Urinalysis and Body Fluids Fifth Edition Marjorie Schaub Di Lorenzo, BS, MT( ASCP)SH Adjunct Instructor Division of Laboratory Sciences. urine This thoroughly updated 5th Edition provides you with concise and carefully full-color instruction in the handling and analysis of non-blood body fluids. Urinalysis & Body Fluids, 5TH EDITION Paperback – February 20, This item:Urinalysis & Body Fluids, 5TH EDITION Paperback $ Urinalysis and Body Fluids 5TH EDITION by Susan King Strasinger and Marjorie Schaub Di Lorenzo.
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Urinalysis and Body Fluids 5th Edition by Susan King Strasinger and Marjorie Schaub Di Lorenzo presents concise and carefully structured full-coloration. F.A. Davis Company Urinalysis and Body Fluids, 5th Edition Renal Blood Flow Afferent arteriole (renal artery) Blood enters the glomerulus Efferent. [P.D.F] Accounting Information Systems 14th Edition by Marshall and Paul. SPONSORED Urinalysis and Body Fluids 5th Edition by Susan King Strasinger .
Remove gloves promptly after use, before touching noncontaminated items and environ- mental surfaces, and before going to another patient.
Always wash your hands immediately after glove removal to avoid transfer of microorganisms to other patients or environments. Mask, eye protection, and face shield: Remove a soiled gown as promptly as possible, and wash hands to avoid the transfer of microorganisms to other patients or environments.
Patient care equipment: Ensure that reusable equip- ment is not used for the care of another patient until it has been cleaned and reprocessed appropriately.
Ensure that single-use items are discarded properly. Environmental control: Ensure that the hospital has adequate procedures for the routine care, cleaning, and disinfection of environmental surfaces, beds, bedrails, bedside equipment, and other frequently touched surfaces. Ensure that these procedures are being followed. Occupational health and blood-borne pathogens: Take care to prevent injuries when using needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments or devices; when handling sharp instruments after procedures; when cleaning used instruments; and when dispos- ing of used needles.
Never recap used needles or otherwise manipulate them using both hands or use any other technique that involves directing the point of a needle toward any part of the body; rather, use self-sheathing needles or a mechanical device to con- ceal the needle. Do not remove used needles from disposable syringes by hand, and do not bend, break, or otherwise manipulate used needles by hand.
Place used disposable syringes and needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp items in appropriate puncture-resistant containers, which are located as close as practical to the area in which the items were used, and place reusable syringes and needles in a puncture-resistant container for transport to the reprocessing area.
Patient placement: Place a patient who contami- nates the environment or who does not or cannot be expected to assist in maintaining appropriate hygiene or environment control in a private room. If a private room is not available, consult with infec- tion control professionals regarding patient place- ment or other alternatives.
Providing laboratory coats, gowns, face and respira- tory protection, and gloves to employees and laun- dry facilities for nondisposable protective clothing 3.
Providing sharps disposal containers and prohibiting recapping of needles 4. Prohibiting eating, drinking, smoking, and applying cosmetics, lip balm, and contact lens in the work area 5. Labeling all biohazardous material and containers 6. Providing free immunization for HBV 7. Establishing a daily disinfection protocol for work surfaces; an appropriate disinfectant for blood-borne pathogens is sodium hypochlorite household bleach diluted 1: Providing medical follow-up for employees who have been accidentally exposed to blood-borne pathogens 9.
Documenting regular training in safety standards for employees Any accidental exposure to a possible blood-borne pathogen must be immediately reported. Evaluation of the incident must begin right away to ensure appropriate postex- posure prophylaxis PEP. When specimens are collected, gloves must be changed between every patient. In the laboratory, they are changed whenever they become noticeably contaminated or damaged and are always removed when leaving the work area.
Wearing gloves is not a substitute for handwashing, and hands must be washed after gloves are removed. A variety of gloves are available, including sterile and nonsterile, powdered and unpowdered, and latex and nonla- tex. Allergy to latex is increasing among health-care workers, and laboratory personnel should be alert for symptoms of reactions associated with latex. Handwashing immediately after removing gloves and avoiding powdered gloves may aid in preventing the devel- opment of latex allergies.
Replacing latex gloves with nitrile or vinyl gloves provides an alternative. Any symptoms of latex allergy should be reported to a supervisor because true latex allergy can be life-threatening. These coats should always be completely but- toned, and gloves should be pulled over the cuffs. They are worn at all times when working with patient specimens and are removed prior to leaving the work area.
