Selecting pages. Columns change their orientation when the writing mode is changed - writing-mode vertical-rl arranges the columns horizontally, top-to-bottom. This can be used to rotate content - see Printing wide content sideways and Rotating content in table cells. Their margin , border , padding and background can all be styled.

Margin At the very outside of the box are the margins. Each margin's size can be set individualy with the properties margin-top , margin-bottom , margin-left and margin-right , or you can use the shorthand property margin to specify all four margins together. The syntax of the shorthand property is: margin : top right bottom left If there are only: three values: then the left margin is set equal to the right margin; two values: then the left margin is set equal to the right margin, and the bottom margin is set equal to the top margin; one value: then all margins are made equal.

Prince expands the margin properties with margin-inside and margin-outside , defining the margin respectively on the inside or outside of a spread: inside is on the right when used on a left-facing page, and on left on a right-facing page; outside is on the left when used on a left-facing page, and on the right on a right-facing page. Always keep in mind that margin-top and margin-bottom of blocks are combined i.

The notable exception is the behavior of margins in Flex Layout. Border The border of a box can be styled with several border properties. The prince-tooltip property can be used to create a tooltip when hovering an element in the PDF file.

The keyword none actually "suppresses" tooltips, which means that it will not show any tooltip for objects underneath the selected element, that might have a tooltip. An empty string, or some content that evaluates to an empty string, is treated equivalent to none , rather than showing an empty tooltip. This CSS at-rule descriptor can be used to specify the size of the trim area of the page when crop marks are enabled.

At the time of writing, prince-wrap-inside only affects justified text. This property determines the right offset for positioned elements ie. This CSS at-rule descriptor, used with the page at-rule, defines the size and orientation of the page. Please see also the prince-rotate-body property to control the orientation of selected pages. This CSS at-rule descriptor, used with the font-face at-rule, specifies the resource containing font data.

The local function searches for locally installed system fonts, while prince-lookup will also find fonts defined by other font-face rules. This property can be used to create a named string, which may then be referenced from the content property to create generated content.

Typically this is achieved with the content function, which retrieves the text of the selected element. But any other means of generating content, as described in the Generated Content Functions section, are available.

See also Page regions for more details. The stroke-dasharray property only applies to SVG elements. It takes a comma or whitespace separated list of lengths or percentages as argument.

The property prince-table-column-span can be used as an alias. This property determines whether a table uses automatic table layout or fixed table layout.

The property prince-table-row-span can be used as an alias. An integer defines number of spaces in a tab, a length represents the width of a tab. The text-decoration property is a shorthand for setting the following CSS properties:. This property determines the indentation of the first line of text in the element. If the hanging keyword is added after the length, a hanging indent will be created by applying the indentation to every line of text but the first.

The text-line-through property is a shorthand for setting the following CSS properties:. The text-overline property is a shorthand for setting the following CSS properties:. The text-underline property is a shorthand for setting the following CSS properties:.

This property determines the top offset for positioned elements ie. Please note that the function translate3d is supported if the Z third coordinate is zero, thus making it equivalent to the 2D translate. Also note that this property currently does not affect SVG elements - they need to use their own transform attribute instead see Transformations.

If only one term is given, then the second is assumed to be center. In particular, if only a percentage or length is given, then it is assumed to be the horizontal coordinate. Either one or two coordinates can be given, and if both values are given as keywords, order doesn't matter; but if two coordinates are given and either coordinate is a length or percentage, then the horizontal component must come first: This CSS at-rule descriptor, used with the font-face at-rule, defines the set of Unicode codepoints that may be supported by the font face for which it is declared.

The union of these ranges defines the set of codepoints that serves as a hint for user agents when deciding whether or not to download a font resource needed for the test content of a particular page.

Unlike using display: If a paragraph is split over two pages or columns, this property determines the minimum number of lines that must be left at the top of the second page or column. The percentage value only applies to Prince for Books , and indicates that one widow line is accepted, as long as the line width is at least the given percentage value of the available page width, to avoid the worst case of having a widow line that is only one or two words long.

For more details see Fractional Widows. Prince does not support the value break-word. Use the value break-all or the property overflow-wrap with the value break-word instead. Below are the CSS selectors supported by Prince. Case-sensitivity of the attributes and values depends on the document language. To match values case-insensitively, the attribute selector may contain the identifier i before the closing bracket.

Default namespaces do not apply to attributes. Therefore a namespace ns that has been previously declared should be added before the namespace separator preceding the attribute name.