They are changed when they become visibly soiled. Disposable coats are placed in containers for biohazardous waste, and nondisposable coats are placed in designated laundry receptacles. The mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and mouth must be protected from specimen splashes and aerosols. A variety of protective equipment is available, including gog- gles, full-face plastic shields, and Plexiglas countertop shields. Particular care should be taken to avoid splashes and aerosols when removing container tops, pouring specimens, and cen- trifuging specimens.
Specimens must never be centrifuged in uncapped tubes or in uncovered centrifuges. When speci- mens are received in containers with contaminated exteriors, the exterior of the container must be disinfected or, if neces- sary, a new specimen may be requested.
Handwashing Handwashing is emphasized in Figure and in the Stan- dard Precautions guidelines. Hand contact is the primary method of infection transmission. Laboratory personnel must always wash hands after gloves are removed, prior to leaving the work area, at any time when hands have been knowingly contaminated, before going to designated break areas, and before and after using bathroom facilities.
Correct handwashing technique is shown in Figure and includes the following steps: Wet hands with warm water. Apply antimicrobial soap. Rub to form a lather, create friction, and loosen debris. Rinse hands in a downward position. Dry with a paper towel. Turn off faucets with a clean paper towel to prevent recontamination. Disposal of Biological Waste All biological waste, except urine, must be placed in appropri- ate containers labeled with the biohazard symbol see Fig.
This includes both specimens and the materials with which the specimens come in contact. The waste is then decontaminated following institutional policy: Urine may be discarded by pouring it into a laboratory sink. Disinfection of the sink using a 1: Sodium hypochlorite dilutions stored in plastic bottles are effective for 1 month if protected from light after preparation.
The same solution also can be used for routinely disinfecting countertops and acci- dental spills. The solution should be allowed to air-dry on the contaminated area. Absorbent materials used for cleaning countertops and removing spills must be discarded in bio- hazard containers. Empty urine containers can be discarded as nonbiologically hazardous waste Fig.
A Wetting hands. B Lathering hands and creating friction. D Rinsing hands. E Drying hands. F Turning off water. Puncture-resis- tant containers should be conveniently located within the work area. Every chemical in the workplace should be presumed hazardous. For this reason, all laboratory person- nel should know the location and proper use of emergency showers and eye wash stations. Contaminated clothing should be removed as soon as possible. No attempt should be made to neutralize chemicals that come in contact with the skin.
Chemical spill kits containing protective apparel, nonre- active absorbent material, and bags for disposal of contami- nated materials should be available for cleaning up spills.
This is particularly important when combin- ing acid and water. Acid should always be added to water to avoid the possibility of sudden splashing caused by the rapid generation of heat in some chemical reactions. Wearing gog- gles and preparing reagents under a fume hood are recom- mended safety precautions. Chemicals should be used from containers that are of an easily manageable size. Pipetting by mouth is unacceptable in the laboratory. State and federal reg- ulations are in place for the disposal of chemicals and should be consulted.
Appropriate work practices 2. Standard operating procedures 3. PPE 4. Employee training requirements 6. Medical consultation guidelines Each facility must appoint a chemical hygiene officer, who is responsible for implementing and documenting com- pliance with the plan. Examples of required safety equipment and information are shown in Figure Chemical Labeling Hazardous chemicals should be labeled with a description of their particular hazard, such as poisonous, corrosive, or car- cinogenic.
Each category is graded on a scale of 0 to 4, based on the extent of concern. These symbols are placed on doors, cabinets, and containers. An example of this system is shown in Figure By law, vendors are required to provide these sheets to downloadrs; however, the facility itself is responsible for obtaining and making MSDSs available to employees. Information contained in an MSDS includes the following: Physical and chemical characteristics 2.
Fire and explosion potential 3. Reactivity potential 4. The amount of radioactivity present in the clinical laboratory is very small and represents little danger; however, the effects of radiation are cumulative related to the amount of exposure. The amount of radiation exposure is related to a combination of time, distance, and shielding. Persons working in a radioactive environment are required to wear measuring devices to determine the amount of radiation they are accumulating.
Laboratory personnel should be familiar with the radioactive hazard symbol shown here. This symbol must be displayed on the doors of all areas where radioactive material is present.
Exposure to radiation during pregnancy presents a danger to the fetus; personnel who are pregnant or think they may be should avoid areas with this symbol. The same general rules of electrical safety observed outside the workplace apply. Equipment should not be operated with wet hands. Designated hospital personnel mon- itor electrical equipment closely; however, laboratory person- nel should continually observe for any dangerous conditions, such as frayed cords and overloaded circuits, and report them to the appropriate persons.
Equipment that has become wet should be unplugged and allowed to dry completely before reusing. Equipment also should be unplugged before clean- ing. All electrical equipment must be grounded with three- pronged plugs. When an accident involving electrical shock occurs, the electrical source must be removed immediately. A Equipment. B Informa- tion and supplies. Turning off the circuit breaker, unplugging the equipment, or moving the equipment using a nonconductive glass or wood object are safe procedures to follow.
Labo- ratory personnel should be familiar with these procedures. Flammable chemicals should be stored in safety cabinets and explo- sion-proof refrigerators, and cylinders of compressed gas should be located away from heat and securely fastened to a stationary device to prevent accidental capsizing. Fire blan- kets may be present in the laboratory. This information is summarized in Table 1—2. The acronym PASS can be used to remember the steps in the operation: Pull pin 2.
Squeeze handles 4. Sweep nozzle side to side. Closed-toe shoes that provide maximum support are essential for safety and comfort. References 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Web site: Federal Register 29 Dec 6 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated U.
MMWR June 29, MMWR September 17, Federal Register 55 Jan 31 , National Fire Protection Association: Hazardous Chemical Data, No. Boston, NFPA, In the urinalysis laboratory the primary source in the chain of infection would be: Patients B. Needlesticks C. Specimens D. Biohazardous waste 2. The best way to break the chain of infection is: Handwashing B.
Personal protective equipment C. Aerosol prevention D. Decontamination 3. Standard Precautions differ from Universal Precautions and body substance isolation by requiring: Wearing face shields and gloves whenever blood may be encountered B. Washing hands after removing gloves if visual con- tamination is present D.
An employee who is accidentally exposed to a possible blood-borne pathogen should immediately: Report to a supervisor B. Flush the area with water C. Clean the area with disinfectant D. Receive HIV propylaxis 5. Personnel in the urinalysis laboratory should wear lab coats that: Do not have buttons B. Have short sleeves D. Have full-length zippers 6. All of the following should be discarded in biohaz- ardous waste containers except: Urine specimen containers B.
Towels used for decontamination C. Disposable lab coats D. Blood collection tubes 7. CDC B. NFPA C. OSHA D. FDA 8. Sodium hydroxide B. Antimicrobial soap C.
Hydrogen peroxide D.
Proper handwashing includes all of the following except: Using warm water B. Rubbing to create a lather C. Rinsing hands in a downward position D. Turning on the water with a paper towel Centrifuging an uncapped specimen may produce a biological hazard in the form of: Vectors B. Sharps contamination C.
Aerosols D. Specimen contamination An employee who accidently spills acid on his arm should immediately: Neutralize the acid with a base B. Hold the arm under running water for 15 minutes C. Wrap the arm in gauze and go to the emergency room When combining acid and water, ensure that: Acid is added to water B.
Water is added to acid C. They are added simultaneously D. Water is slowly added to acid An employee can learn the carcinogenic potential of potassium chloride by consulting the: Chemical hygiene plan B. Material safety data sheets C. OSHA standards D. Urinalysis procedure manual Employees should not work with radioisotopes if they are: Wearing contact lenses B.
Allergic to iodine C. Sensitive to latex D. Pregnant All of the following are safe to do when removing the source of an electric shock except: Pulling the person away from the instrument B. Turning off the circuit breaker C. Using a glass container to move the instrument D.
Unplugging the instrument The acronym PASS refers to: Presence of vital chemicals B. Labeling of hazardous material D. Presence of radioactive substances MSDS B.
RACE C. NFPA D. Fire hazards B. Biohazards C. Reactivity D. Health hazards Class A B. Class B C. Class C D.
Class D Employers are required to provide free immunizaton for: HIV B. HTLV-1 C. HBV D. HCV A possible physical hazard in the hospital is: Wearing closed-toed shoes B. Not wearing jewelry C. Having short hair D. Running to answer the telephone Continued Sand B. Water C. Dry chemicals D.
Acid Rescue persons in danger B. Activate the alarm system C. Close doors to other areas D. If a red rash is observed after removing gloves, the employee: May be washing her hands too often B. May have developed a latex allergy C.
Should apply cortisone cream D. Should not rub the hands so vigorously Pipetting by mouth is: Acceptable for urine but not serum B. Not acceptable without proper training C.
Acceptable for reagents but not specimens D. This chapter reviews nephron anatomy and physiology and discusses their relationship to urinalysis and renal function testing. A section on laboratory assessment of renal function is included. As shown in Figure , the human kidney contains two types of nephrons. About OpenCV. Elan Dubfrosky. Homography Estimation, [Online]. Multiple View Geomerty in Computer Vision. Cambridge University Press, second edition. Collins, Robert.
Harris Corner Detector. Image Matching by Normalized Cross-Correlation. Fischler and R. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. Strasinger, S. Urinalysis and Body Fluids. Philadelphia: F. Davis Company.