Below are all of the media queries supported by Prince. For their precise definition please refer to the Media Queries Level 4 specification. Media queries test how Prince is configured, rather than how the document is styled.

The configuration of Prince often depends on the command-line arguments passed to it. A Media Query is a method of testing certain aspects of the user agent or device that the document is being displayed in.

The syntax consists of an optional media query modifier, an optional media type, and zero or more media features. A media type is a category of user-agent devices on which a document may be displayed. A more fine-grained way of targeting a specific device's exclusive aspects might be to use media features instead, or in addition. Prince defaults to the media type print. However, note that the command-line option --media can be used to set a media type that media queries can test against.

This can be convenient if the person running Prince knows in advance whether the PDF will be printed or viewed on the screen, such as might be the case for slideshows, or in case one might prefer the author's idea of what screen means.

A media feature is a more fine-grained way of targeting a specific user-agent. Media features use the same syntax as CSS properties. However, there are some differences between the two:. Multiple media features may be combined into a media condition using full boolean algebra not , and , or. In this section you find the documentation for the supported CSS functional expressions.

For additional details, make sure to also check the linked properties that use the functions. Please note that this is very non-portable, as glyph indices are specific to individual font versions.

But it is a possible escape hatch for people who need a specific glyph and don't have any other way of accessing it by Unicode character or OpenType substitution. Usually, authors should prefer to use named OpenType features, using the prince-opentype value of the font-variant property, which is more likely to work when changing font. The following at-rules have to appear at the beginning of the CSS document, and exactly in this order:. After the initial at-rules, the following at-rules can appear also in nested form in the CSS document:.

The following table shows supported JavaScript objects, methods and properties. For more details, see also JavaScript in Prince. CSS has a similar mechanism to include special characters. This can be convenient when you wish to include characters such as smart quotes, symbols or mathematical operators that do not exist in the character encoding that you are using for your XML documents such as ASCII or ISO "Latin-1" , or when you want to insert some of these characters into the final layout by means of CSS.

A typical usecase for character entities in CSS is the prince-text-replace property, which replaces a certain character string with another one. Command-line Reference Prince may be called from the command-line with the following arguments: Initial value stretch Applies to multi-line flex containers Inherited no.

Initial value stretch Applies to flex containers Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to flex items Inherited no. Initial value Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value transparent Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value scroll Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value border-box Applies to all elements Inherited no.

Initial value none Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value normal Applies to background image elements Inherited yes. Initial value padding-box Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value top left Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value repeat Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value auto auto Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value baseline Applies to inline elements Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to page at-rule Inherited.

Initial value content Applies to all elements Inherited no.

XML: Visual QuickStart Guide

Initial value open Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value self Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value CurrentColor Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value medium Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value normal Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value separate Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value 0 Applies to all elements Inherited no.

Initial value auto Applies to positioned elements Inherited no. Initial value clone Applies to block elements and tables Inherited no. Initial value content-box Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to block-level elements in the normal flow of the root element Inherited no. Initial value first Applies to table elements Inherited yes. Initial value top Applies to table-caption elements Inherited yes.

Initial value none Applies to block-level elements Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to absolutely positioned elements Inherited no. Initial value black Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value auto Applies to multicol elements Inherited no. Initial value 1 Applies to non-replaced block-level elements except table elements , table cells, and inline-block elements Inherited no. Initial value balance Applies to multicol elements Inherited no. Initial value normal Applies to multicol elements Inherited no.

Initial value none Applies to multicol elements Inherited no. Initial value CurrentColor Applies to multicol elements Inherited no.

Initial value medium Applies to multicol elements Inherited no. Initial value 1 Applies to in-flow block-level elements Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to non-replaced block-level elements except table elements , table cells, and inline-block elements Inherited no.

Initial value normal Applies to all elements, tree-abiding pseudo-elements, and page regions Inherited no. Initial value ltr Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value inline Applies to all elements Inherited no.

Initial value show Applies to table-cell elements Inherited yes. Initial value 1 0 auto Applies to flex items Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to flex containers Inherited no. Initial value row Applies to flex containers Inherited no.

Initial value 0 Applies to flex items Inherited no. Initial value 1 Applies to flex items Inherited no. Initial value nowrap Applies to flex containers Inherited no. Initial value row nowrap Applies to flex containers Inherited no.

Initial value 12pt serif Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value serif Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Georgia, "Times New Roman", serif. Initial value 12pt Applies to all elements Inherited yes.

Initial value normal Applies to all elements Inherited yes. SpecialFont; font-variant: Initial value block Applies to footnote elements Inherited no. Initial value outside Applies to footnote elements Inherited yes.

Initial value auto Applies to all elements except non-replaced inline elements, table columns, and column groups Inherited no. Initial value manual Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value none Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value 1 Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value auto Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value no-limit Applies to all elements Inherited yes.

Initial value normal Applies to image elements Inherited yes. Initial value flex-start Applies to flex containers Inherited no. Initial value inline-line-height Applies to block-level elements Inherited yes. Initial value outside disc Applies to list items Inherited yes. Initial value none Applies to list items Inherited yes.

Head first xml pdf – Konitono

Initial value outside Applies to list items Inherited yes. Initial value disc Applies to list items Inherited yes. Initial value 0 Applies to all elements, except elements with table display types other than table-caption, table and inline-table Inherited no.

Initial value auto Applies to all elements, except elements with table display types other than table-caption, table and inline-table Inherited no.

Initial value none Applies to page at-rule Inherited. Initial value none Applies to all elements but non-replaced inline elements, table columns, and column groups Inherited no.

Initial value none Applies to all elements but non-replaced inline elements, table rows, and row groups Inherited no. Initial value 0 Applies to all elements but non-replaced inline elements, table columns, and column groups Inherited no. Initial value 0 Applies to all elements but non-replaced inline elements, table rows, and row groups Inherited no.

Initial value 1 Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value 0 Applies to flex items and absolutely-positioned children of flex containers Inherited no. Initial value 1 Applies to block container elements Inherited yes.

Initial value visible Applies to non-replaced block-level elements and non-replaced inline-block elements Inherited no. Initial value 0 Applies to all elements, except table-row-group, table-header-group, table-footer-group, table-row, table-column-group and table-column Inherited no.

Initial value auto Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value static Applies to all elements Inherited no. Initial value Applies to prince-pdf at-rule Inherited. Initial value 96dpi Applies to all elements, prince-pdf at-rule Inherited. Initial value auto Applies to footnote elements Inherited yes. Initial value short Applies to all elements Inherited yes. Initial value none Applies to image elements Inherited yes. Initial value body Applies to all elements Inherited yes.

Initial value 24pt Applies to page at-rule Inherited. Initial value 0. Initial value auto Applies to "paragraphs": Initial value prefer-fill Applies to page at-rule Inherited no. Initial value none Applies to prince-pdf at-rule Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to prince-pdf at-rule Inherited no. Initial value none Applies to prince-pdf at-rule Inherited. Initial value auto Applies to prince-pdf at-rule Inherited. Initial value auto Applies to page at-rule Inherited no.

Initial value "" Applies to prince-pdf at-rule Inherited. Initial value auto Applies to all elements Inherited. Initial value "" Applies to Inherited.

Initial value 0deg Applies to page at-rule Inherited. Initial value 1 Applies to table cells Inherited no. Initial value Letter Applies to page at-rule Inherited.

MyFontA; src: MyFontB; src: Initial value 1 Applies to table and inline-table elements Inherited no. Initial value auto Applies to table and inline-table elements Inherited no. Initial value 8 Applies to block containers Inherited yes.

Initial value left Applies to block containers Inherited yes. Initial value 0 Applies to block containers Inherited yes.

About XML and XSLT

Initial value clip Applies to block container elements Inherited no. Initial value none Applies to transformable elements Inherited no. Initial value baseline Applies to inline-level and table-cell elements Inherited no. Initial value visible Applies to all elements Inherited yes.

Initial value auto Applies to all elements but non-replaced inline elements, table rows, and row groups Inherited no. Initial value horizontal-tb Applies to all elements except table row groups, table column groups, table rows, and table columns Inherited yes.

Prince supports the specification, with few exceptions: Prince does not support the quotes property or the open-quote and close-quote values. Prince does not support properties that apply only to interactive media. For similar reasons, Prince does not support visibility: Prince does not support the armenian or georgian list styles. Prince treats 1ex equivalently to 0. The initial value of widows and orphans has been changed from 2 to 1. Prince supports opacity. It supports some of the extensions of the color property.

Beyond the definitions in CSS 2. Prince recognizes footnote-display and string-set as well as the mechanism for running elements. It does not recognize the running or footnote-policy properties, but Prince provides a different interface to the functionality of footnotes. Prince only recognizes the overflow property from CSS 2. However, it supports its behaviour as described in the Level 3 module.

Prince does not recognize line-break , text-align-all and hanging-punctuation , and it does not support the value break-word of the property word-break. Prince recognizes transform and transform-origin , but does not recognize transform-box.

Prince does not allow perspective transforms. Prince supports the media and supports at-rules. Prince supports target counters, footnote floats, bookmarks labels, levels and states, the flow property and the string-set property.

Prince does not support alignment-baseline , color-interpolation , color-profile , enable-background , glyph-orientation-horizontal , kerning , mask , pointer-events barely applicable to Prince , font-size-adjust , glyph-orientation-vertical. Can refer to a simple selector , compound selector , complex selector , or selector list.

Either a type selector, universal selector, attribute selector, class selector, ID selector, or pseudo-class. Punctuation that represents a particular kind of relationship between compound selectors on either side. This micro-syntax to indicate indexes in a list of sibling elements represents an integer step A and offset B , i.

It also takes the keywords odd and even. A comma-separated list of selectors represents all the elements selected by each selector of the list. The matches-any pseudo-class represents an element E that is represented by the list of compound selectors it takes as argument.

The negation pseudo-class represents an element E that is not represented by the list of compound selectors it takes as argument. The relational pseudo-class represents an element E , if either of the relative selectors rs1 or rs2 , when evaluated with E as the: The contains pseudo-class represents an element E containing the text foo.

An attribute selector representing an element with the att attribute with the value val. An attribute selector representing an element with the att attribute containing the value val. An attribute selector representing an element with the att attribute equal to or beginning with the value val.

An attribute selector representing an element with the att attribute whose value begins with the prefix val. An attribute selector representing an element with the att attribute whose value ends with the suffix val.

An attribute selector representing an element with the att attribute whose value contains val. A class selector representing an element E with a class identifier val. The language pseudo-class represents an element E that is in the language C.

The contextual reference element pseudo-class represents an element E being a designated contextual reference element. Represents a styleable child pseudo-element immediately before the originating element's actual content.

Represents a styleable child pseudo-element immediately after the originating element's actual content. Represents the first typographic letter unit of the first formatted line of the originating element, if it is not preceded by other content. Prefixing a media query with the keyword only will have no effect on the media query's result, but will be ignored by legacy user agents.

Media features of the type "range" take their values from a range. Their feature names can be prefixed by min- or max-. Describes the scanning process of the output device. This feature is always false for Prince. Describes whether the output device is grid 1 or bitmap 0. Prince is bitmap based, and thus 0 matches. Describes the ability of the output device to modify the appearance of the content once it has been rendered. In Prince the layout cannot be updated, and thus only none matches. Describes the behavior of the device when content overflows the initial containing block in the block axis..

Describes the behavior of the device when content overflows the initial containing block in the inline axis.. Describes the number of bits per color component of the output device. Prince assumes 13 color bits. Describes the presence and accuracy of pointing devices. Prince assumes none.

Describes the user's ability to hover over elements on the page. Describes whether scripting languages, such as JavaScript, are supported. Prince assumes none or initial-only , depending on its configuration. Defines cyan, magenta, yellow and black values of a color, as well as the optional alpha component.

Using a spot color defined in the prince-color at-rule. The number or percentage defines the tint. An optional overprint keyword instructs Prince whether to overprint the color. Specifies a non-transparent color value to overprint. If no overprint mode is given, it defaults to overprint-mode-nonzero. Creates an image consisting of a progressive transition between two or more colors along a straight line. Creates an image consisting of a progressive transition between two or more colors that radiate from an origin point.

Retrieves the text content of the selected element. It can be used with several different properties. Places an element which has been removed from the normal flow with the running function in a page region.

See Taking elements from the document. Retrieves the value of the innermost counter with a given name at the given URL. See Using target-counter. References the text content of the linked element. See Using target-content. Retrieves the value defined with the string-set property.

See Copying content from the document. Used in counters as a counter-style , it defines a sequentially repeated pattern for numbering the items. Used in counters as a counter-style , it defines the symbols used for numbering the items.

Inserts an element that has previously been removed with the static function. Inserts content fetched from another resource like the url function , but also has the possibility of specifying a fallback content, in case the loading of the URL should fail.

If no comma and content items are provided, the fallback is as if content: Allows to choose a glyph from a font by the index of that glyph in the font. Specifies a comma-separated list of OpenType features to be enabled. For details please see the font-variant property and OpenType Features in Prince. Removes an element from the normal document flow, to make it available for use in a page region with the element function.

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